M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Henry having bound the Duke of Burgundy, by their
late private Treaty, thought it time to renew the War.
He knew not onlv, that one half of France would not op-
pofe him, but moreover the Burgundian Party would make
a diverfion in his favour, which could not but procure him
great Advantages. In this Refolution, he made all the ne-
ceffary Preparations to accomplifh his Enterprize. Mean
while, as the Supply granted him by Parliament was not
fufficient for his purpofe, and as the Money came (low-
ly into the Exchequer, he was quickly in great Want.
To remedy this Inconvenience, he made ufe of the follow-
ing Means. After he had fettled the Pay of each Soldier,
Horfe and Foot, and of each Officer, according to every
one's Rank and Character, he made private Contracts with
feveral Lords and Gentlemen, whereby they were obli-
ged to find him a certain Number of Horfemen or Foot-
men, for fuch a yearly Sum to be paid quarterly. The firft
Quarteridge was advanced, out when the fecond came to
be paid, the King had no Money. To fupply the prefent
Occafion, he pawned to them the reft of the Jewels,
with Letters under the Great Seal, empowering them to
fell them, if the Money was not paid within fuch a time.
The Term allowed, was twelve or eighteen Months, ac-
cording as the Creditors were more or lefs tractable. By
this means he gained time for the Payment of his Troops,
which was a great Conveniency, as he could reimburfe his
Creditors according as the Money came into the Treafurv,
without being obliged to pay all at once. People were fo
well fatisfied of his Sincerity, that they made no fcruple
to ferve him, or lend him Money, upon fuch Securities,
as would have been little worth under a Prince of lefs
Probity.

The Preparations carrying on in England, very juftly



any Propofal from him. For this reafon, he thought pro-
per to make ufe of the Prifoners in England, and particu-
larly of the Duke of Bourbon. We find in the Collection Aa _ Pub-
of the Publick Ails, feveral Safe-Conducts dated about this IX. p. 4^3,
time, for the Duke of Bourbon's Domefticks going to and in-
coming from France, under divers Pretences. It may
therefore be prefumed, that the Plot was then formed,
and that the Duke of Bourbon did nothing in the Affair,
of which I am going to relate the Particulars, but in con-
cert with the Court of France.

This Plot was fo artfully framed, that if the King had lb. p. 4 - ,
not been in a continual Miftruft, he would doubtlefs have
been deceived. But his firm Refolution, not to interrupt
the Execution of his Defigns, for any Offers that fhould
be fhort of his Demands, caufed him to efcape the Snare.
The Dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, the Earls of Eu and
Vendiime, and fome other Prifoners, feigning to defpair of
the Affairs of France, intimated to Henry, that they were
willing to treat with him, for themfelves in particular.
This was told him, not pofitively, but as what they might
poflibly be brought to. But the King, fearing that, under
this Pretence, they defigned to retard his Voyage, gave no
great Attention to the Overture.

Some time after, thefe fame Princes, who had hitherto Negotiation-
endeavoured to make the Propofal come from the King, between
finding they could not fucceed, began firft. At an Au- ^ihStf
dience which they demanded, they exprefied their Inch'- Prifomr,;
nation, and prayed him to acquaint them with his Preten- A "- Pub -
fions ; adding, they did not queftion, but they fhould return ^ ? ' w '
him a fatisfactory Anfwer, without any Prejudice to their
Honour. The King, who would not be amufed, roundly
told them, he had no other Propofal to make, except only,
that they fhould acknowledge him for King of France and
their lawful Sovereign. The Duke of Orleans exclaimed
againft this Propofal, and plainly told him, they had no
Anfwer to return to fuch a Demand. Matters went no
farther for this time.

But a few Weeks after, the Duke of Bourbon refumed Pirtiatlarfy
the Affair. He told the King, that fince they had the^f^*'/^"
Honour to talk with him, feveral of the Prifoners had Ibid. ' •
fent Perfons into France, to make inquiry concerning his
Title to that Kingdom, and had received better Informa-
tion than ever before. He added, for his part, he was
fully convinced of the Juftice of his Rights. Then he
faid, he was told, that, notwithftanding his juft Claim to
the whole Kingdom, he had offered to refign it, if cer-
tain Provinces were delivered to him ; and, in his opini-
on, that Offer ought not to be refufed : That the other
Prifoners were of his mind, and had refolved to do all
that lay in their Power to procure him what he defired.
That therefore, he begged leave to go into France, and P"A*4*
declare to King Charles, in the Name of all the Prifo-
ners, that, as faithful .Subjects, they could not but advife
him, to clofe with this Expedient for Peace, and prav him
to accept fo reafonable an Offer. In fhort, the Duke
added, that if the Court of France confented to the
Offer, Henry might this very Year take poffeffion of the
Provinces, which fhould be refigncd. But if, on the con-
trary, it was rejected, the Princes would account them-
felves acquitted from the Oath they had taken to their
King. The Duke engaged, for his own part, to put p art icthr



Engagement

(1) The Commons granted him two whole Tenths and two Fifteenth?, to be levied on the Laity ; and the Clergy gave two Tenths to be railed Son their "f'teDiU
ownBoly. Cotton's Abridg. p. C50. Waif. f. 39 c. of Bourbon.

(a)_ For Life only. Tfiomai Beaufort, lixloSD"Jet, was created Duke of Exeter io this Parliament. Cott.rs Abridg. p. 550. DugdaVi Baron. H>- p. 429-

all



Vol. II. r .



Book XI.



14. H E N R Y V.



.16.



all hi» fortified Towns in the hands of fuch Pcrfons, as red the King and Dauphin, with fuch ftrong Sufpicions of

would be fure to deliver them up when he plcafcd. her, that fhe was fent away to Tours, where fhe remained

He promifed to return into England, by the time which as a Prifoner, not knowing on whom to rely, to free her-

fhould be appointed him, and own Henry for King of felf out of Captivity. This fatal Policy of the Conftable



519

1417.



He hat leave
to go to
France.
lb. p. 4=9.



Tom. IX.
{,.427,430,



TleProjea
comes to
11'Ab'w.g,



Aft. Pub.
IX. p. 456.



»4'7-

Wretched
Condition of
France.
Mczerai.
P. Daniel.
Aft. Pub.

IX.p-45'.
454, +69-



France, and pay him Homage as his lawful Sovereign
Moreover, he added, that he would fo evidently demon-
flrate the Juffice of Henry's Right to the Crown of
France, that all the World fhoukl be fatisfied, he could
not difpenle with doing him Homage, without acting con-
trary to his Honour. In fine, he entreated the King to
ba filcnt till his Return, by rcafon of the Danger he
fhoukl be expofed to, if the thing was divulged, during
his Stay in France.

Henry could not tell what to think of fuch a Propofal.
He knew France was not governed either by the Duke
of Orleans, or the Duke of Bourbon ; and that it was
not the Earl of Armagnac's Intereft to make a Peace
upon thefc Terms. But, at the fame time, the hopes of
recovering the Provinces of France, loft fince the Treaty
of Bretigny, without being obliged to renew the War,
were very agreeable. On the other hand, the Alterna-
tive propofed by the Duke, could not but be advantagi-
oux to him. All he had to do, wasto be upon his Guard,
and not be pcrfwaded, on this pretence, to interrupt the
Execution of his Projects. Wherefore, refolving not to
fufpend his Expedition one finglc day, upon any account
whatever, he believed there was no Danger in granting
the Duke of Bourbon the Leave he defired. But firft,
he had one of the Duke's Sons given him in Hoftage,
with Security for the Sum of two hundred thoufand
Crowns. Thefc Particulars are in the Collection of the
Public k Acls. We find there a Letter, written with the
King's own Hand-, to Sir John Tiptoft, his Ambaflador to
the Emperor, ordering him to acquaint Sigijmund with
the Secret, ask his Opinion upon it, and alfure him that
the Negotiation fhall not retard his Expedition into France.
At the fame time, he enjoyns him not to make the leaft
Difcovery to any other Perfon, on pain of his heavy
Difpleafure. Probably, his firm Refolution not to be
amufed by any Propofal, was the reafon, this Stratagem
was carried no farther. The Duke of Bourbon return-
ed into England ; but performed not his other Engage-
ments. It was, doubtlefs, Henry's Indignation againft the
Prifonersj for endeavouring to deceive him, that caufed
him to order them to be confined in Pontefraii Caftle ;
whereas before, they were upon their Parole. Though
there are no pofitive Proofs, that this Plot was contrived
by the Conftable, it is vifible however, by feveral Conjec-
tures, which all together amount to a fort of Demonftra-
tion. It would be too long to give the particulars here.
But if the French Prifoners are fuppofed to have acted fin-
cerelv, without the Direction of the Conftable, it mull:
be inferred, that France was then in a very deplorable
State. King Charles, frequently feized with a Frenzy,
was incapable of taking care of his Affairs. The Duke
of Burgundy, firft Peer of the Realm, and Head of a
powerful Party, had made a fecret Alliance with the
Enemy of the State. The Princes of the Blood were
about to acknowledge Henry for King of France. In
fine, the Kingdom was governed by a young Prince of
fourteen Years, and by the Earl of Armagnac, a violent
Man, who fought only to be revenged of his Enemies,
and openly facrificed the publick Good to his Am-
bition.

Though the Conftable had already been the Caufe of



was a frefh Source o( Calamities to France. The inju- The$*i,>
red Mother could never forgive her Son the Affront fhe h ""> 'i"
had received, and, unfortunately for the Kingdom, it f^f"
was but too much in her Power to glut her Revenge.

The Conftable's violent Conduct, the Death of the The Duh of
two Dauphins laid to his Charge, the Queen's Banifh- *»w<iy
ment, with numbcrlefs other Occafions, furnifhed the 'j'm!'
Duke of Burgundy with a pretence to make a Diverfion,
in favour of the King of England. He publifhed a Ma-
nifefto againft the Conftable, aggravating his Faults and
Oppreflion,, with all the Refentment of an injured Ene-
my. Then he wrote to the King, that, as firft Peer of
France, it was incumbent upon him, to endeavour to pre-
vent the utter Ruin of the Kingdom, which was infalli-
bly going to Deftrudion, unlefs timely relieved. By the
fame reafons, he tried to ftir up the Cities of the
Kingdom, and win them to his Intereft. In fine, per- He ap-
ceiving that fome of the Towns had already declared for £"?*''
him, he approached Paris at the head of an Army,
when the King of England was ready to fail for France.
His Aim was, to lay the Dauphin and Conftable under a
Ncceility, either of quitting Paris, in order to oppofc the
King of England, or of fuffering the EngliJ}} to act with-
out Oppofition, if they intended to fave Paris. Thev
thought fit to take this laft Courfe, chufing rather, that
Part of the Kingdom fhould fall into the hands of the
Englijh, than to fee themfelves difpofleffed of the Govern-
ment, by their private Enemies.

Henry willing to improve fo favorable a Juncture, failed Henry /and:
about the end of July (1), and landed at Toique in Nor- " Tonque.
mandy. His Army confuted but of twenty five thoufand EJnSum*'
five hundred effective Men, too inconfiderable a Number
for the Conqueft of France, had he not been fecure of
meeting little Oppofition. Upon his Arrival, he befieged Aft. Pub.
the Caftle of Tonque, and became matter of it the 9th lx -p-479.
of Augujl. Then, after the Ccnqueft of fome other fmall w'iff '
Places (2), he laid Siege to Caen, which furrendered the Des UrAns.
9th of September. T. Livius.

The Court of France was then in great perplexity. Perplexity
The Duke of Burgundy, at the Gates of Paris, hinder- St*"'****
ed their regulating the Affairs of the Kingdom. They ^ Fianct "
fhould have had two Armies in the Field, one to oppofc
the Burgundians, and another to defend Normandy againft
the Englijh. But they had fcarce Troops enough to
defend Paris, where the King, Dauphin, and Conftable,
were (hut up. Their only Refuge was to renew the Ne- Aft. Pub.
gotiations with Henry \ To that end they demanded a ,x - P- 494-
Conference between AmbafTadors of the two Crowns, ?V"7 ""'
to coniult about means to conclude a Peace. Henry agreed Conference.
to the Propofal, but without difcontinurng the War, be- P - 49°-
ing unwilling to lofe fo precious an Opportunity. The
Court of France chufing the Archbifhop of Rheims for
firft Plenipotentiary, he appointed, on his part, the Earl
of IVarivick and fome others (3), who were to meet with"
the French, at Bernonville, in Normandy. This Con- Heeontinim
grefs, for what reafon I know not, was deferred to the *" 9°"'
end of November. Meanwhile, Henry became mafter of ^. S o\, 50 i.
Bayeux, Argentan, Chateau de I'Aigle, Alcnjln, and fome T. Livius.
other Places. Elrnhatn.

Whilft the King was continuing his Conquefts, the
Duke of Burgundy did him great Service, not only by



much Mifchief to France, by perfecuting the Duke of the Diverfion he made about Paris, but chiefly by in-



1J?s Confta-
hl caujei tie
Queen to be
jent atuay
to Tcu«.



Burgundy, and forcing him, as it were, to throw himfelt
into the Arms of the King of England, he did not
think it fufficient to fecure his Quiet. Jfabella of Ba-
varia, Wife of Charles VI, appeared fo difpleafed to be
ruled by a Subject, that he could not help fearing, fhe
would in the end find means to deprive him of his Au-
thority. This was not impoffible. The King being of
an eafy Temper, it would not have been difficult to
gain him, in one of his Intervals. Neither was it im-
practicable, to perfuade the Dauphin to rid himfelt of a
troublefome Governor, in order to rule as he pleated,
without fear of being controlled. Thus the Conftable's
Deftiny hanging by fo weak a Thread, whilft he had
fuch an Enemy at Court, he believed, that, to fecore
himfelt, ii was abfolutely necellarv to remove her. The
Queen gave him a fufficient Handle by her Behaviour,
which was not altogether conformable to the Rules of
Decency. 'Fhe Conftable taking this Advantage, infpi-



creafing the Troubles in France, fo as never more to be
appeafed. Queen Ifabtlla, banifhed to Tours, had been 1^1^ - ,.
hitherto an Enemy to the Duke of Burgundy, but the de- with tie
fire of being revenged on the Dauphin and Conftable, D " kc "f
made her overlook all the Caufes of Difguft at the Duke.
As (he had no other Refuge, the difpatched fruity Mef-
fengers to tell him, the was ready to join with him
againft their common Enemies. The Duke immediately
accepted the Offer, and privately concerted meafures with
her, to free her from Confinement. Then, he fuddenly
departed from Corbeil, where he was encamped, with on-
ly a fmall Body of chofen Horfemcn. He made fuch «.& ea-riei
fpeed, that before his Defign could be known, he xvas^'if"
at the Abbey of Marmout'ur near Tours, where he found ToLrt-
the Qiieen, who was come thither under colour of De-
votion. As fhe was not fufpected of attempting to e-
fcape, he eafily carried her away, and conducted her to
Troye in Champagne. When the faw herfelf in fsfet) , the siejlita

bcrfelf Rt-



(1) He failed from PortJniLutb, July 27, or 2S, and landed it Seville, in Normandy, Augujl i. Goodivin, p. 15c. During his Journey to Sc-utlamptcr., £"*•'•
which was appoint-.d to be the Rendezvous, lie ifiued out a Proclamation, That no Per/on fliould be lurYered to wear Coats 01 Arms, who had nor a Kic.ht

to them. Ryder's Ford. Tom. IX. p. 4,7. Before he embarked, he lent John Hcilmd, Earl of Huntington, to icour the Seas : who meeting with nii.e

Cacefi Sh ps in the French Scivire, funk three of them, and took three, in one ot which there was as much Money as was to have paid the French Fleet
for half a Year. HoJliltg/kuut, Vol. III. p. 358. T.. Livius, p. 31. EUbam, p. 95.

(;1 Particularly Dawvdlien, which King Uary gave, on September 2.6, to Thitnas de Mcr.tacuti, Earl of SetBtinry, with other Caftfcs and Lands.'
jRjmw's fW. T. IX. p-49 5-

(j) Eiward Ccumnay, Sir If'ilter Hungtrford, TiormtsCbaucer, Jain II ''attrtsni and John Kcrvpe. Ryrr.er 's Feed. Tom. IX. p. 497.



affumed



5*.o

141 7.



The H I STO RT of ENGLAND.



Vol. f.



had no time to reft. The Gallic of
ing on the 16th of February , Henry



Henry takei

(everai

Placet.



Congrcfs of

Bcmonviilc.
Aft. Pub.
JX. ,,5.7.



t-It'firy't
Demands,



72c Confe-
rence breaks
up.



Walfing.

Fataife

taken.

Aft. Pub.

IX. P . 532

54.1.

Truce ninth

Bretagne,

Gfr.

lb. p. 446,

503, 506,

6.3.

T. Livius.

Elmhim.

Bale.

Fox.

Cotton'j

Abrdg.

Walling.

Oldcaflle
burnt alive.



Toe Select
Doiv.igcr it
accufed cf
Conspiracies
againji the
King.
Walling.
Speed.
Stow.
Cotton's.
Abridg.
P- 557-
Pretended
lnvaf.on of
the Scots re-
futed.
Speed.
Walling.
T- Livius.
Elmham.



I41S.
Henry takes
vi :.:/

P/acet in
Norma ndv.
Act. Pub.
IX- r- c^.i ,
——618.

Elmham.



affumed the Title of Regent, pretending, tiie King her
Hufband was Captive in the hands of the Dauphin and
Earl of Armagnaa

In the mean time, Henry made feveral Conqueffs in
Normandy, without any oppofiticn. The Conftable chofe
ratl'.er to fee the State penfh, than to refigu hi:; Authority,
and the Dulce of Burgundy favoured Hairy to tiie utmoit
of his Power.

The Conference between the Plenipotentiaries of the
two Crowns, was held at Bernonville, on tiie 28th of No-
vember. As Henry fafpected, the Court of France fought
only to make him lofe time, he refolyed to deprive them
of that Expectation. Immediately upon the opening of
the Conference, his Ambaffadors fet forth his Pretentions,
afluring withal, there would be no Abatement. The Sub-
ftanceof his Offers was, That he would marry the Prin-
cefs Catherine : That King Charles fhould enjoy the
Crown for his Life, but after his Death, it fhould come
to the King of England : That during Charles's Life,
Henry fhould be Regent of France, by reafen of tiie King's
Infirmity. Moreover he demanded fuels Sccuiities, as fhould
render the Performance of thefe At tides unqueftionable.
But as the French Ambafiadors were not fufficiently im-
powered to treat upon thefe Articles, and it was not Hen-
ry's Intereft vainly to prolong this Negotiation, the Con-
grefs immediately broke up. lie was juftly apprehenfive,
the Court of France would have made ufe oi this occa-
fion, to raife a Jealcufy in his Allies, and particularly in
the Duke of Burgundy. Mean while Henry, intent upon
the Siege of Falaife, took the Town on tiie zoth of De-
cember, but the Cattle held out till February.
, Some time before the Congrefs of Bernonville, the
Duke of Bretagne came and made a Truce with Henry
for a Year(i), and another in the Name of the Queen of
Sicily, as Guardian of Lewis her Son, for Anjou and Maine.
Thus by degrees, Henry greatly weakened France, by de-
priving her of the Affiftance fhe might have received from
her VaiTals.

Whilft the King was employed in France, Oldcajlle, of
whom I have fpoken elfewhere, was feized (2) and
brought to London, to the great Satisfaction of the Clergy,
who were extremely incenfed againft him. They were
determined to facrifice him, for a Terror to all the reft
of the Lollards. Notwithstanding his Birth and Merit,
he was fentenced to be hung up by the middle with a
Chain, and burnt alive. By the way, his being burnt,
is a clear Evidence, that he was condemned tor Herefy,
rather than for confpiring againft the King. Be this as
it will, his Sentence was executed amidft the Curfes and
Imprecations of the Priefts and Monks, whoeven laboured
to prevent the People from praying for him. Thus died
Sir John Oldcajlle Baron of Cobham, with a wonder-
ful Conftancy, perfectly anfwerable to the Firmnefs,
wherewith he had all along maintained the Doctrine of
Wickliff, which he prof'efTed. He was the firft Noble-
man, that fuffered on the account of Religion (3). After
the Execution, the Parliament enacted frefh Statutes, in
order to the utter Extirpation of the Lollards ; the Cler-
gy never ceafing to require their Blood, with all the eager-
nefs imaginable.

In fome Hiftories, it is faid, this Year, Queen Joanna
of Navarre, Widow of Henry IV, and Mother-in-law of
the reigning King, was accufed of confpiring, with her
Conteilbr, againft the King. Some add, fhe was con-
demned to a ten years Imprifonment, and that her Con-
feffor was killed by the Chaplain of the Tower, in a Dif-
pute upon that occafion. This is all that can be faid con-
cerning this Accufation, of which Hiftorians fpeak very
confufedly.

As for the Scotch Invafion, placed by fome in this
Year, and, as they fay, repulfed by the Duke of Bedford,
with a hundred thoufand Men, I dare venture to affirm,
it is all a Miftake (4), fince it is not mentioned, either in
the pubiick Records, or in the Hiftories of Scotland. All
we find with relation to the Scots, is, that they threatned
to invade England in the Year 141;, about the time of
the King's firft Expedition into France (;).

The fituation of Affairs in France was extremely ad-
vantagious to Henry. Accordingly, he did not tail to
improve it. The Campaign, begun in Augujl, lafted all
the Winter, without any Interruption, lb that his Troops

(1) From November 16, till that time twelve-month. Rymer's Feed. T. 9. p. 511.

(2) In Ptnuis-hand, in Nortb-lVales, by John Grey, Lord Powis.

(3) And as this was the firft noble Blood that was Ihed in England by Popifh Croeltv, lb perhaps never any fuffered a more cruel Martyrdom.
(4' And yet, that it i; far from being improbable, appears by one of King Henry's Letters, wherein he fays " I am fee etiy informed by a Mm

" of right notable Eftate in this Lnnd, that there hath been a Man of theDuke of Orleame in Scotland, and accorded with the Duke of Albany, that tills
•< next Summer he mall bring in the Mamuet of Scotland to ftir what he may, and alio that there fhould be fnunden w lyes to the having iway IpeciaJly of
' ' the Duke of Orleanec ; and al'.o ol the Kg, as well as of the Remanant of my forel'aid Prifoners : " Whereupon he orders that Duke, then a Prifoner
in Pontfrael Cartle, to be more clofely confined. Sytloge Epift. at the end of T. Livius. ForojuL p. 99 ; and in Speed, p. 63-. See alio Ry'mcr' F*ed.
Tom. 9. p. <£S. Waif. p. 399. T. Livius, p. 56.

(:,) This Year, on November 16, a Parliament met at Weflminfier, which granted the King one Tenth, and a Fifteenth. RtParl.e Ken. c. A r . 1,9.
Cotton's ALridg.y. 553. Waif. p. 399. The Clergy granted two Tenths. Duel-. Alio this Year, on April 14., King dairy ordered Hclbourm to be

il nor being f« before. Rymer'9 Feed. Tom. 9. p. 447.

6) Join XXIII, at Rome ; Gregory XII, at Rimini j and BenrJi.1 X1U, at Avignon. See the Hiltory of his Council at large, in the State of the

Church of the xvth Century.

2 was



Falaife, furrendcr- 141?.
divided his Army
into feveral Bodies, of which he gave the Command to
the Dukes of Clarence and Gloucifler his Brothers, to tl e
Duke of Exeter and the Earl of Salisbury, with Ordei 1
to attack feveral Places at once ; being relolved not to neg-
lect fo favorable an Opportunity. In the Months ofT. idvhi
March and April, he became Mafter of St. Lo, Caren-
tan, St. Sauvcur le Vicomte, and many other Places in
Normandy ; fo that of all the ftror.g Towns, he only
wanted Cherbourg and Roan, tocorriplete theConqueft of Cherbeurg
that Province. Evreux iui rendered in May, and prefent-
ly after, he laid Siege to Cherbourg, which coft him three Montis.
Months.

During the Siege, the Court of France fuffered a new Mann v.
Revolution, which was not favorable to Hetffy, though, at '"" '
firft it feemed to procure him great Advantages. The p!^ •
Council of Conjlance, which had been opened ever fince Fiance,
the Year 141 4, having depefed the three Popes (6), J \ t }- 1> " 1 -
who contended for the Papacy, had elected on tiie 10th .Ci 1 ' :
oi November 1417, Cardinal Cclonna, who affirmed the
Name of Martin V. The new Pope, upon his mounting
the Papai Throne, fent two Legates into France, to try
to appeaie the Troubles, and unite the two Pactions. The May i 7 .
Sollicitations of thefe Legates were fo powerful, that the Ib _- £• 55^»
two Parties fent their Deputies to Mcntcreau-Faui-Yonnc, Jjinemmt
where it was agreed, that the Dauphin and Duke of bet-men the



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 219 of 360)