M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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to the meancft Officer, fhould take an Oath to employ
their Power to extirpate Hereticks, and aflift the Bifhops,
in the execution of fo good a Defign (1). This Act was
no fooner pa fled, but a violent Perfccution was raifed aga inft
the Lollards. Several were burnt alive. Some left the
Kingdom, and others abjured their Religion, toefcapethe
Torments prepared for them.

But fhortly after, the Scene was changed, with refpedt
to the Clergy. They did not dream that the very Per-
fons, who lately appeared fo zealous for Religion, fhould
think of deftroyingit : For that was the Idea they gave,
of the Project of depriving the EcclefiafHcks of the Riches
they enjoyed. And yet, the fame Commons, who in fo

4.HENRY v.

authentick a Way had juft fecured thefnftlves from all
Sufpicion of Herefy, willing to comply with the Kii
demand of a Subfidy, piefenied to him an Addrefs, pray-
ing him to feize the Clergy's Revenues. This Addrefs
was founded upon the fame Conliderations, as that pre-
fented to the late King for the fame purpofe. It was
maintained, that the Revenues of the Church would be
much better employed in providing for fuch a Number of
Nobles, Colleges, and Hofpitals (3). This was a {tunning
Blow to the Clergy, and the more, becaufe after the late
Aft now in a£tual Execution, there was riot the leaft co-
lour to reprefent tjie Commons as Heretical or Favourers
of Herefy.

The King himfelf, who was going to begin a great 77* JGig
War, believed, or feigned to believe, there was a ncccility '' "■
to do what the Commons defired. As his Revenues would j!,. \
of courfe be greatly increafed, that Confideration did not a
little induce him to hearken to fo advantagious a Motion.

The Clergy perceiving their Ruin inevitable, unlefs TbtCbm
fome Remedy was found againft the gathering Stci 111, met f" ' ' J '"-' r!
to confult about means to avert, 01 at leaft to weaken it as '
much as poflible. After divers Debates upon fo impor-
tant a matter, they came to thefe two Refolut ions. The Tttyamttt
firft was, to refign part of their Riches to the King, in '
order to fave the reft. The fecond, to divert the King's""
thoughts from dnmeftick Affair.-., by engaging him in a
foreign War, which might wholly engrofs him. Tl e
frequent Embaffics from Paris to London, and from I 1 -
don to Paris, making them conclude, the King was medi-
tating fome Enterprize againft France, they refolved to ex-
cite him to the utmoft of their Power to carry War into
that Kingdom. Purfuant to thefe Projects, the Archbifttop
of Canterbury, who undertook to be Spokefman, told him,
" That the Motion of the Houfe of Commons, vvhidi
" feemed advantagious to the Crown, was not fo in rc.i-
" lity : That, in cafe their Project was executed, the
" Church's Revenues would be put to Ufes, unprofitable
" to the King in particular, and which in time might
" be extremely prejudicial to the Sovereign : That by
" augmenting the Number and Riches of the Nobility,
" as was intended, al the fame time would be increafed a
" Power which, ever fince the Foundation of the Mo-
" narchy, had all along oppofed the Sovereigns, and
" even brought fome to deftruction : That the founding
" of Hofpitals would feive only to encourage People in
" Idlenefs, when they ihould fee fo many Houfes ready
" to receive them, without being obliged to work : But
" that the Clergv, more fincerely well-affected to the King
" than the Commons, were very willing to give him,
" upon this occafion, a fenfible Proof of their Zeal and
" Attachment for his Perfon, by delivering up the Alien Tie
" Priories, which being in number one hundred and ten, "-' -*•'•' - h '
" were poflefled of Lands that would conliderablv increafe ^'
" the Revenue of the Crown : That the Eftates of thefe n«.
" Houfes would be all his own, whereas, if the Project HalJ -
" of the Commons took effect, he would reap no advan-
" tage." Whether the King fuffered himfelf to be per-
suaded by thefe Arguments, or thought it always ad\ ifeable
to take what the Clergy voluntarily offered, he accepted He accept! cf
of the Propofal. Whereupon the Lands of thefe Priories "• "' : ■■
werefrirai him by Act of Parliament, without the Clergy's £?' '' .

& J 3. ]\. p. 2S3.

oppofing it (4).

Mean while, the Clergy being apprehenfive, that fooner
or later, the King would have what the Commons offered
him, ferioufly thought of executing the other part of their
Project. For that purpofe, the Arc hbifhop took upon him
to endeavour to perfuadc the King to make War upon
France. The King's Character, his late Motions with
regard to the Affairs of France, and the univerfal Defire of
the whole Kingdom, put him in hopes, that his Defign
would be crowned with Succefs. Having therefore pre-
pared a proper Speech, he took occalion to fpeak it in Par-
liament, before the King himfelf.

He began with infmuating Encomiums of the King's H.il.
Virtues, faying, he was worthy to wear not the Crown
of England only, but that of the whole World. Then
addrefTing himfelf to the King, he reprefented to him,
" That it was not for his Glory, to leave the King of
" France in the peaceable Enjoyment of Normandy, An-

(1) Andfo, among other things, it was ensiled, That whoever read the Scriptures in Emjijh, fhould forfeit Land, Chattels, Goods, and Life, and be
condemned as Hereticks to Cod, Enemies to the Crown, and Traitors to the Kingdom ; that they fhould not have the Benefit of any Sanctuary ; and that if
they continued obftinate, or relapfed after Pardon, they fhould firft be hanged for Treafon againft the King, and then burned for Herefy agrjiii Gad. Bale,
fol. 46. T. Eln-iam, p. 33, JJvitn For j. p. 7.

(2) And that all Perfons convict of Herefy, and left to the fcrular Power, fhould forfeit all their Lands and Goofs to the King.

(3) They remoriftrat:d, That the Temporalities of the religious and fp'jitual Peifons in England, amounted to three hundred and twenty two thoufend Afarks
yearly, and would fuffice to maintain fifteen Earls, fifteen hundred Knights, fix thoufand two hundred Efquires, and a hundred Hofpitals, and twi :
Pounds be brought yearly into the King's Treafure ; and, that befides the fbrefaid Sum, divers religious Houfes pofTcffed as many Temporalities a. lj nun-
tain fifteen thoufand Priefts, and Clerks, allowing to each feven Mark* a Year. Hall's Clin*, fol. 35. Goodwin's Hen. V. p. 42.

(4) Though this Aft is not in the Statute Book, it is mentioned among the Patent Rolls, That the Commons confidered that die Head Abb ys beyond Sea,
poflefltng the Lands and Revenues of thefe Alien Priories, great Sums of Money were carried out of the Nation; and they fbrtfaw, that when the War was be-
gun withFrj/ire, all the Subjects of England holding Lands in that Kingdom would be difpoffefTed, they therefore made this Aft to dilTeize thefe foreign Monafie-
ries of the Priories alien, and veft them in the King. One of Ptmfidd in Effcx, and another of WtlU in Norfolk, belonging to St. SufUn'i in A'rrwflMy, vi ere
given to Join WcdebMc, Efrj; to hold by the Prefent of a Rofe to the King, on Midfummcr Day. Rot. Pa> . 3 Hen- 5-

No. 26. Vol. I.

6 N

■ JiU t

<j I o

1 114.


>../,■■', Maine, and part of Guicnnc, allthefePro- Henry might be decoyed by the
; vinces having been.wrefted from theKingsof Englandby

pure Violence, and on frivolous Prerence-s. That it was
; not mil' to thefe Countries that he had an indifputable
' Right, hut he might alio ver/ juftly lay Claim to the

whole Kingdom of France, as Heir and Succeflor of

Vol. I.

es of the Marriage.
Propofal, provided


N'um. xxvii.

V be War

Qg ::.:/}

France re*

jol-vcd, and
.1 Subjtdy
granted 'be

( ■:■ nuati '.
of the Nero-

■ wet -l ranc

182, iS 3 ,
»8+, 186.

Henry, on his part, did not'rejeot the .
the Marriage was conlidered only as a Confcouence of the
Peace, or at leaft, i'uch Conditions were annexed to it, as
fhould procure him the RefHtution of the Provinces
iince the Treaty of Brciigny. He feigned to fufter hiin-
felf to be aniufed to a certain degree. He lent Power
upon Power to his Ambafladors, to prolong the time c-i
his Engagement. But when the Match was propofed,
the fame Ambafladors refufed to treat, till the Terms of
the Peace were agreed upon. This was the fubjecr of all
the Negotiations. Mean while, it is certain, both Side.
had no other view than to gain time. Henry was to..
wile, not to perceive that France would never comply with
his Demands, before ftie had received fome ccniiderable
lofs. On the other hand, as there had not been a o-ood
while, any great Alteration in England, befides the°Ac-
ceffion of a new King to the Crown, the Court of France
could not believe, the Englijh were able to fuppcrt the
threatened War. So their fole View was to amufe Henry,
till time fhould caufe fome Revolution in the Affairs of
either Kingdom. Henry proceeded gradually, without be-
ing diverted, as there was nothing in his Kingdom capable
of giving him any Disturbance. France, on thecontrary,
was full of Diffenfions. Thofe at the helm, were more TbeDifad-
careful to fupport themfelves againft the oppofite Party ■""""i"
than to prevent the King of England's Deligns. Nay, lltT.'" 1
it was almoft impoflible for them to take juft meafures at
fuch a Juncture. The Dauphin, who had the manage-
ment of Affairs, was a Prince more hot than able. But
though his Capacity had been greater, what could he have
done, ingaged as he was between two Factions, which
divided the Kingdom, and whereof neither was really at-
tached to his Intereft ? Befides, neither the Dauphin,' nor
the Orleans Faction, could imagine, that, after an Inter-
miffion for two whole Reigns, the King of England would
ferioufly think of averting his Right to the Crown of
France. We find in the Englijh Hiffory, that after Henry Tie Diu-
had fent the firft time to demand the Crown of France, phin'*/e»».
the Dauphin, in derifion 6T his Youth, fent him for a ?K- f ^" Ji * t '"
fent a Tun of Tennis-Bails, intimating no doubt, that he Cawon.
thought him fitter for Play, than for War(4) ; but he was
foon of another Opinion. Such was the Difpofition of the
Court of France, whilft Henry was wholly employed m
Preparations to accomplifh his defigns.

The Refolution taken by the Parliament of Leiccjler, France fo-

opened the Eyes of thofe who governed France Thev g'"' to take

exercile the 1 alents Heaven had bleffed him with, and were fenfible at length, that Henry was in earneft and t " **"

7 * m z "?r f noble f rep r ofe ' a but rr e ' without p erceived ' not wkh °* co^r™, \ hat kS; X fure *

diead.ng the difficulties for fo juft and glorious a Con- to over-reach them, of the fame means praffifed by therS
int' I H° 17, J «.\ mthe "^I»wfrfulPrmce felves to amufe him. The Negotiations concernfng^he
m Europe. He clofed his Speech with faying, that if Marriage, and the frequent Prolongation of his voluntary
the King would be pleafed to take ,n hand fo noble an Engagement, were only a decoy, to hinder Franc from
Enterpnze, the Clergy would give him a larger Subfidy sparing for her Defence. This plainly enougTappearS
than was ever granted to any of his Anceftors, and he m the Parliament's Refolution. Then it was thft 3SS,
didnotqueftion but the Laity would be of the fame or the Dauphin's Council, thought it time to think leril

oufly of giving Henry fome Satisfaction. To that end, Art. Pub.
Secretary Col was difpatched with frefh Offers, but which IX P- '3»
were very fhort of his Pretenfions. Before the Parliament
of Leicejler, Henry had, as one may fay, demanded the
whole Kingdom of France, but /lightly, and to ferve as
Foundation for his other Demands. But when he found
himfelf fupported by his Parliament, he talked at a much
higher rate, andfeemed unwilling to be fatisfied with what
he had demanded at firft. However, to amufe France,
he ftill pretended to defire the Affair might be determined
by a Negotiation. To that end, he readily confented, the
Marriage fhould be treated of, and the Term of his En-
gagement prolonged to the 15 th of Augujl, impowering ibiJ. i 4 »,
his Ambafladors, to extend it as much farther as they fhould '4 1 -
judge proper. But all this mads him not delay or inter-
rupt his Preparations for War.

Mean while, the Negotiation with the Duke of Bar- Henry «*-
gundy ftill continued, whilft that Prince was moft preffed """" h "
by his Enemies. In the Month of June, Henry fent to SiT*
him Philip Morgan, aPerfon of great Abilities, whom he Duteof
always imployed in the moft important Negotiations. Bl "°'
Morgan's publick Inftrudions were only to renew the P °
Truce with the Flemings. But the Choice of this Am-
baflador, and the Million of Copin de la Vieuville into
England, from the Duke (5), with the Circumftances of
the time, are plain Evidences, thofe goings and comings,

' Edward III. Then he largely urged the Reafons
; ' which have been related in the~Reign of Edward. He
" talked (.1 the Salic Law as a Chimera, which was built
' upon no good foundation, and which, being repugnant
' to the Law of Nature, could not be admitted, though
; ' it was as real as imaginary. He afferted, that Pepin
' the Short, who difpoffeffed the' Family of Mercrveus,
■' claimed the Crown, as Heir to Blithilda, Daughter of
' Clothaire I, and that Hugh Capet, founded his Title upon
' his being defcended from a Daughter of Lewis le Dc-
■' bonnaire. He added, that thefe Claims, which would
' have been ridiculous, if the Salic Law had been in force
' ever Iince Pharamond, were clear Evidences of its be-
' ing then unknown. That befides, fuch a Law would
' be contrary to the Law of God himfelf, who difpofed
' in a very different manner of the Inheritance of Zelo-
' phehad, in favour of his Daughters. That the famous
' French Ci\ ilians had confeifed, that the Salic Law was
' a contradiction, both to the Law of God and Na-
' ture (1). In fine, that the glorious Succefs with which
' God had crowned the Arms of Edward III, plainly
< fhewed, that God approved not this pretended Law.

• That if afterwards he permitted that Monarch, and
' the Prince of Wales his Son, to end their days before
' they could repair their Loifes in France, nothing can
'■ be inferred from thence againft the Juftice of their
'• Rights. That by his Judgments, he was pleafed to
1 punifh the Sins of the Englijh Nation, but never in-
' tended to deprive the Heirs and Succeffors of Edward,
■ of their juft Rights to the Crown of France. That
; the Interruption of the Profecution of thefe Rights,

• occasioned by the Slothfulnefs of Richard II, and

• the Troubles of the late Reign, could not be confi-
dered as an entire delifting. That England enjoying
at prefent a happy Tranquillity, under the Govern-
ment of a Prince endowed with fo many excellent
Qualities, the rclinquifhing of thefe juft Pretenfions,
would be renouncing all the Rules of Prudence and
Politicks. That moreover, the Pofture of Affairs in
France prefented an opportunity, which would in vain
be fought hereafter. Finally, he exhorted the King to

" mind.

Moft Hiftorians pretend, this Speech made fuch a fudden
and wonderful Impreliion, that Henry immediately refolved
to profecute his Title to the Crown of France. But the
forementioned Negotiations upon this fubjedt, plainly fhew,
this Refolution was already taken, and that the Bufinefs at
prefent was, only to obtain the Parliament's Approbation.
To this the Archbilhop's Speech perhaps greatly conduced.
At leaft, it is certain, the Commons, before they broke
up, approved the defign, and granted the King a Subfidy
of three hundred thoufand Marks (z) to begin the Execu-
tion thereof. Nay, it is likely, the Archbifhop, on
thisoccafion, acted in concert with the King, either to
found the Inclination of the Commons, or to excite them
to a War. Be this as it will, this Refolution perfedly
correfponding with the Clergy's Project, it is no wonder,
the Archbifhop fo ftrongly urged the Neceflity of a War.
And indeed, this Affair was no fooner refolved in Parlia-
ment, but the Bill intended againft the Clergy fell of its
felf, People's Minds being otherwife employed (3).

All the reft of this Year was fpent in continual Embaffics
to London or Paris. The French would fain have had
lte Henry's Marriage with the Princefs Catherine, to be an
^England, equivalent for the greateft part of the Demands of Eng-
ix./ijo Lmd - This was the Pro J ca the 7 Ilad formed, imagining,

. 179.

Ri%l i }\ C £~M V iu Affl ' nt ° f theE " h ° PS and L ° rds ' ™ theKi "S two whole Tenths, and two Fifteenth, to be Jevied on the Lairy.
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(5; On Iftvanier 16. See Rymert Feed. Tern. IX. p. 179.


Book XI.

14. H E N R Y V.

i 4 , , were not to projong only :r Truce of Commerce, where
there w.is no grc.it difficulty. Befides, the difcovery
hereafter, will (hew, what the Duke of Burgundy was
then meditating,. flic gaining of that Prince to his
Intereft was very material to Henry, A fairer Opportu-
nity could not offer, fince it was a( a time when the
Court of France fhewed no regard for him. But he de-
murred, it feems, upon making fo extraordinary a Step,
and was unwilling to have recourfe to Henry, without an
abfolute Neceffity. In all thefe Negotiations were fpent
the Year 141 4.
til?. J' 1 tne beginning of the next Year, Henry Confented

A&. Pub. to a Prolongation of the Truce, to the firft of Afay.
IX. p. 183, Mean while, the Court of France, alarmed at the great
\ gv , m/. Preparations in England, fent again the Archbifhop of
219, 220. Bourga, with eleven more AmbafTadors. Probably the
Archbifhop made fome new Offer to Henry, but which
ThcTruce was not confuierable enough to content him. All he could
fnkngeda- obtain was, a farther prolongation of the Truce, to the
*"*Ij. ith of June.

Henry tills Whilft thefe AmbafTadors were at London, the King
the Lords ti affembled (1) the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, at leaft
is rtjoividt, ^ man as were wi h in rjiftancg. When they were met,

p. in. he acquainted them, by the Bilhop of VVtncheJter his Un-
cle, and Lord Chancellor, with his Refolution, of going
in Pcrfon, and carrying War into France, in order to re-
cover the Inheritance of his Anceffors. This Declaration
feemed needlcfs, fince the great Men had been fufficiently
informed of his defign. But probably, his Intent was* to
oblige the French AmbafTadors to difcover at once what
they had to propofe, he imagining they (till kept back
part of their Inftruclions. The prefcllt Polture of Af-
fairs in France made him hope, they would offer to put
Things upon the foot of the Treaty of Brctigny. If fo,
he would doubtlefs have been finished with fo conhdera-
ble an Advantage, tho' he had, for fome time, laid claim
TtiTme to the whole Kingdom of France. The Archbifhop of
fnlongida- Bourges, no longer queftioning the King's defigns, told
fr'262, 2S2. him, he wanted to go to France for frefh Inftruclions;
upon which Henry confented the Truce fhould be again
Ibid. prolonged to the 1 5th of July. The fame Prelate being

returned to England, a few days before the Expiration
of the Truce, added fomcthing more to the former Of-
fers; but it was to no purpofe. Nothing was capable of
The Anh- fatisfying Henry, but the Treaty of Bretigny. The Arch-
BoS Ss bifhop demanded his Anfwer in writing, and the King or-
bMimrds dered it to be given him immediately. Some add, that the
totbcKing. Archbifhop feeing all Ceremony was at an end, upbraided
pet twins! tn e King, that, not content with a Crown unjuftly wrefted
Waiting, from Richard II, by his Father, he would invade that of
France to ; but he fhould find it more difficult than he
Henry m- Every thing being ready for the Departure, Henry or-
harksbis dered all his Troops to repair immediately to Southampton,
Troops, and w ] lere t h C y were t0 em bark, and went thither himfelf to
Negotiation g' ve orders, as the Troops and Tranfports arrived. Whilft
mitt tie he was thus employed, he gave frefh Powers to Philip
Dub of Morsan, to conclude a Treaty of Alliance with the Duke

Burgundy. e> ' *»,,«„ i i-r^i i

Aft. Pub. of Burgundy. This thews, that the Duke, who was
IX'. p. 304. ftill at the Court of France, held private Intelligence with
Wali.nj. ]-i eni y^ am l had, probably, conduced very much to ingage
him in this Undertaking. Their Treaty however was
not concluded till two Years after.
A Pin a- Henry was preparing to depart about the end of 'July,

l Km diL- or beginning of Augujl (z). Moft part of his Troops were
nercd. now embarked, when he had notice of a Confpiracy

Aft. Pub. acainft his Perfon, formed by thofe, whom he thought to
T^LMns?" navc had lcait R eafon to fufpecl. If we believe the Englijh
Walling. Hiftorians, the Court of France dreading the Succefs of
Elmham. the War, had employed a vaft Sum of Money to bribe
Men to kill the King. They mount this Sum to a Mil-
lion of Livres, which is no wonder, conlidering the Qua-
lity of the Perfons concerned in the Plot ; namely, Ri-
chard Earl of Cambridge, Brother of the Duke of Tork t
Henry Sirope Lord Treafurer, who commonly lay in the
fame Room with the King, and Thomas Grey a Knight
Waning. of Northumberland, and Privy-Counfellor ( 3 ). It is not
very certain however, that they had a defign upon the


King's Lire ; at leaf! the E..rl of Cambridge's Cbnfi (Eonj , + ,;.

extant in the Collection of the puhlick Acts, contains no
thing like it. It onl) appears, that they had confpircd lx
to fee the Jul of March at their head, and conducl him
where they hoped to raife an Army, hv making ui'e of
the Name of Richard II, as if he were (fill alive. That,
if they could not deceive the People by a Mean, fo fre-
quently prafthed, their Intent was to publifha Manifettd
in the name of the Earl of March, inviting the People
to reftore that Prince to his Rights ufurped by the Houfe
of Lancajler. As they could not make ufe of the Earl p . - jC0 ,
of March's Name, Without havhig him in their Power,
or at leaft in their Party, they could not help informing;
him of the Plot. The Earl was greatly embarrafledj
when the Secret was told him. A Crown, which he
believed to be his lawful Right, was worth the Pains of
running fome risk to obtain it. But on the other hand,
he was finished, the Confpirators aclcd not from a Mo-
tive of Juftice or Affection for his Perfon. Befico, the
Uncertainty of the Iffue could not but difcouragc. him.
Mean while, he was prefled very earncftly to entcA into
the Confpiracy. In fhort, not being able to refolve im-
mediately, he defired time to confider of fo important ari
Affair ; anj it was with great Difficulty, that he obtained
the reft of that Day. During this Interval, he made
fuch Reflections, as induced him to acquaint the King
with the whole. Henry, furprized at the News, imme-
diately ordered the Confpirators to be feized, v> ho, con-
fessing their Guilt, were condemned and executed. The
Earl of Cambridge and Sir Thomas Grey were beheaded ; 77, ,.,-
but the Lord Scrope fuffered the ulual Punifhmcnt of funijbed.
Traitors. This was as it were the firft Spark of that [..'. '
Flame, which confumed, in procefs of time, the two
Houfes of Lancajler and } ork. As the Eai 1 of Cambridge
had married a Sifter of the Earl of March, very likely,
he had engaged in the Plot, with a view to procure the
Crown for Richard his Son, prelumptive Heir of that
Earl, who had no Children.

This Affair detaining Henry at Southampton longer than Henry
he imagined, he could not fail till the 1 8th, or 19th, of ' "
Augujl. His Fleet confifted of fifteen hundred Tranfport- McSeu
Ships, on which were embarked fix thoufand Men at
Arms, and twenty thoufand Archers (4) making in all,
an Army of about fifty thoufand Men. He was attended
by the Earls of Dorfet, Kent, Comical, Salisbury, Hunt-
ingdon, with many other Nobles. On the 21ft of Augujl, Ltttlis at
he landed his Troops (5) at Havre dc Grace in Normandy, Havre de
and without lofs of time, marched to Harfleur, about Grac «-.
nine Miles diftant. That Place was ftfong and well-ftored. El'mbam!"
A little before, four hundred Men at Arms were fent
thither, befides a great number of neighbouring Nobles,
who voluntarily came there. The Garrifon made a vi- Tales Har-

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