M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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vance. We/f. p. 404. Fabian.

(9) There w;r: Ome fent foon after King Henry \ Co.onation, miss. Afrit lb. 141;. Ry.<c\Fotd. Tom- 9. p. ', 6.


S 28


AS- Pub.
JX. p. 299.
302, 303,


r . 3+1

lb. p. 791

Ad. Pub.
X. p. 125.

lb- p. 15.

lie King
returns to

lb. p. 10S,
J 16, 127,


them fome feeming fatisfaaion, the Regent publickly and was necefiary. He failed the 10th of June with a new- 142,,

earneftly demanded the liberty of" the King his nephew, railed army (2), amounting, as fome fay, to four thou- ^'""s-

But Henry knew he mould not oblige him in granting his (and Men at arms, and twenty-four thoufand Archers. ^°£*„.

When he arrived at Calais, he fent feveral detachments Elmhsmi
to take fome caftles, the Dauphin fiiil held in Picardy.
At the fame time, lie ordered a confiderable body to
march to the Duke of Exeter's relief, who was almoft
blocked up in Paris. Then marching himfelf with the
reft of the army, he came to Beit de I 'incomes, fiom
whence he went and joined his Father-in-law at Paris.

A few days after, he heard the Dauphin was before r '^ Dau -
Chartres, and began to batter the town. As he defired cha tS r "
nothing lb earneftly as to decide the quarrel by a battle, but retires
he immediately aflembled his troops, and marched direct- "t m _ Henry';
ly to Chartres. But his forces were fo fuperior, that the """"&•
Dauphin did not think lit to expect him. Henry purfued Henry takes
him with all poffible fpeed, but rinding he could not over- Dreux.
take him, attacked Dreux, which furrendered upon terms ^l "^""'

t ■ • • 1 1 ■ 1 - r tt • Elmhsm.

(3). It is laid, that during this liege, a Hermit came
and boldly reproached him with the calamities brought on
France by his ambition, and threatened him with the
judgments of God. Some add, that Henry's death, which
happened the next year, fliowed the Hermit to be infpired.
But fuch confequences are not always juft.

After the fiege of Dreux, the army being feized with He return
the flux, Henry lent his troops into Summer-quarters, and % P i r f"
refrefhed himfelt at Paris. He re-aflembled them in Meaux.
October, in order to befiege •Meaux, though the feafon
was not very proper for fuch an undertaking. Mezerai,
and fome others, arc miftaken in faying, this fiege was
laid before the King went to England. It is certain, it
was not begun till four months after his return (4). The
fame hiftorian fays further, this place held out three """p 1 ^"'
months, but he f.iould have laid foven, fince the fiege be- x. p. 212.
gan the 6th of October 14; 1, and ended not till the ;d of
May 14:2. It is true, as the town was divided into two
parts; namely, the town and the Market-place (5), the
firft was taken by ftorm during the winter ; but the Mar-
ket-place held out till May (6).

Whilft the King was employed in the fiege of Meaux, Binhof
he received the agreeable news of his Queen's being fafely Pr > na
delivered at Windfor, of a Prince (7), who was named vvalifne.
Henry. The Duke of Bedford, and the Biftiop of Win- T. Livius.
chejier ftoou godfathers, and Jaquelina countefs of Hai- Cm ^fi °f
nauh, godmother. This Princefs, who had united under a^XgW-
her dominion, Hainault, Holland, Zeland, and Frifc- mother.
land, was married firft to John Duke of Touraine, fe- '4 Z2 «
cond Son of the King of France. This Prince dying in
1 41 6, fhe efpoufed John Duke of Brabant, Coufin-Ger-
man to the Duke of Burgundy. She foon grew weary Her Advn-
of her fecond husband, and under colour of their being '"res.
too nearly related, formed a defign to have the marriage
annulled. For that purpofe, fhe procured fome Knights
to carry her away, and convey her into England, in or-
der to act more freely. This pretended rape, was no Aft. Pub.
fecret to the King, fince we find in the Collection of the x l v ' ( ' 1 '
Publick Ails, a fate conduct for this Princefs. Befides, ' i
at her arrival in England, the King afligned her a month-
ly penfion of a hundred pounds Sterling. His intent
was, to marry her to the Duke of Glocejler, and by that
means, put his Brother in pofTeffion of four of the no-
bleft Provinces of the Lovj-Countries. The Duke of Bur-
gundy was extremely offended, at the King's difregard
for the Duke of Brabant his coufin, in giving Jaquelina
a refuge in his dominions. This affront, in his opinion,
reflected upon himfelf. Befides, it was his intereft, that
Jaquelina's marriage with the Duke of Brabant, fhould
not be annulled. Mean while, Henry preferring the Duke
of Glocejler 's intereft, to the Duke of Burgundy's, did not
feem much to mind the occafion of complaint given that

Henry was exceeding defirous of advancing his two The King
Brothers, who were both Princes of great merit, and f">j' a f
with whom he was well pleafed. In 141 9, there w as , r " / '^".
a fecret negotiation between him and Joan Queen dithers.
Naples, whe being prefled by her enemies, promifed to lb -P-
adopt the Duke of Bedford, and declare him her fole heir. 7 ° 5 '
This project failing, upon Queen Joan's affairs taking
a new turn, Henry would have obtained for the Duke

enry ..
demand. On the contrary, the difficulties he railed in
this affair, were a fure means to prevent diverfions from

the Scots. .

In 1 41 5, whilft Henry was preparing to pafs into
France, he received advice from the Northern Frontiers,
that the Scots were refolved to befiege Berwick, with fixty
thoufand Men ; whereupon the Duke of Bedford had or-
ders to levy an army. But it does not appear, either
that the Scots did then befiega Berwici, or the Duke of
Bedford marched againft them. The EngliJIi hiftorians
fay, the King, upon the above-mentioned advice, called
a council, to deliberate, whether it was proper to rehn-
quifh the intended project againft France, and heartily ap-
ply to the conqueft of Scotland, and that it was refolved
the firft defign lhould be purfued (1). This may be, but,
very probably, the King was then agreed with the Duke
of Albany ; and the rumour of the invafion, and the meet-
ing of the council in England, was only to make the
people of Scotland believe, the Regent acted with fince-
rity. And indeed, we do not find in the hiftory of Scot-
land any figns of fo confiderable an armament, in the
year 141 J, or of a relblution to befiege Berwici. Be-
fides, that very year a truce was concluded between the
two kingdoms, whilft all Henry's forces were employed
in Fra?ue. In fhort, Buchanan affirms, it cannot be faid,
that during the whole reign of Henry V, there was any
war between England and Scotland; all the hoftilities be-
ing nothing elfe but mere robberies. He alleges as a rea-
fon, that the Duke of Albany took care not to difoblige
the King of England, for fear the King of Scotland fhould
be rcleafed. Henry was however afraid, it would not al-
ways be in the Regent's power to keep the Scots quiet,
who were fo much concerned to prevent the ruin of
Prance. It was doubtlefs from this confideration, that in
141 6, he gave King James leave to pafs fome time in his
own kingdom, having taken fecurity for his return. He
" hoped this journey would create between the Uncle and
Nephew fuch diflentions, as would divert the Scots from
all thoughts of a/lifting France.

The "affairs of Scotland continued in this pofture till
1 41 9, when the Dauphin fent thither the Duke of Fen-
dome to defire affiftance. The States being met upon this
occafion, the Regent could not hinder the decreeing a

T.X.p.12'5. levy of feven thoufand Men, which were fent into


France under the command of the Earl of Buchan.
victory that General gained over the Duke of Clarence at
Bouse, procured him the fword of Conftable of France.

Henry could not without concern fee the Scots declare fo
openly for the Dauphin. He perceived, either that the
Duke of Albany had not the fame credit as formerly, or
had altered his maxims. Wherefore, to break the mea-
fures of the Dauphin's adherents in Scotland, he believed
it necefiary to gain the King of Scotland to his intereft,
and make him his inftrument. This was partly his de-
fign in returning to England. Upon his arrival, he in-
timated to that Prince, that it was his own fault if he was
not at liberty, on condition he would ufe his authority to
recall his Subjects, who were in the fervice of France,
and join witli him againft the Dauphin. James paffio-
nately longing to be free, after a fifteen years captivity,
very readily complied with Henry's defires. A private
agreement therefore was made between thefe two Princes,
the articles whereof are unknown, except one, which
was, that James fhould go into France, and ftay with
Henry, until the end of the war. Henry's aim was to
interpofe the King of Scotland's authority, to oblige the
feven thoufand Scots in the Dauphin's fervice to return
home. Accordingly, James attended him into France
for that purpofe. But when he commanded the Earl of
Buchan to return into Scotland, the Earl replied, he did
not think himfelf bound to obey him, fo long as he was
in the power of others. For that reafon, Henry from
thenceforward treated as rebels, all the Scots that fell into
his hands.

Henry having finifhed the affairs which called him in-
to England, left his Queen there, great with Child ; and

appointing the Duke of Bedford, his Brother, Regent in of Bedford, the only daughter of Frederic Burgrave of
his abfence, returned into France, where his prefence Nuremberg, and afterwards, a daughter of the Duke of

(1) Ralph Neville E^rl of WcftmorcIanJ, and Lord Prefidcnt of the North, made a long Harangue, to perfuade the King to difable the Scots, before he
ca> tied the war into France. But John Duke of Exeter, the King's Uncle, replied to the Earl, and was feconded by the Dukes ot Clarence, Bedjord, and
Glocejler \ upon which the war with France was refolved. Duck in <uit. Cbich. p. 14, «c. ^

(2) Tor the payment of which, he borrowed Money of the molt conhderable Perfons in England. Ryntcr s Feed. Tom. 10. p. 96, Sec.

(3) Angufi 7.0. Monflrelet, lol. 313.

1 4.) jwyenal J.s Urfir.s, in his Hiftory of Charles VI, led Mezerai into this Error. Rapm.

(5) Where the Caftle ftood, on the Top of a Rock.

(0) During the King's Abfence, John Duke of Bedford, Rc S cnt of the Kingdom, fummoned a Parliament, which met at Weflmmfter, Deeemb. I, and
granted to the King a Fifteenth. M'alj. p. 406. Rot. Far!. 9 Hem 5. M, J, The Convocation, which met at York, on Septenitr 21, had granted him
a Tenth. Rot. Fin. 9. Hen. 5. At. II.

r) He was born December 6, M-'alftng. p. 406,



Book xr.



IX. p. 716,


14:2. Lorra'm. At the fame time, he treated of a Marriage be-
tween the Duke oWlocefler, and Blanch of Navarre, Queen
Dowager of Sicily, who had pretenfions to that Kingdom.
In fine, an opportunity offering to procure for this Prince,
jacquelina Countefs of Hainault, lie readily embraced it, as
this Marriage could not but be advantagious to England.
But, as her Marriage with the Duke of Brabant was firft
to be annulled, this Affair could not be accomplifhed be-
fore the King's Death.
T ""*'" g I £ was not t'll the beginning of May (1) 1422, that
A3. Pu£' tne Befieged of the Market-PIace of Meaux, defired to
X. p. 212. Capitulate, hut they could obtain no other Capitulation,
3;' L '. v ' v tnan t0 ^ e Prifoners of War. The King even excepted
acwrityn a " c ' !e E n sbfl>i Irifoi and Scots, who were in the Place,
tgeil, and all that were concerned in the Death of the Duke
M Relet °^ burgundy ; and moreover, all thofe who had any
G'mham. Towns or Caftles in their Power, till they were furren-
dered. In fine, he referved four Officers of the Garri-
fon, namely, Lewis du Guajl , Dennis de Vaurus, the
Baftard of Vaurus, and another, to be proceeded againft
according to the Juftice of the Laws. They were all
four executed. Du Guajl was beheaded, and the other
three fuflered a more ignominious Death. The Bafiard
of Vaurus was hanged on a certain Tree, from him
called the Tree of Vaurus, becaufe he had hanged on
it many Burgundians, in revenge for the Death of the
Earl of Armagnac. This was a fevere Capitulation,
which gave the Befieged Caufe to repent of their Obfti-
nacy, when probably, they had no profpect of being re-
lieved (2).
tmcrctulnt' About the time of the furrender of Meaux (■},), Queen
n France. Catherine arrived from England, attended by the Duke
Waifing. f Bedford, who had left the Regency to the Duke of
X. v- 171 Gkcejler hi.; Brother. The two Courts joining at Bsis de
175, 201. Vineennes, went from thence foon after, to keep the
Tie tm> Jj'hitfitn Holidays at Paris. Henry lodged in the Louvre,
tt p ar j,_ and Charles in the Palace of St. Pel, where he had but
Monftrelet. a fmall Court, whilft the Regent-King's was numerous
and fplendid. On JVhitfunday they dined together in pub-
lick, the two Kings and the two Queens, with Crowns
on their Heads. Thofe of the French, who had any
Regard left for their Country, could not without Grief
behold the King of England, though paying an outward
Deference to the King his Father-in-law, ruling France
f £"" C "" with ?.n abfolute Power. Their Difcontent was ftill
Art. Pub. increafed by a Tax (4), impofed by Henry, for coining
X. p. <8,S-. a n e w fort of Money. The Pariftans loudly murmured,
Monftrelet. ^ tQ nQ p Ur p f e# Their Condition was very different,
from what it was a few Years before , when their
Adherence to one of the Parties decided the Fate of
U Dau- Whilft Henry was preparing to renew the Campain,
{-^i^'^.j interrupted by the Queen's Arrival, News came, that the
ttjiegei Dauphin had taken la Charite, which opened him a Paf-
K.' 1 "- - fage over the Loire. Shortly after, Advice was brought,

Le Feme, that he was befieging Cofnc upon the fame River, and
T. Linus, the Befieged had capitulated to furrender, unlefs relieved
Elmrmm. by t]ie jy^e of Burgundy before the 1 8th of Augujl. The
Duke finding his Honour engaged to relieve that Place,
defired the King to fend him a Re-inforcement ; to which
the 'King anfwered, he would come himfelf, and accor-
dingly began immediately to march at the Head of his
Th fSvg Army. But, whilft he was pleafing himfelf with the
Walfine. hopes of a Victory, that would render him Mafter of all
Monftrelet. France, he was feized with a Flux (5), which obliged him
T. Linus. t0 ft a y at Sen/is. However, for fear his Ulnefs fhould
hinder Cojne from being relieved, he ordered the Duke of
Bedford, with the beft Part of his Troops (6), to join the
Th-Dauphin J) u ke of Burgundy. The Dauphin hearing of their Junc-
tion, and being too weak to give them Battle, retired,
and the two Dukes, having nothing more to do there,
Henry gat marched towards Troye. Mean time, Henry, hoping his
ncenucs. j)[ft em p er wou ]d we ar off, after refting a little at Senlis,
had taken Litter, in order to go and head the Army. But
his Ulnefs ftill increafing, he refolved at length to return
to Vineennes.

The Duke of Bedford, hearing of the State the King 1432.
was in, departed immediately from Troye, to come to him.
He found him at the Point of Death, but expecting his
approaching Diffolution with great Firmnefs. Before he
refigned his laft Breath, he fent for the Dukes of Bedford
and Exeter, the Earl of IVarwiek, with feven or eight
Englijl) Lords, to give them his laft Inftructions. He ""<'•<-;
told them, " His Reign had been fhort, but glorious 1 / ,
though his Pretenfions to France had caufed a great Lc Fcvre.
" effiifion of Blood, it could not be laid to his Charge,
" fince nothing but Force could have induced the French
" to a reafonable Peace. For his part, he beheld the ap-
" proach of Death without Concern ; but could not help
" lamenting the Fate of the Prince his Son, who, by
" rcafon of his Age, was uncapable of finifhing a Work fo
" happily begun : Wherefore he conjured them, for God's
" Sake, to remain in ftrict Union, for the Service of
" the Infant Prince, who was going to be their King ; to
" take care of his Education, and to give the Queen all
" the Confolation that lay in their Power, and for which
" fhe had fo great Occafion. He added, his laft Advice
" to them was, to cultivate diligently the Duke of Bur-
" gundy's Friendftiip, and to take care not to relcafe the
" Prifoners of Azincourt, till his Son was of Age to hold
" the Reins of the Government himfelf. In cafe they
" thought proper to conclude a Peace, it fhould not be,
" without fecuring the Sovereignty of Normandy to the
" Crown of England. He concluded with faying, it was
" his defire, the Duke of Bedford fhould take upon him
" the Adminiftration of the Affairs of France, and the Duke
" of Glocejier be Protector of England, during his Son's
" Minority.

Having fpoken thefe Words, he asked the Phyficians fli'i Snail.
how long they thought he had to live. Upon which, one "J' "' ,h ' .
of them faid, kneeling, with Tears in his Eyes, that with-^!"' *
out a Miracle, he could not live above two Hours. This Monftrelet.
terrible Sentence giving him no manner of Concern, he p - dc Fcr " n "
fent for his Confeflbr, and having made his Confeilion,
ordered his Chaplains to read the feven penitential Pfalms.
When they came to thefe Words of the 5 1 ft, Build thou lit iedam
the Walls of Jerufalem, he interrupted them, and declared, f^' s ""j'l
" upon the Truth of a dying Prince, that, after hav- araitift ttt
" ing fettled a firm Peace in France, he really intended bfJth.
" to wage War upon the Infidels, for the recovery of
" ferufalem out of their Hands." The Moment they #e An.
had finifhed their Devotion, this great Prince expired on
the 31ft of Augufl, in the thirty-fourth Year of his Age, Art. Pub.
after a triumphant Reign of nine Years, five Months, and x - f *£'»
eleven Days. His Body was brought into England, and" 5
buried at JVeflminfler among his Anceftors, with a Fu-
neral Pomp fuitable to the Grandeur he enjoyed whilft
alive, and to the Efteem conceived of him by his Subjects.
His Queen, to honour, in a particular manner, the Me-
mory of fo illuftrious a Spoufe, caufed to be laid on his
Tomb, a Statue of Silver gill, as large as the Life, and
extremely like him (7).

If, to know this Monarch's Character, we follow, chattier ef
without Examination, the Praifes beftowed on him by the H" 11 ? v -
Authors of his Nation, we muff imagine him the moft
accomplifhed Prince that ever appeared in the World
before him. Not an Engli/h Hiftorian afcribes to him the Waifing,
leaft Defect, but all unanimoufly fpeak of him as a perfect
Hero. On the other hand, the French have endeavoured
to fhade his Portraiture with certain Strokes, that, fully the
Luftre. It will be neceffary therefore, in order to form a
juft Idea of him, to confider his Actions with their Cir-
cumftances, independently of the Admiration of the one,
and the Envy of the other.

In the firft Place, with refpect to the Government of
his own Kingdom, he ought not to be denied his due
Praife; for, avoiding to tread in the Steps of Richard II,
and even of his own Father, he conftantly forbore to
incroach on the Liberties and Privileges of the People.
His readinefs at all times to give the Royal Affent to fuch
Adts, as the Parliament judged neceffary for the Welfare
of the Kingdom, was a clear Evidence of his regard for

(1) May 2. Rymer's Teed, Tom. X. p. 212.

(2) In this Siege were killed Richard Bcauchamp Earl of Worthier, and the Lord Clifford. The laft was brought over and buried in the Church of the
Canons of Bolton in Craven, Yorkjloirc. Goodwin, p. 325.

(3) In April. JValfmphatn, p. 406.

(+) Called in Rynur't. Feed. Marks of Silver. But what the Number of them was, or on what they were laid on, is not mentioned. See Tom. X.
p. 3 S, 85.

(5) J. des Urfim, and ether French Hiftorians, fay, that he died of a Flux accompanied with the Piles. Monftrelet fays, it was a St. Antony's Firt.
According to fynl/ingbcrm, through the Haidlhips and Fatigue he underwent, he contrarted an acute Fever, attended with a Dyfentery. But Fcur Bajfel,
Who was his Chamberlain at the time of his Death, affirmb he died of a Pleurify. See Gccd'.oin, p. 337.

(6) And w.th Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, Edmur.d Mortirr.cr, Earl of March, Richard Btauthamp, Earl of Warwick, tec. Ifalfinghan, p. 406.
(7J He was interred at the Feet of Edward the CorfcJJlr, in a little Chapel, fince enlarged and beautified with ftveral Statues, and fenced with two Irca

Crates, by Hcr.ry VII. On his Tomb of grey Marble, ererted by his Queen, was placed a Royal Image of Silver gilt; but about the latter end of Hcr.ry VIII,
the Head (being of malTy Silver) was broken off, and conveyed away with the Plates of Silver that covered his Trunk, which now only remains of b^ait of
Oak i and his Epitaph defaced, which was but thefe two filly Verfes.

Dux Normannorum, verus Conqueftor eorum,
Heres Francorum deceffit, et Heftor eorum.

The prefent Head is fupplied from an original Picture at JVlinha.".

No. 27. Vot. I.

6 S



Vol. I.

1422. the Good and Happinefs of his People. Nevertheless, in
this very Thing he was guilty of Excefs, fince, contrary
to his own Inclination, and the dictates of his Reafon, he
confented to the Perfecution of the Lollards, out of pure
Condefcenfion to the Clergy. Indeed, it was almoft im-
poffible, that, being endued with an excellent Judgment,
he fhould not perceive the groundleffhefs of the Accufa-
tions againft them, in the beginning of his Reign. And
yet, rather than publickly retract, he ftill feigned to be-
lieve it true, at the very time when he pardoned fome
condemned Perfons, who perflated in a denial of the pre-
tended Crime.

But it is not chiefly for what he acted in England,
that Hiftorians have been fo lavifh of their Praifes; his
warlike Exploits are the principal Subject of his Pane-
gyrick. And yet, to fpeak without Aggravation, he was,
perhaps, in no refpect lefs remarkable, notwithftanding the
glorious Succefs that attended his Arms. The Conqueft
of France, confidered in itfelf, has fomething grand and
marvellous. But the Defcription of the Affairs of that
Kingdom, renders it, doubtlefs, not fo wonderful, as it
appears, when abftracted from all its Circumftances.
Lewis VIII, Father of St. Lewis, conquered England in
a like Juncture, and yet no one ever thought folely to
afcribe the Conqueft to his Wifdom or Valour. Henry
projected his Enterprize, at a time when the Civil Dif-
fenfions of the French, rendered them unable to defend
themfelves. The Towns he took, were defended only by
the Befieged themfelves, without any Army ever appear-
ing to relieve them. However, fome of thefe Places
flopped him feveral Months, and were furrendered only
by Famine.

The Battle of Azincourt is then the great, and almoft
fole warlike Exploit, which can juitly afford Matter for
Panegyrick. In this famous Action, he gave Proofs of an
uncommon Conduct, Refolution, and Bravery. But this
very Battle, the Succefs whereof was fo glorious, gives
likewife occafion to tax him with Imprudence. It may
be faid, that, if he was victorious, it was, becaufe he had
reduced himfelf to an abfolute Neceflity, of vanquishing
or dying ; to which a General never expofes himfelf,
whatever the Event may be, without caufing his Conduct
to be feverely cenfured. His undertaking to retire to Ca-
lais, without forefeeing the difficulties of the March, and
without being fecura of a PafTage over the Somme ; his
Wilfulnefs in refolving to pafs that River, in order to force
his way through an Army, fo fuperior in Number to his
own, feem excufable, only by the Succefs of the Battle
of Azincourt, which was a fort of Miracle. Had he been
vanquifhed, as he ftiould naturally have been, he would
have been infallibly charged with Indifcretion or Rafti-
nefs. The Neceffity he was reduced to, during his March,
if we may believe the French Hiftorians, of offering to
reftore Harf.eur, and repair the Damages he had caufed
to France, lhews, how much he himfelf was convinced
of his Error. This Battle therefore was more glorious
for him, on account of his perfonal Valour, than with re-
gard to his military Capacity. It mull be confefled, never
did Prince expofe himfelf more in a Battle, and give
more fignal Proofs of true Valour, than did Henry in that

As for his other Conquefts in France, I do not know,
whether his greateft Admirers have reafon to wilh he had
met with more oppofition. What might have happened

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