M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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lb. p. 763.

II. That moreover all Normandy fliould be delivered to

III. The full and independent fovereignty, of whatever
fhould be refigned to him by the prefent treaty.

As Henry would not recede from thefe articles, the Duke
of Burgundy plainly faw, if he directly oppofed them, he
fhould occafion the breaking up of the conference, which
it was his filtered to continue, as the only way left to
bring the Dauphin to a reconciliation. So, without dif-
puting, or granting the King's pretenfions, he delivered
to the King the counter-demands of France. They were
fo drawn as to he liable to great objections, which he
might either urge or relinquifh, according as he faw what
courfe the Dauphin would take. In a word, the Duke
of Burgundy's aim, was to give the Dauphin a little more
time, before any thing was concluded with the King of
England. Thefe were the demands of France, with the
King's anfwers annexed.

I. That the King of England renounce the crown of

The King confents to it, provided this Claufe be added,
[except what is granted to him by tho prefent treaty.]

II. That he quit claim to Touraine, Anjou, Maine 7 and
the fovereignty of Bretagne.

The King is not pleafed with this article.
Probably, becaule of the fovereignty of Bretagne, which
he claimed as Duke of Normandy.

III. The King of England fhall fwear, that neither
he, nor his fucccilbrs, fhall receive at any time hereafter,
upon any account whatever, the ceflion of the crown of
France, from any perfon, who hath, or pretends to have
a right.

The King agrees to this, provided his adverfary will afo
fwear the fame, &c.

IV. The King of England fhall caufe the renuncia-
tions, promifes, and engagements to be recorded, as the
King of France and his council fhall think moll advifea-

The King likes not this article.

V. Inftead of Ponthicu and Montrevil, the King of
France fhall have liberty to give an equivalent in fome
other part of his kingdom, as he fhall judge proper.

The King difapproves of this article.

VI. As there are {till in Normandy feveral places un-
conquered by the King of England, which however are
to be given up by the treaty, he fhall rcfign upon that ac-
count, all his other conquefts elfewhere. Every one
fhall be reftored to the poiieflion of his eftate, in what
place foever it lies. There fhall be an alliance concluded
between the two Kings.

The King approves of this, en condition the Scots and the
Rebels be not included in the alliance.

VII. The King of England fhall repay the fix hundred
thoufand crowns given to Richard II, in part of the eight
hundred thoufand promifed with Queen Ifabella, and
moreover four hundred thoufand for that Princefs's Jewels
detained in England.

The King is ivilling that this article be allowed out of the
arrears due for King John 'r ranfom. Hozvcver, he is fur-
prized at the demand of four hundred thoufand crowns for
JShieen Ifabella's Jeivels, when they were not worth a quar-
ter of that fum.

all his meafures. As he had made ufe of negotiations, lit 9.
now with the Dauphin, then with the Duke of Burgun-
dy, in order to ftir up the jcaloufy of both, and attain his
ends, he was himfelf over-reached in his own way. The
congrefs of Meulant, where the Duke of Burgundy's chief
aim was to frighten the Dauphin, produced the defired
effect. The young Prince, alarmed at feeing fo near a
conclufion, a peace fo very difadvantagious to France and
himfelf, believed, he ought not to refufe any longer, to
be reconciled with the Duke of Burgundy ; fince their re-
conaliation was the only means to prevent fo great a mif-
fortune. Wherefore, after feveral private conferences be-
tween fome trufty friends of the two Princes, a reconci-
liation, fo earneltly defired by all true Frenchmen, was at
length brought about. On the ■ 1 th of July, they met
about three miles from Meulant, in the road to Paris,
and embraced one another. After that, they figned a AA- Put-
treaty, mutually promilmg, to love one another like Bro- 1X ' Pi " 6 *
tiers, and jointly to oppfe the damnable enier prize of the
Englifh, the antient enemies of the kingdom.

This ftep being made, the Duke of Burgundy took new Tbi Duh of
meafures. As he no longer defired the conclufion of the P 1 "'/"" 1 /.
peace, he rtrenuoufly infifted, in the conferences which Cmfirta^
were ftill continued at Meulant, upon the demands ofMcubnt.
France. But for fear Henry fhould defift from his ob- p ' ' S6-
jections, he added fome frefh articles. In explaining the
third demand of France, he clogged it witli fo many
conditions, that in all future cales whatever, neither
Henry, nor his fucceflbrs, Kings of England, could ever
claim or acquire any part of that kingdom. But Henry,
who was very willing to quit his pretenfions to France,
as defcended from Edward III, thought it very unrea-
fonable to be obliged to extend this renunciation, for
himfelf and fucceflbrs, to all cafes that might happen,
and could not poffibly be forefeen. He complained more-
over, that the Duke ©f Burgundy required thing? which
could not be granted, without offending God, and break-
ing his oaths. I do not know what this was. In fine,
to render the conclufion of the Peace impracticable, ths
Duke attacked the King's demands, againft which he had
taken care to alledge nothing, before his reconciliation
with the Dauphin. He affirmed, that, in general, they
were extravagant, obfeure, ambiguous, and unreafona-
ble, without mentioning particulars. At the fame time,
he expected Henry fhould accept the offers of France,
abfolutely and fimply, without any explanation. For
fear, however, of being taken at his word, he refufed to
confent that the articles already agreed, fhould be com-
mitted to writing.

Hitherto Henry had imagined, for what reafon I know
not, that the Duke of Burgundy's reconciliation with the
Dauphin, would be no obftacle to the peace. We find lb.
in the Collection of the Publiek dels, that on the 1 8th 775
of July, that is, (even days after their interview, Henry
empowered the Archbifhop of Canterbury to conclude his
marriage with the Princefs Catherine. It might be
thought he knew nothing yet of what parted on the 1 1 th,
between the Dauphin and Duke of Burgundy, if it did
not appear by a Letter in the fame collection, that fome P
of his courtiers had received intelligence of it on the
1 4th. He was fo prejudiced on this occafion, that on the
1 9th he impowered commiffioners to prolong the truce.
But the Duke of Burgundy's new demands, or rather his


The Duke of I £ > s ea fy to perceive by the nature of thefe demands,
Burgundy' j that the difficulties were not confiderable enough to hinder
the conclufion of a peace, if both parties had been equally
willing. But, on the other hand, they were fufficient to
keep the treaty depending, as long as the court of France
pleafed (1). In the Duke of Burgundy's fituation, he in-
filled upon the articles difapproved by the King, no farther
than was neceflary for his purpofe. He was very glad to
let the King believe, the Peace was going to be concluded ;
as indeed it would have been, had the Dauphin perfiftcd in
his obftinacy. Henry fo little queftioned it, that on the
5th of July, that is, about a month after the opening of
the congrefs, he gave full power to the Archbifhop of
Canterbury to go to Paris, and conclude the Peace in his
name, with King Charles,
lit Dauphin But whilft Henry was pleafing himfelf with this expec-
tation, endeavours were ufing, on the other fide, to bleak

Aft. Pub.
IX. p. 774.





p. 7 Sj.

jundy are
Monft relet.
T. Livius.


cavils at the treaty, broke oft" the conferences, and
went and prepared for the war.

July the 28 th, Henry ordered a detachment, headed Henry m n
by the Duke of Clarence, to ftorm Pontoife. This en- Pont «»fe-
terprife was attended with the expected fuccefs. L'ljle Monflrel"'!
Adam, the governor, little thinking of being attacked, T. Livius.
was furprifed and forced to fly with part of the garrifon Elmlum '
(2). As the court of France refided in this town, during
the congrefs of Meulant, and were gone but a few days,
the Englijh Soldiers found it ftill full of the baggage of the
courtiers. The booty is faid to amount to above two j „ tal
millions of crowns. Boay.

The taking of Pontoife opened the King a way to 7he Pc j, url
the very gates of Paris. But, however, the pofture of c/Henry - »
his affairs was not changed for the better, fince the ^f J ' rs -
union of the two Factions by which France was divided.
Whilft they were deftroying one another, an army of
twenty-five thoufand Men was fufficient for the conqueft:
of Normandy. No enemy had appeared to force him to
raife his fieges. Moreover, he had been all along, pub-
lickly or privately, favoured by one of the Factions. But
alter their reconciliation, he could hardly expect,
his own forces alone, to accomplifh his enterprife.
aimed at no lefs than the conqueft of the whole king-
dom, or at leaft of what England had loft fince the


(1) The Conferences at Meulant ended June 30. Goodwin, p. 229.

' v i) But they were met, jnd the greatest part 01" them cut off by John Holland, Earl of Hunthgdm. Goodwin, p. 239.


5 2 4


Vol. L


treaty of Brctigny. And yet, after a fix years war, and
in fo favourable junctures, he was mafter but of one fingle
Province. He knew alfo, that in England, his obftinate
continuation of fo hazardous a war, was not univerfally
approved ; and that k was openly faid, the conqueft of
France would be the ruin of England. But this was not
the only thing that gave him uneafinefs. He had juit re-
■Aa. Pub. ceived a letter from Bayonne, of the 2 2d of July, inform-
IX. p. 783>; n g him, that a powerful fleet (1) was equipping in Cajlile
79'-> / 9+- f or f^g Dauphin's affiftance. Shortly after, he received
another from the Mayor of the fame town, acquainting
him, that Arragon had declared for the Dauphin ; that
the Cajlilians and Arragonians were now entered Beam,
Were ravaging the country about Bayonne, and feemed to
have a defign to befiege the town. The letter added fur-
ther, that the Cajlilian fleet was ordered to fail for Scot-
land, and tranfport from thence a body of troops into
France, to ferve under the Dauphin. On the other hand,
he could not doubt but the Flemings, who had refufed to
ferve the Duke of Burgundy againft France, would be rea-
dy to obey him, in defence of that kingdom. Notwith-
ftanding thefe fudden accumulated difficulties, he perfifted
in his firft refolution. He had even the aflurance, to offer
King Charles, as a fort of favour, that he would be con-
tented with what he had demanded at Meulant, on con-
dition Pontoife, which he had juft taken, were confirmed
to him. It is however undeniable, he fhould have been
greatly embarafled. When he undertook the war, he
depended upon the difTenfions of the French. And to thefe
diffentions was owing the eafe wherewith he had hitherto
conquered. Mean while, he faw himfelf obliged to un-
dertake, with an inconfiderable army, the cor.queft of a
kingdom, of which he yet poffeffed but a fmall part.
However, his good fortune, or rather the Dauphin's ani-
mofity againft the Duke of Burgundy, happily freed him
from this embaraffment.
The D«*phi» I n the interview between the Dauphin and the Duke
2?l{'7fBur- °^ B ur g un 'b'-' tne y agreed to meet again on the bridge of
gundy » be Montereau-Faut-Yonne, the 1 8th of Augujf, to confider

P. ^myl.
J. 10.
T. Livius.


Tit Fact ef



how to profecute the war againft the Englijh. The
Duke was extremely unwilling to go to the place appoint-
ed. He feemed to have a furmife of what was to bap-
pen. However, as a too great miftruft might have broke
his meafures, and rendred what had been done ineffectual,
he refolved to perform his engagement. Not to en-
ter into the particulars, mentioned in all the French hi-
flories, I fhall only fay, the Dauphin caufed the Duke to
be aftaffinated, on the very bridge chofen for their con-
ference. I fay, the Dauphin, whatever pains fome hi-
florians have taken to clear him. The deed was done
before his eyes, and at his feet, and he ftill kept the mur-
derers in his fervice, who were the chief officers of his
houfhold. This would be a fufficient proof of his guilt,
though there were no hiftorians faithful enough freely to
own it.

This accident fuddenly changed the face of affairs.
Probably the Duke of Burgundy, at the time of his death,
was well-affected to France. But Philip his Son and fuc-
ceffbr, fuffering himfelf to be tranfported with the defire
of revenging his Father's death, did not fcruple to ruin the
kingdom, in order to gratify his palfion. The fpeedieft
and moft effectual means to attain his ends, was to make
a league with the King of England, and Queen Ifabclla,
mortal enemy of the Dauphin her Son. Accordingly, all
, the reft of the year was fpent in fecret negotiations, which
ended at laft in putting the kingdom into the hands of
the Englijh. Mean wliile, the new Duke of Burgundy
held the poft enjoyed by the Duke his Father. That is,
being mafter of the King's perfon, he was confidered as
regent, by thofe who were not in obedience to the Dau-
Ti* Parifians Since the taking of Pontoife, the court of France was
ipt'y "> removed, by reafon of the continual inroads of the Eng-
lijh to the very gates of Paris. Mean while, the Pa-
rifians faw themfelves in manifeft danger. The Duke
of Burgundy being wholly engrafted by revenge, provided
not for the defence of Paris. Whereupon, the in-
habitants, juftly alarmed at fo dangerous a neighbour-
hood, thought it their duty to try to prevent their ruin,
by an agreement with Henry. There were feveral ne-
7V> dtain a gotiations, which ended in a feparate truce for Paris,
from the 20th, to the 25th, of November (2). This was
but fmall comfort to the Parifians : but as the treaty
between the King and the Duke of Burgundy was go-

Aft. Pub.
IX. p. 80


lb. p. 7+7


jhert truce,
p. 815.

ing to be concluded, they had no occafion for a longer 1415,
truce, fince they were to be included in the treatv. Be-
fides, Henry did not mean to deprive himfelf of the ad-
Vantage, which the neighbourhood of Pontoife gave him
upon the Parifians, in cafe the treaty he was negotiating
with the Duke of Burgundy, fhould be broken by fome
unforefeen accident. After the Duke of Burgundy's death,
couriers and envoys continually palled between the Kimr
and the new Duke. Henry refufed not to make the fame
alliance with him, as with the deceafed. But having
been deceived by the Father, he would not run the hazard
of being deceived by the Son. So, before he joined with
him againft the Dauphin, he refolved to fecure a peace
with King Charles (3).

At the congrefs of Meulant, Henry had limited his pre- Henry


Crovrr. of

tenfions to the articles of the treaty of Bretignv, with the
addition of Normandy. But though, after the breaking Fr
up of the conferences, he had made a fhew of keeping to
thefe terms without relaxation, it is to be fuppoled, if the
Duke of Burgundy's murder had not, very feafonably,
happened, he would have confiderably lowered his de-
mands. At leaft, the pofture of affairs would have left
him no room, to expect to compel France ever to grant
him fo great advantages. After the death of that Duke,
the fcene was changed in his favour. So, finding he was
earneftly courted by Queen Ifabclla, and the new Duke
of Burgundy, he did not queftion but it was in his power,
to impofe upon France what terms he pleafed. He forgot
therefore his offers at Meulant, and refumed his former
pretenfions to the crown of France, with the condition
that Charles IV, fhould be King during life. Thefe are
the articles he propofed as a foundation for peace.

I. That he fhould efpoufe the Princefs Catherine.
out any charge to her relations, or the Kingdom

With- Preliminary
Articles cf

II. That he would not difturb King Charles in the en- A k Pub.
joyment of the crown, or poffeiF.on of the revenues of the IX. p. 816,
Kingdom, during his life. That his Queen Ifabclla mould
likewife enjoy, during her life, the rights annexed to her

III. That after the death of King Charles, the crown
of France fhould defcend to the King of England and his
heirs for ever.

IV. That by reafon of King Charles's infirmity, which
rendered him uncapable to reign, the King of England
fhould take upon him the adminiftration of affairs, as re-
gent, during the life of the King his Father-in-law.

V. That the Princes, Nobles, Corporations, Burgefles,
i?Y. fhould take an oath to the King of England as Regent,
and bind themfelves by the fame oath to own him for So-
vereign after the death of King Charles.

VI. That for fecurity of the performance of thefe ar-
ticles, the King of France fhould give the King of England
his Letters Patents under his Great Seal. That he fhould
caufe the like letters of approbation to be given him bv the
Queen, the Duke of Burgundy, the Nobles, fcrV. in clear
and plain terms, as fhould be agreed by the parties.

VII. That the King of England would give and caufe
to be given the like letters.

Henry's pretenfions being thus fettled in thefe few funda- Aflmmd fy
mental articles, the Duke of Burgundy figned Letters Pa- "■' Dutt 'f
tents (4), whereby he approved of thefe articles as good, ^"p^
beneficial, reafonable, and tending to the welfare of France IX. p. S22.
and all Chrijlendom. This done, a general truce was Sl 'P u 2 5-
publifhed from the 24th of December to the ift of March
next. As foon as the affair concerning the peace was
ended, the plenipotentiaries of the King and the Duke of
Burgundy figned a private treaty of alliance, containing
thefe fix articles :

I. That one of the King's Brothers fhould marry a Treaty f, c .
Sifter (5) of the Duke of Burgundy. twem Henry

II. That the King and Duke fhould love and affift */^ fa ^£
one another like Brothers. fb. pX"/*

III. That they fhould jointly endeavour to punifh the Monftrckt.
Dawphin, and his accomplices in the late Duke of Bur-
gundy's murder.

IV. That if the Dauphin, or any of the murderers, were
taken prifoners, they fhould not be releafed without the
Duke of Burgundy's confent.

V. That the King of England fhould caufe to be af-
figned to the Duke, and his Dutchefs, Daughter of Kino-
Charles, Lands adjoining to his Demefns in France, of



(1) Of forty Sail. Rymer's Fa-J. Torn. IX. p. 783.

(2) From November 20, till December 4. This Truce was «onfirmed by the King at Rear,, December 2, and prolonged to the 12th of that month,
met s Feed. Tom. IX. p. 815.

(3) During the Tranfaflions in France 3 Parliament was held this Year on Ofleber 16, at jydmtrHer, which granted the King one Fifteenth and a
halt, and one Tenth and a half. Ret. Purl. 7 Her.. V, iV. i, 8. Ccttetit Abridr.

(4) Ar Arras, December 2. Rymer's Fcrd. tola. IX, p. 818.

(5) Rapin, by njiftake, fays Daughter.

P- 553'

Book XI.

14. HENRY V.



Aa- rub.

IX. p. 854,

The Truce
in order to
drain up the
Ibid. p. S52
Ss7> 863,

Articles pre-
liminary ap-
proved by
p. S 7 7-

Henry tain
the Title of
JCrne of
France on a
«ew Coin*

p. 890.

p. 894.

Henry tcmei
to Troye,
figns the
Treaty, and
p. 907.
T. Livius.

Treaty of
p. 896.

the yearly value of twenty thoufand Livres, to be held in
fee of the crown. That letters under the Great Seal
fhould be granted for that purpofe, which the King of
England fhould confirm, when in poUeflion of the Re-
gency (1).

VJ. That if any perfon hereafter, under colour of his
marriage with a daughter of France, fhould claim the like
alignment of Lands, the Duke fhould alTift the King to
the utmoft of his power to prevent it.

This treaty was ratified by the two Princes in the be-
ginning of January (2) 1420.

Though the peace was hot yet figned, it was looked
upon as concluded, fince the terms were agreed. Henry
was lb fecure of it, that January the 24th, that is, four
months before the figning of the treaty, he promiled by
his Letters Patents, to maintain the Parifians in their pri-
vileges when King of France.

Mean while, as it was neceffary to draw the articles
agreed in the molt exadt form, and to avoid all obfeure
and ambiguous expreffions, it required fome time ; this
occafioned the truce to be frequently prolonged. During
that time, Henry had ambaffadors at Troye, to draw up
the treaty of peace jointly with the Duke of Burgundy.
For the greater precaution, it was fiilt digefted like preli-
minary articles, that every one might examine what was
to be added, retrenched, or explained. This done, Charles
confirmed all the articles by his Letters Patents, dated
April the 9th. It is remarkable, that by the XXI, Henry
was to fwear, that upon no occafion whatever, during
the Life of King Charles, he would take upon him the
title of King ot France. And yet we find in the Col-
lection of the Pubhck Ails, one of his ordinances, dated
April 1 8, for coining new money in Normandy, with an
H on one fide, and thefe words round it • Sit Nomen
Domini Benediilum ; and on the other, Henricus Fran-
corum Rex- (3).

After the preliminaries were approved, an interview be-
tween the two Kings was agreed, for (Wearing and figning
the treaty. This interview was to be fomewhere near
Troye : But afterwards Henry confented it fhould be in
Troye itfelf. As King Charles was not fit to appear in
publick, the Queen and the Duke of Burgundy were em-
powered to fwear the peace in his name. Henry being
come to Troye (4), May the 20th, found there the King
of France, the Queen and the Princefs Catherine, to
whom he prefented a ring of great value. On the mor-
row, the treaty was figned and fworn with the ulual
formalities, and the fame Day Henry was affianced to the
Princefs, but the marriage was not confummated till the
2d of June. The fubftance of this famous treaty was as
follows :


" I. ' ■ "• H E King of England being now Son of the
« _f_ King of France, by his marriage with the

" Princefs Catherine, fhall honour the King and Queen
" of France, as his Father and Mother, &c.

" II. He fhall not dilturb the King of France during
" his life, in the quiet pofieffion of the royal dignity,
" and revenues of the crown. In like manner, Queen
" Ifabella, whilft fhe lives, fhall enjoy the royal dignity,
" with the rents, revenues, honours and prerogatives be-
" longing to the Queen of France.

" III. Queen Catherine fhall have for her dowry in
" England, forty thoufand crowns a year, as the Queens
" of that nation ufually had.

" IV. This dowry fhall be fo fettled upon her, that
" file may enjoy it from the day of the King her Huf-
" band's death.

" V. If fhe furvive the King her Husband, there fhall
" be paid to her out of France a yearly revenue of twenty
" thoufand Livres, to be railed upon the Lands belonging
" formerly to Queen Blanch, wife of Philip.

" VI. After the death of King Charles, the crown of
" France, with all its rights and dominions, fhall remain
" to the King of England and his heirs.

" VII. As the King of France is frequently rendered
" by his infirmity uncapable to reign, the King of Eng-
" land fhall from this day be Regent of the kingdom,
" and govern it according to Juftice and Equity, with the
" advice of the Princes, Peers, Barons, and Nobles of
" the kingdom.

" VIII. The Parliament of Paris fhall be maintained
in their jurifdi&ion over the pi ices fubjecl to the King.
" IX. The King of England fhall preferve the privi
leges, lights, liberties, immunities and cultoni, of the
Peers, Nobles, Communities, and of all the Kin ' .
lubjects in general.

" X. Juitice fhall be adminiftrcd according to the
laws, cuftoms and ufages of the realm.
" XI. All the offices, as weli civil as military, fhall be
filled with perlbns duly qualified, according to the lan i
of the realm.

" XII. The King of England fhall endeavour to the
utmoft of his power, to reduce to the obedience of the
King, all the provinces, cities, and tow ns, which have
withdrawn their allegiance, and joined the party, com-
monly called the Dauphin's or Armagnac's.
" XIII. AH the Princes, Peere, Baronsj Nobles,

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