M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Animofity, which continually increased, was the occalion
of many Calamities to France.
TbiD;keof Meanwhile, the Dauphin receiving no Benefit from
Burgundy the ] at . e Revolution at Court, could not behold, without
extreme concern, the Duke of Orleans at the head of Af-
fairs, whilil himfelf was without Credit, and like a Pri-
foner in the Louvre, wlicie he was narrowly watched.
This Conftraint being infuj portable to a Prince of his
Character, he readily hftened to the Duke of Burgundy's
Offer of Afliftance, to place him in the Port to which he
was entitled by his Birth. They entered therefore into a
fort of League to expel the Duke of Orleans from Court.
Htaffnatlei The Duke of Burgundy having thus fecured the Dau-
phin, approached Paris at the head of an Army, pre-
tending his defign was to free the Dauphin his Son-in-
law from Captivity. He imagined, Paris would declare
in his favour, but fo good order was taken, that nothing
ftincd. During thefe Tranfactions, the King, who for
fome time had been in one of his ufual Fits, recovering
his Senfes, publifhed againft the Duke of Burgundy a
thundering Edict, filling him Traitor and Enemy of the
State. This Edict, joined to the fmall hopes that Paris
would declare for him, caufed the Duke to return into
Flanders. Let us leave for a moment the Affairs of France,-
to which we ihall foon have occafion to return, lince
they are the chief Subject of this Reign, in order to fee
what palled in England in the beginning of the Year

Mention was made in the late Reign of the two At-
tempts of the Commons, to ftrip the Clergy of a good part
of their Revenues, though without Succefs. The
Clergy could not doubt that thefe Attempts were the
fruit of the Doctrine of the Lollards. Probably, this
was one of the principal Caufes of their hatred to thefe
pretended Hereticks. For the fame reafon, in the late
Convocation, they had refolved to ufe the mod violent
Means, to extirpate a Herefy, to them fo dcteftable.
Oldeajlle, a Man of a good Family, and extraordinary
Merit (2), was deftined to be the firft Victim for a Ter-
ror to the whole Sect. But by good fortune he had
efcaped out of the hands of his Enemies. It was with
great concern, that the Archbifhop heard the King fay,
he did not approve of rigorous Methods. He even plainly
enough (hewed it to be his real Opinion, fince, after
O/deaJlle's efcape, he took no care to have him purfued
and apprehended. It was evident, fo long as the King
was in thefe moderate Sentiments, the Clergy would
hardly be able to have their defire upon the Hereticks.
So, it was their Intereft, that the King fhould have
others, more agreeable to the barbarous Zeal, wherewith
Eccleliaiticks are generally animated. Nothing was more
conducive to that end, than to make him believe, the
Lollards had a defign upon his Perfon, and were forming
Confpiracies to over-turn the State. Accordingly, to this
Tie Lollards the Clergy applied themfelves without lofs of time. The
an accujed cj J a t e Proclamation againft their affembling, quickly fur-

i H'4-

again/} tbe


nifhed them with a fair opportunity. The Lollards con-
tinued their Meetings, notwithstanding the Proclamation,
though with all poflible Secrecy. As they durft not af-
femble in Houfes, for fear of being difcovered, they com-
monly chofe fome unfrequented Place in the Country, to
worfhip God after their manner. Some of them refolving
to aifemble, without one of the Gates of London, in a
Place called St. Giles's Fields, which was then covered
with Bufhes, were, as it often happens on fuch occafions,
betrayed by falfc Brethren. Thisdifcovery afforded their
Enemies the opportunity they were eagerly feeking. The


was then at Eltbain, about feven Miles from Lo

Tbe King is
told twenty
thoufand of
tbem tvere
met together,

don, where he defigued to keep his Cbrijlmafs. He little
expected a Confpiracy againft his Perfon, when fuddenly,
towards Night, he was told, that Oldeajlle was in St.
Giles's, with twenty thoufand Lollards. It was further
faid, that their defign was to kill the King, the Princes
his Brothers, and all the Lords Spiritual and 1'emporal who
were not their Friends. Certainly it was very unlikely,
that twenty thoufand Men fhould be able to affemble at
the very Gates of London, without being obferved. It
was ftill more improbable, that Oldeajlle, an experienced
Warrior, fhould chufe St. Giles's Fields, overgrown as
He believes they were with Bufhes and Shrubs, for the Rendezvous of

his Troops. Neverthelefs, the News was confirm;! by 1414,
fo many Circumftances, that the King could not help
crediting the Report. He immediately drew together as
many aimed Men as was poflible, and ordered the Gates
v( London to be fhut, left the Populace fhould go and a (lift
the Rebels (3 j. As he was naturally very bold, he re- He
folved to attack them before they had taken all their M
fures. He arrived upon the Place about mid-night, a I
finding about fourfcore, or a hundred Perfons, fell upon
them. There were about twenty killed, and lixtv taken.
Unhappily, they had brought Arms with them for their
Defence, in cafe they were attacked by their Perfecutoi
It was this, probably, that helped t> convince the K
of their ill Defign. This alone, however, w. mid not ha-,
been capable of perfuading him, they had really confpired
againft him, if among thofe that were taken, there had not '
been fome that, gained by Promifes, or awed by Threa
confeffed whatever their Enem '. I i v faidj

their Intent was to kill the King, and the Princes his
Brothers, with moft of the L I ij and Temporal 1

in the Expeftation that the Conl which after fuch a

Maffacre would enfue in the Kingdi m, would prove fa-
vorable to their Religion. Son: 1 I \ that, after the A
murder of the King and Prince-:, they intend 1 1 1- "<*'

Oldeajlle Regent of the Kingdom, and that the Confpirac ,
was formed by the direction of that Lord. In truth, it
is hardly conceivable, how a Prince fo j Henry,

could fuffer himfelf to beimpofed upon by fo grofs a
tion. Indeed, had he found twenty thoufand Men in
Arms in St. Giles's, as he was made to believe, it would
have been very fufpicious. But tiiat fourfcore or a hun-
dred Men, among whom there was not a fingle Perfon of
Rank, fiiould have formed fuch a Project, is extremely
improbable. Befides, he himfelf knew Sir John Oldeajlle
to be a Man of Senfe, and yet nothing was more wild
than the Project fathered upon him; a Project which it
was fuppofed, he was to execute with a handful of Men,
without being prefent himfelf, and without its being known
where he was, or that there was any other Leader in his
room. But however, the King thought him guilty, and, Act. Pub.
in that belief, fet a thoufand Marks upon his Head, with 1 *' P -8 ' 1
a Promife of perpetual Exemption from Taxes, to any
Town that fhould fecure him (4). It is very likely how-
ever, that in time the King perceived the i'alfhood of this
Imputation; and what makes me think fo, is this : In the
firft place, how ftrict Inquiry foevcr was made over all
the Kingdom, to difcover the Accomplices of this pre-
tended Confpiracy, not a fingle Perfon could be found,
befides thofe taken at St. Giles's. And yet it is manifeft,
that, to execute fuch a Defign to any purpofe, fourfcore or
a hundred Perfons of no great Diftinct ion, were not fuffi-
cient. In the next Place, even of thofe that were taken
at St. Giles's, but very few were immediately executed (5),
whilft the Prejudice againft them was yet in its full
ftrength. The King pardoned all the reft. Thirdly, we
find in the Collcclion of the Public* Ails, not only a ge- AcT Pun.
neral Pardon for all the Lollards, but likewife feveral pri- 1X - !'• ™9>
vate Pardons granted to fome that were condemned, ' 7 °' I9 °"
though they had conftantly denied the Fact. It would
not be very ftrange, that the King fhould have pardoned
Criminals that confeffed themfelves guilty ; but it is un-
ufual with Sovereigns to forgive fuch a Crime, in obftinate
Offenders, who render themfelves unworthy of a Pardon,
by denying what their Sentence fuppofes them convicted
of. I add further, that Clemency, was not Henry's favo-
rite Virtue, on the contrary, he leaned very much to the
fide of Severity, as will appear by feveral Inftances in his
Reign. Is it likely therefore, that he fhould pardon Per-
fons convicted of intending to murder him, with all the
Royal Family, and great Men of the Kingdom, at the
very time they obftinately perlifted in denying the Fact,
for which they were condemned, had he really believed
them guilty ? Laftly, the Principles of the Lollards were
very far from allowing fuch Barbarities. It is therefore
more than probable, that this Accufation was forged, to
render the Lollards odious to the King, in order to ob-
tain his Licenfe for their Perfecution, and that the King
himfelf was convinced of its falfhood, after his firft Preju-
dice was removed. It muft however be confeffed, that
in all thefe Pardons, he always fuppofed the Crime to be
proved. But in order to a Pardon, it was neceffary to take
the Crime for granted.

In February 141 4, Thomas Arundel, Archbifhop of Can- D. nb ,f
terbury, went to give an Account to God, for all the inno- '^^ f

( 1 ) This Year the greateft part of Norwich was burnt. lValfingbam, p. 382. January 3. 1414, a Truce for ten Years concluded between Eng 'mi

and Brttagm. Rymer's Fa-d. Tom. IX. p. 80 85.

(i) He was made Shenff of llenfirdjhire in 8 Henry IV, and had Summons to Parliament among the Barons of the Realm, in II, 12, 14, of that K'.ng's
Reign. He w is lent beyond Sea with the Earl of Arundel to aid the Duke of Burgundy againll the Fren.b. He married the Niece and Heir of Harry Lord
Cobban:, and tor that reafon took the Title of Lord Cebbam. Dugdaic's Baron. Vol. 11. p. 67.

(3) IValfingbam obleivcs, That if the King had not made ufe of this Precaution, no lei's than fifty thoufand Perfons of all forts, wouid have been ready to
come to the Amflance of the Lollards, p. 386.

(4) And befides, any Perfon, by whole Means or Advice he could be feized or arretted, was to have five hundred Marks. Rym \ Fori. Tom. IX- p. 90.

( Sir Rig^r .Helen, with twenty eight more, were hanged, and burnt in St.Giles's Fields. Fox Mart, Hail, hi 35. Sir John OLicaftle efcaped out of
the Tower, as is related above, and fled into Wales, where he lived above four Years. Bale, fol. 48.


5 o8




Henry de-
mands the
merit of the

'drcjty of
Ad Pub.

IX. p. IC2,
IOj, 149.

Offer of one
ef Charles'*

to Heniy.

Henry con-

ft iti : it.
lb. p. 91,

14c, I re,
lbO, 18;.

7i Uce pro-


H- nry (ei ds
Am ■■ d t
to France,
p. 103.


Vol. I.

cent Blood he had canted to be fhed(i). He was fucceed- land by the great Peace, that is, by the Treaty Of Brc- 1414,
ed by Henry Chubb, Bifhop of St. David's. But the tigny

lards got nothing by this Change, he being no lefs their
Enemy than his Predeceffor.

I left the Archbifhop of Bourges and the Con (table d Al-
bret at London, where they quickly difcovered the King's
Intentions. The Commiffioners who treated with them,
demanded in Henry's name, whatever had been taken
from England fince the Treaty or Bretigny. The French
replied, They had no InftrucYions upon that head. They
propofed however, as of themfelves, a proper means, in
their Opinion, to procure a Peace between the two Kings.
This was a Marriage between the King of England,
and Catherine the youngeft of Charles IV's Daughters.
This Princefs had four Sifters, of whom one was a Nun,
and the other three married. So it was fhe alone that
could be offered to Henry. This Propofal was not wholly
reieaed. Though Henry fhould infill upon the Reilitu-
tion he demanded, as being the fpeedieft and moll effec-
tual way to a lafline Peace, what the French Ambaffadors
offered, not being inconfiftent with the Reilitution, he
thought he might accept it, without any Prejudice to hnn-
felf. But as the Ambaffadors had not fufficient Powers to
treat upon this Affair, it was only agreed, that the Truce
fliould be prolonged to the fecond of February 141 5.

Prefently after the departure of the French Ambaffadors,
Henry fent five into France { 2), to continue the Negotiation
bec-un at London, concerning the Reilitution and Mar-
riage (3). The Ambaffadors were impowered to promife,
in the King's name, that he would not ingage in any other
Marriage-Treaty till the 1 5th of May. Nay, they might
i E that Term, if it was thought proper

lb. p. 13a.

p. zb 3 ,_


II. One half of Prsroenee, with the Earldoms of Beau-
fort and Nogent.

III. The fix hundred thoufand Crowns, which remain-
ed unpaid of King John's Ranfom.

As for the Marriage, they faid plainly, the King their
Mailer would never efpoufe thePrincefs Catherine, unlefs he ■
was fecure of a firm and lafting Peace with King Charles.
That befides, as the Oners hitherto made, were very in-
conliderable, they had no Power to treat upon that Affair.
That therefore it would not onlv be fruitlefs to talk of the
Marriage, but moreover they duril not meddle with that
Article, before the reft were fettled. They added however,
that in hopes more reafonable Offers would be made, they
were willing to fpeak their Thoughts ; that no lefs could
be offered with the Princefs, than two Millions of Gold-

Some davs after, the Duke of Berry delivered them a
Writing, containing the Offers of France, in order to a
Peace, with the Aniwers to their Demands; namely,

I. That the King of France offered Agenois, Bafadois,
Auch in part, Pcrigord, Efcarre, Oleron, Bigorre, Sain-
tcnge beyond the Charente, Hjhtercy, (Montauban excepted,
with all the Country between the Tarn and the Aveiron,)
Angoumois and Rovergne.

II. That the King could not difpofe of Provence, fince
he was not the Poffeffor, nor had contributed to the put-
ting it in the hands of the prefent Poffeffors.

III. That, fince for the fake of Peace, he was willing

Pr The CourtVf France not thinking the Powers of thefe to refign fo many fine and rich Provinces, which helaw-
Ambaffadors fufficient, Charles wrote to Henry, that if he fully poffeffed, the King of England ought to defift from

would fend Ambaffadors with fuller Powers, he would
readily hear them. Upon this Letter, Henry difpatched
five more, all eminent for their Birth and High-Polls ;
namely, the Bifhop of Norwich, the Earls of Dorfet,
Warwick, Salisbury, and the Lord Grey {4.).

Thefe Ambaffadors entered immediately into Conference
with Kin°- Charles's Commiffioners, the chief of whom
was the D"uke of Berry his Uncle. They demanded at
firfl the whole Kingdom of France for their Mailer, by
virtue of his Right, as Heir of Edward III. But after
a fhort Paufe, they added, that being very fenfible their
Demand might caufe fome Difguft, they would make
another, with a Proteflation however that it fhould not be
prejudicial to the Rights of their Sovereign. Then they
limited their Demands to the following Articles :

I. Normandy, Anjou, Maine, and Touraine, in full So-

II. The Right of Sovereignty over the Earldom of Wan-

ders, and Duchy of Bretagne.

III. Whatever France held in Guienne.

IV. All in general that was given up to EdwardUl, Merlon and G

any farther Demands.

IV. As for the Marriage, though the Dowry of a
Daughter of France was fixed to much lefs, than was al-
ready offered, he would for the fake of Peace, give fix
hundred thoufand Crowns.

Thefe Demands and Anfwers were the fubjecl: of feve-
ral Conferences, which lalled many days, but of which it
would be tedious to relate the particulars. It will fuffice to
obferve that the Ambaffadors of England reduced at length
all their Demands to the Treaty of Bretigny, and a million
of Crowns for the Princefs's Portion (5). But as the
French ftill thought this Sum exorbitant, the Englijh inti-
mated, it might be leffened, on the condition, that if
two Sons fhould come of. this Marriage, the youngeft
fhould have Montrevil and Pontbieu in full Sovereignty. But
the French returned no Anfwer to this, and the Conferences
ended March 13th, 14.14.

Whilfl this Affair was negotiating at Paris, the Duke The Duke of
of Burgundy's Enemies continued to ftir up King Charles Burgundy is

againft him, fo that conlidering him as an Enemy to his ^"a"-..

"overnment, he refolved to make War upon Mezerai.
him. To that end, being determined to command his charl «
Army in Perfon, he went and took the Oriflamme at St. ^7 "&""*
Dennis (6), after which he became mafter of SoiJJons and
Compiegne, feized by the Duke. Burgundy was then un-
able to vvithltand him, becaufe the Flemings refufed toferve
and not as Vaffal of "the Crown of him againft France, which gave the Duke of Bourbon Op-
portunity of taking Bapaume alfo. It was not intended to and/all, kttt

by the Treaty of. Bretigny.

V. The whole Country poffeffed by France between the
Somme and Gravelin.

VI. Laftly, That all thofe Countries fhould be rehgn-
ed to the King of England in full Sovereignty, to hold


Before an Anfwer was returned to thefe Demands, the
Duke of Berry earneftly prell'ed the Ambaffadors to begin
with the Negotiation of the Marriage, affirming it to be
the proper means to fettle a folid and lading Peace be-
tween the two Kingdoms. He even offered a very confi-
derable Dowry for the Princefs Catherine, but the Englijh
would confidcr the Marriage only as a Confequence, and
not as the Foundation of the Peace. For this reafon,
they infilled upon fettling firfl the Terms of the Peace,
before any mention of the Marriage. In fine, after many
Difputes on both fides, the Englijh Ambaffadors confined
themfelves to the three following Articles, to which they
required a pofitive Anfwer, before any other Affairs fhould
be taken in hand.

flop there, but happily for him, the King was feized with °2', ^ i "
a frefh Fit of Lunacy. This Accident gave the Duke
time to put a ftrong Garrifon into Arras.

King Charles being unable to acl, the Dauphin his Son The Dauphin
took poffeffion of the Regency, as having an indifputable " Regent.
Right. Whether that Prince had fome reafon to be dif-
pleafed with the Duke of Burgundy, or did not regard
him, fince he had no farther need of him, he carried the
King his Father before Arras, which he meant to be-
fiege, but was too late. The Place had been fo well pro-
vided, that it was not eafy to take it. The Difficulties of He grant, tbe
the Siege, the Sollicitations of the Countefs of Hainault the DuktaPcace,
Duke of Burgundy's Siller, and perhaps the Dauphin's pri-
vate Intereib, caufed a Peace to be granted to the Duke
about the end of September, though upon hard Terms.
By the Peace the King granted the Duke a Pardon, but
excepted five hundred of his Adherents. It was alfo a-

(1) He was
Goodwin's Henry V- p. 33


I. They demanded whatever was given up to Eng-

the third Sun of Richard Fax- Alan, Earl of Arundel. He died February to, and lies .buried in Canteriury Cathedral. Waljmgbam, p. 3S6.

~uh BUho/of Durban), Richard Beambamp, Earl of Warwick, Henry Lord Scrofe, Hugh Mortimer, E q; and Henry Ware, Profcffor of the Chit

(J?Ano'*a!t thii "fame time, <was." January »»' one Year's Truce, beginning at February ». 1 + 14, was concluded between England and CaJliU. Ibid.

P ' T\~\\~iebardCmrtr.ty, Thomas Beaufort, Richard Beambamp, Richard Nevil, Richard Lord Grey, and Sir John Pelham, and Robert IVatertcn, Rymer's Feed.

T (0 Eachof thefe Crowns was to amount to half an Englijh Noble ; about n'ne Shillings of our prefent Money. The Fren, h offered eight hundred thoufand.

«/ Tstandard focaHed ftom being made of a Silk Stuff, of a Gold and Flam: Colour. It was kept in the Abbey of St. Deny,, and was ufed to be put

bv the Abbot into the Hands oftheDefendcrofth.it Monaftery. The Earls of Ponloift or Vexin had the Honour of carrying it, as Protectors ofthis Mo-

aftcrv Levis VI was the tuft, who, as Earl of Vexin, caufed the Oriflamme to be carried in his Arm es, which was continued by his Succeffors, till the

Englijh nude themfelves Matters of Parti under Cbstrlei VII, who after freeing himlelf of them, brought in the Uic of the White Cermet, wh.ch lince that time

has" been the chief Banner of France. Du Cange.

3 greed,


Several Ne-
gotiation* cf
tie Duke of

with Henry.
Aft. Pub.
IX. p- 136,
I 3 3.

Hemy tries
to take Ad-
vantage of
the Troubles

it FlutlCC.

He colli a


at LeiceftcTi





Statutes a-

Zaiujl the



lie Commons
petition the
Ktng to feixe
the Cburcb-


Book XI.

greed, that al! his. Friends fhould remove from Court, and
himfelf not come there, unlefs fent for, with theconfent
of the Council, and by Letters under the Great Seal. Fi-
nally, that the King's Banners fhould be placed on the
Walls of Arras.

During the Preparations in France for the War I am
going to fpeak of, the Duke of Burgundy being greatly
embarafled, by reafon of theObftinacy of the Flemings, fent
into England the Provoft of St. Donas to renew the Treaty
begun with Henry. This Envoy had Power not only to
conclude an Alliance between the King and Duke, but
alfo to treat about the King's Marriage with the Princefs
Catherine. In all appearance, the Duke delired the King's
Afiiflance to put him in poffeffion of the Government of
France, and then undertook to accomplifh the projected
Marriage to his Benefactor's Satisfaction. This difcovers
what were then that Prince's Deligns. So that Alezerai
juftly faid, the Arms of the Engtijh were drawn mto France
by the Betrayers of their Country. The Peace of Arras
put a ftop for fume time to this Negotiation.

Mean while, Henry flill continued his Refolution to im-
prove the Advantages, promifed by the Situation of the Af-
fairs of France. Fie perceived lie fhould, at moll, have
to deal but with half the Forces of the Kingdom, and the
other half would even make a diverfion in his favour.
Befides, he faw a near Profpect of concluding very fhortly
with the Duke of Burgundy an advantagious Alliance.
And therefore, without further delay, he had called a
Parliament at Leiccjicr for the 3 oth of y^n'/, to have their
Approbation of his Defign, and. obtain the necelfary Aids
to accomplifh fo great an Undertaking. It mufl be ob-
ierved, that the Writs were i/Tued in March, whillt the
Provoft of St. Donas was at London.

The Parliament being met, the Clergy, ever incenfed
againft the Lollards, moved by their Emillaries to revive,
and even increafe, the Statutes againft Hereticks. But for
once their Animofity had like to have infrared them. The
Project formed by the Commons in the late Reign againft
the Ecclefiafticks,had twice mifcarried by the exceffive De-
fire of IFickliff's Followers to promote that Affair. The
Clergy taking advantage of this Animofity, intimated to
the late King, that fuch a Motion could not but proceed
from Hereticks, with whom the Houfe of Commons a-
bounded, and that it was with the downfal of the Clergy,
that the deftruction of the Catholick Religion was to be-
gin. For this reafon, Henry IV ftrongly oppofed it, and
with that haughtinefs as gave great Offence to the Com-
mons. Wherefore, though the Members that were no
Friends to IVickliff's Doctrine, joined in the Project, yet
they could not hinder the too great Zeal of the Lollards
from invincibly oblfructing the Execution. But notwith-
ftanding its former ill Succefs, the Projectors had not en-
tirely given it over. They had only refolvcd, to take an-
other courfe, to avoid the Inconvenience, which had twice
rendered it unfuccefsful. To that end, when a Motion
was made in the Houfe of Commons, for new Statutes
againft the Lollards, thofe who before oppofed it, readily
gave their Content (1). The Clergy appeared exceedingly
well pleafed. The Pulpits every where refounded thePraifes
of the prefent Parliament. It was not a lack-learning Par-
liament, like that of 1 404, but it was the wifeft, and moft
zealous for Religion, that was ever aflcmblcd, fince the
beginning of the Monarchy. The truth is, nothing could
be more conformable to the Clergy's Defires, than the Act
palled on this occafion. It was enacted, that all the Ma-
giftrate> of the Kingdom, from the Lord Chancellor, down

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