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in that cafe, is beyond human Knowledge. It cannot
however be denied, that the Victory of Azincourt pre-
pofleffes us in his favour. But what may be extolled in
him, without danger of being deceived, is the Excellency
of his Genius, and the Solidity of his Judgment. He
knew how to manage the great Undertaking he had
formed, with wonderful Addrefs, wifely improving the
feveral Revolutions in France, and making them all turn to
his Advantage. Few Princes would have ftopped like him,
after fo glorious a Victory as that ot Azincourt, and prefer-
red a repofe, which, though feemingly lefs glorious than
the Continuation of the War, was in reality to him more
advantagious. This Policy, in my Opinion, is one of the
brighteft Paflages of his Life, and beft lhews the found-
nefs of his Judgment. His Negotiations with the Dauphin,
and the Duke of Burgundy at the fame time, and his In-
ftructions to his AmbafTadors, are plain Indications of his
Abilities, and how difficult it was to deceive him.

It is not very ftrange, that the profperous Succefs of
his Undertakings, fhould gain him extraordinary Praifes
from the Nation, efpecially, as it cannot be denied, that
this Succefs was no lefs owing to his prudent Conduct,
than to favorable Junctures. In general, he forced the
French to own him for Regent and Heir of their King-
dom. And this is one of thofe Actions, which feldom

fail of being praifed beyond Meafure. Accordingly, Hi- 1422,
ftorians have not been fatisfied with comparing him to
David, Alexander, and C&far, but have ranked him
above thefe great Men. But however, without going fo
far for Comparifons, which, after all, feem not very juft,
methinks he might, with more reafon, be put in Parallel
with Edward III, his Great Grandfather. However, I
fhould hardly fcruple to give the Preference to Edward.
Edw/ird had to deal with all France united againft him,
and the difficulties he encountered in his Conquefts, were
incomparably greater, and required an abler Head to fur-
mount them, than thofe which oppofed the Progrefs of
Henry V.

What I have been faying of this Prince, properly re-
lates only to his principal Action, namely, his War with
France. I fhall now defcribe his other Qualifications ;
which, though not fo glaring, are no lefs worthy of Ad-
miration, than the glorious SuccefTes, which have almoft
wholly engrolYed the attention of the Publick. It is cer-
tain, he had all the Endowments of Body and Mind re-
quilite to form a great Man. His Stature was tall and
majeftick, though a little too {lender, and long-necked.
His Hair was Black, and his Eyes, of the fame Colour,
were exceeding lively. He was ftrong and robuft, very
expert in all bodily Exercifes, chafte, temperate, at Ieaft
after he came to the Crown, inured to Hardfhips, and
patient of Hunger and Thirft, Heat and Cold. In all
this he was a {landing Example to his Troops, of Mode-
ration and Conftancy. He was a great lover of Juftice,
following it himfelf, and caufing it to be punctually ob-
ferved. Religious without Difguifc, perfevering in Piety,
and conftant in his private, as well as public Devotions ;
a great Protector of the Church and Clergy ; he won by
thefe Qualities, the Efteem and Affectien of the Eccle-
fiafticks, who did not a little contribute to heighten the
Luftre of his Glory. He was prudent in Council, bold
in undertaking, and refolute in executing. As for his Va-
lour, he gave continual Proofs of it through the whole
Courfe of his Life. There is another thing likewife, for
which he ought to be praifed. He caufed military Difci-
pline to re-flourifti, which was almoft entirely neglected
in England, fince the Reign of Edward III. Never did
the Englijh Nation fhine with fuch Luftre, as under this
renowned Prince. To this may be added, he was fo for-
tunate, as to end his Days in the midft of his Profperity,
and not fee, with Edivard III, the Fruits of all his La-
bours deftroyed.

Having related what is faid by the Englijh, to this
Prince's Advantage, the faithfulneis of an Hiftorian re-
quires, that fome Failings, caft upon him by the French,
and aggravated perhaps by Malice and Envy, are not
pafled over in Silence. In the firft Place, they tax him
with Cruelty, and making War in a barbarous Manner.
They ground this Charge, not only upon the Slaughter
of the Prifoners at the Battle of Azincourt, but alfo upon
his putting to death feveral Officers, after the taking of
Caen, Melun, and Meaux. But as to the Prifoners of
Azincourt, there is no doubt, but the Maxims of War,
and the Neceffity of providing for his own Safety, will
juftify his Orders upon that account, fuppofing they were
not too hafty. As for his treatment of the Burghers and
Garrifons of the conquered Places, I confefs, it is not
impoffible, but he might be fomething fwayed by Re-
venge, by reafon of the Time thefe brave Men made
him lofe ; but this can only be faid by Conjecture. That
he ufed Severity towards fome is certain, but his Motives
are unknown. To difcufs fuch Facts, more Circum-
ftances are required, than are come to our Knowledge.
However, with regard to thofe of Meaux, they are known
to have incurred the Guilt of feveral Murders, for which,
doubtlefs, they deferved to be punifhed. It was neither
unjuft nor barbarous, to hang the Bajlard ofVaurus, on
the fame Tree, whereon he himfelf had hanged all the
Duke of Burgundy 's Adherents, that fell into his Hands.
For the other three, executed at the fame time, I know
not the Reafon ; but it is to be prefumed, they were not
capricioufly chofen from all the reft of the Garrifon, to
be Inftances of the Severity of the Conquerors. As for
the Englijh and Irijl), who were in the Service of his
Enemies, their being excepted in the Capitulation, needs
no Apology. It were to be wiftied, for Han's Reputation,
that he could be as eafily juftified, in refilling to give quar-
ter to the Scots, on pretence, they would not obey their
King, who was actually his Prifoner.

The French accufe moreover this Prince of exceflive Monltrcfet.
Pride, even to the caufing, as they allure us, the Marlhal P- dc Rn ' : '•
de I'ljk-Adam to be committed to the Bajiile, for daring
to look in his Face when fpeaking to him (1). It is true,
if he had no other Reafon, this was a high Strain of


(1) King llwy, who. had little Efteem for him, did net treat him with fuck Favour as he fhewed to the other Officers, as appeared upon oc-
caiivn of ta; Maiihai'i. coinine, to him one Day tor inductions ; His M<ydty feein him in a very plain Can, laid to him in Raillery, ll-ir, J- 1! V-

i. Adam,

Book XL

14. H E N R Y V.



Haughtinefs and Rigour. But can it be denied , that a
Look, a bare Gefture, may be fometimes very offenfive ?
And who knows but the Marfhal, as he fpoke, ufed fome
ao;eravating Circumftance, or rafh Expreffion, which ren-
drcd him worthy of Chaftifement, and which has been
induftrioufly concealed, to make the King's AcStion appear
the more odious ?

Avarice is another Failing, wherewith he is confidently
reproached. It is pretended, that after he was declared
Recent and Heir of France, he was never bountiful, either
to any of the Burgundian Party, who had fcrved him,
or to thofe of the Dauphin's, who voluntarily fubmittcd
to him. I fliall not undertake to clear him from this
Charge, as it does not appear that he was very liberal to
the Englijh themfelves, who ferved him, whether by rea-
fon of his great Expence, or, becaufe he was otherwife
inclined. Though he had many good Officers, and ex-
cellent Generals, we do not find, that he rewarded them
according to their Merit and Services. We muft how-
ever, except the Earl of Dorfet, to whom he affigned a
Aft. Pub. Penfion of a thoufand Pounds a Year, when he created
IX. p. 319. him Earl of Exeter; Fajhlff, to whom he gave a confi-
derable Eflate near Hat-flew, the Captal of Buck, of the
Houfe of Foix, who had the Lordfhip of Longueullle ; and
the Earl of Salisbury, to whom he gave the Earldom of
Perche. But after all, very poffibly, Henry's want of li-
berality was thp Effect of his Prudence. I have obferved,
that the Revenue of the Crown amounted but to Fifty-
fix thoufand Pounds, and that he was forced to pawn his
Jewels, to fupply what the Sums, granted him by Parlia-
ment, wanted to defray the Charges of the War. Was
it proper to appear liberal in fuch Circumftances ? Upon
many occafions, it were to be wifhed , Sovereigns would
moderate their Bounties, which are, but too often, at the
Expence of the poor People.

Laftly, An unbounded Ambition is a Failing, which
the French think may juftly be laid to his Charge. To
know whether this Accufation be well-grounded, it fhould
be examined, whether he was in the right to renew, or
rather to continue, a War againft France, occafioned by

P . 7 6 5 .

P- 739-

her Breach of the Treaty of Bretigny, and begun by her- 1422.
felf. But this Enquiry would be needlefs, after what has
been faid upon this Subject: in the Reign of Edward III,
to which recourfe may be had. However it cannot be
denied, that Henry was very ambitious. His firit Project
was only to reftorc the Peace of Bretigny. But when he
faw a poflibility of mounting the Throne of France, his
Ambition carried him beyond the Bounds prefcribed by
himfelf in the beginning of the War. I have taken no-
tice of his Intent, to make one of his Brothers King of
Naples, and the other of Sicily, and of his ufing, cer-
tainly, no very honorable means to procure the Duke of
Glocejler four Provinces of the Law-Countries. We find Aft. Pub.
in the Colleltion of the Publick Ails, he had a defign to x ' * ' 43 '
purchafe the Duchy of Luxemburgh of the Emperor Sigif- ' 44 ' I45 '
mund, and to treat with him concerning his pretended
Claim to Dauphine. In fine, it farther appears, he would
have paid the Ranfom of a Lord of the Houfe of Blois ( 1 ),
Prifoner to the Marquifs of Baden, probably, to aflert one
Day the Pretenfions of that Houfe to the Duchy of Bre-

By Catherine of France his Queen , Henry left but one &> Iff"-
Son of his own Name, about eight or nine Months old.
The Queen his Widow, forgetting (he had been Wife of
fo great a Prince, and was defcended from the moft illu-
ftrious Houfe of Europe, married fome time after, Owen
Tudor, a Weljh Gentleman, not without giving great
Offence both to the Englijh and French. It is pretended,
this Gentleman was defcended from the antient Kings of
Wales, but I do not know whether this Defcent be well
proved (2). Owen Tudor had by the Queen three Sons,
namely, Edmund, Jafper, and Owen (3). The eldeft
married Margaret, only Daughter of John Beaufort Duke
of Somerfet, Grandfon of John of Gaunt Duke of Lan-
caftcr, and Catherine Roet his third Wife. He was Father
of Henry VII, whom we fliall fee hereafter mount the
Throne, and leave it to his Pofterity.

Charles VI, King of France, furvived Henry but two
Months. The Death of thefe two Monarchs is going to
open a Scene very different from what we have feen (4).

Adam, 15 this the Garb of a Marjbal of France ? To which he replied with an Air of Confidence, That he bad it made to wear in the Boat which bought
him down trje Seine. The Anfwer was difpleafing from the manner of delivering it, and King Henry was provoked to fay, Tou are too rude in your Beha-
viour, Sir; bout dare you look on a King in that bold manner? Sir, replied the Maifhal, It is the Fajhion of my Country, where, if one Man [peak to an-
ctber, though the greatcft on Earth, with a dotuncajl Lo.k, we think him confeious of fame Bafenefs or Guilt. Your Cufloms, faid the King, are very different
from ours. The next Year, the Marihal was difplaced from his Office, and committed dole Prifoner by the King's Order, for fome Milcarriagcs. Ivlon-
Jlrelct. P. de Fenin. Goodwin, p. 280.

(1) The Lord Oliver de Blois, Count of Pointers. Rymer's Feed. Tom. X. p. 145.

(2) It is likewife faid, he was the Son of a Brewer : But the meannefs of his Extraction was made up by the Delicacy of bis Pcrfon, being reckoned
the handfomeft Man of his Time.

(3) And a Daughter that died an Infant.

(4) King Henry, among other Works of Magnificence and Charity, rebuilt the Royal Palace of Shene, now called Richmond; and the Caftle of Kenet-
worth. He alfo founded the Fraternity of St. Giles without Cripplegate, London, befides other Monasteries mentioned above. TValfing. p. 387. Stow'a

Ann. p. 362 It was alfo this King that firft inftituted Garter King at Arms, and made feveral Regulations about the honorable Order of tht

Garter, which the curious Reader may fee in AJhmole's Inftitut. lea. of the Carter, p. 252, Sec. He alfo appointed a new Herald, by the Title of Agentourt
King at Arms. Rymer's Feed. Tom. IX. p. 702.

In the Ninth of Henry V, a Pound Weight of Gold, of the old Standard, was to make by Tale fifty Nobles, or a hundred half Nobles, or two hun-
dred quarter Nobles, amounting to fixteen Pounds, thirteen Shillings and Four-pence in Tale. And a Pound Weight of the fafhe old Standard, was to
make by Tale, ninety Groffes or Groats, or a hundred and eighty half Groats, or three hundred and fixty Sterlings, or feven hundred and twenty Mailes,
or fourteen hundred and forty Farthings, amounting to thirty Shillings. Bartholomew Goldbeater was Mailer and Worker. This King's Role-Noble is
inferibed, HENRIC. DI. GRA. REX. ANGL. ET- FRANC. DNS. HIB. the King Handing in a Ship, holding in his Right-hasd a Sword, in the
Left a Shield, with the Arms of France and England, the Flower de-lis being ftriftly three ; he being the firft that bore them fo. Reverfe, IHC.
AVTEM. TRANSIENS. PER MEDIVM. ILLORV- IBAT. a Crofs Fleuri, with four Fleurs-de-lis, and as many Lions paffant ; each under a Crown
above, and three Pellets below ; within the Center of the Crofs, in a Rofe the Letter H, the whole within a large Rofe. Eveltn's Defcription of his
Rofe-Ncblc, belongs to his Son's Ansel. There was alfo Gold Money ftamped at Paris, and in Normandy, by Henry V, called Saluts, bearing the Angel's
Salutation of the Blefled Virgin, (the one holding the Arms of England, the other of France) with the King's Title j and, on the Reverfe, CHRISTVS
VINCIT. CHRISTVS SIGNAT. CHRISTVS IMPERAT. which we find very little altered, upon fome of the earlieft Piftols of Lewis XIV. The
Legend indeed belongs to France, and Du Frefne reckons the Salut amongft the proper Coins of that Country. The King's Gold Coins were fo debafed,
that it was neceffary to order, that they (hould be recoined at the Tower gratis. His Silver Money was mofliy (as the Statute directed) coined at Pant,
tho' fome of his Pieces have Civitas London, in the inner Circle of the Reverfe. His Silver Coins are fuppofed to be diftingutfhed (chiefly) from
thofe of Henry IV, by two little Circles, or Eyelet Holes, deeply impreffed below the Face, on each fide the Neck, which are anlwertd by two more, in
the middle of two Triangles of Globules in the Quarters of the Crofs, on the Reverfe. See the Fig. There was alfo white Money coined by this King
in France, after the Viflory of Azinceurt ; his Style being then REX ANGLIC ET HiERES FRANCLfE. Thefe Blanks, fays Sir Edward Coke,
were valued at Eight-pence, and becaufe of their Bafenefs, were deemed Gaily -half pence, Suskyn and Dotkyn, and prohibited by A& ot Parliament. Coke's,
In/I. 1, 3. c. 30. p. 92.


^g - ,- • * -■,




The Reign of Henry VI; With a Differ tat ion on the Maid ^/Orleans.

15. HENRT VI. Sirnamd of Windsor.

Rigkl 11

Henry VI rj
Heir of

mette iteat/ed.

Ab;;J 3 .

E NRYV, when within view of
his end, feenied to have been taken
out of the World by a particular
direction of divine Providence,
which is fometimes pleafed to flop
the bed concerted Undertakings,
when juft going to beaccomplifhed.
The Peace of Troye not being yet
firmly fettled, and the Prince who
was to mount the Throne, but an
Infant of nine Months, every thing feemed to concur to
take from the Englijh the hopes, of feeing the two Kingdoms
of France and England united under a King of their Nation.
But on the other hand, the noble Qualities of the Dukes of
Bedford and Glocefler, Brothers of the deceafed King, in-
couraged the moft timorous. How great foever the Lofs
might be, it was not thought irreparable, fince the Va-
lour, Experience, and Wifdom of thefe two Princes, enabled
them to fupport the new King's Minority. Inftead there-
fore of being difheartned at fo terrible a Blow, they fhewed,
by proclaiming young Henry King of England, and Heir
of France, that they were determined to maintain what the
King his Father had fo glorioufly eftablifhed.

The Duke of Glocefler had governed the Kingdom by
the Title of Guardian, ever fince the Duke of Bedford
his elder Brother attended the Queen into France. But
this Dignity being inconfiftent with a King actually pre-
fent in his Kingdom, ceafed the Moment young Henry
was proclaimed ( 1 ). It is true, the late King had order-
ed upon his Death-Bed, that during his Son's Minority,
the Duke of Glocejler mould be Regent, or Protector in
England. But this was not a fufficicnt Warrant to exer-
cife that important Office. The Parliament's Confirma-
tion was alfo reqaifite. For that, and fome no lefs urgent
Reafons, the Council fpeedilv fummoned a Parliament for
the 9th of November. Till the two Houfes fhould fettle
the Form of Government, during the King's Minority,

the Council, whereof the Duke of Glocejler was Prefident, 1422.
ilTued all neceflary Orders for whatever would not admit of

A few Days after, the Council was informed of fome The Welft
Motions (2) in Wales, and the neighbouring Counties, ^" ''ft-''
which might be attended with ill Confequences. Very X- F . 254,
likely, as the Earl of March had great Intereft in thofe
parts, fome of his moft zealous Adherents defigned toraife
Commotions, in order to try, at fuch a Juncture, to re-
vive the Earl's Claim to the Crown. It may at leaft be
prefumed, thefe Motions feemed to be of great Moment,
fince, befides the Orders of the Council to the Sheriffs,
Commiffioners were appointed to put them in execu-

During the time between the calling of the Parlia- Tic Dtmb cf
ment, died King Charles VI at Paris, the 21ft of Olio- '** *<«r c f
her, having furvived Henry V, his Son-in-law, but fifty Mcz-rai.
five Days. His Death entirely changed the Face of Af-
fairs. It was not doubted that the Dauphin would take
the Title of King of France, and exert his utmoft to
procure the Poffeffion of a Crown, which he deemed fallen
to him by the Death of the King his Father. Whilft
Charles VI. was alire, many of his Subjects thought it
their duty to obey him, without inquiring, whether what
he did was conformable to the Laws, and beneficial ta
the State, becaufe, their Oath to him was not conditional.
But after his Death, they believed it no lefs incumbent upon
them, to acknowledge the Dauphin his Son, for Sovereign,
notwithstanding the Peace of Troye, which deprived him
of his Right. Indeed, that Peace bore but too vifible Marks
of Seduction and Violence, to be confidered by true French-
men, as a fundamental and inviolable Law, though many
that believed it very unjuft, had been forced to approve it.
So the Dauphin, who, in the latter Years of the King
his Father, might, in fome meafure, be counted a Rebel,
was upon better Terms, when he could affume the Title of

(1) A Guardian is appointed ta govern in the King's Abfence only ; and a Regent, or Proteclor, dur'ng an Ir.tcrrcgnam, or the Non-age of* the King. R.ip:r,
(1) They were infrrmed of fome Quarrels, Diffenfions, and Debates (as it is laid in, Rymir's Ffcd-J lhat Had happened in Sbrtflhirt, Hertfirdjkirt, WntfUrJbin ,
Gfaceflcrjhirt, and the Marches of \Y»la. Tom. X. p. Xj4.

i Thefe

Book XII.



14:2. Thefe Confiderations obliged the Duke of Bedford, who

?*" ; ^' .continued in France, ferioufly to reflect on the poffible ill
&„,, ,. f Confequences of this Change, and to feek means to pre-
Bance at vent them. Charles VI had no fooner clofed his Eye 1 ;, but
£?" y) . , tlie Duke ordered Henry to be proclaimed King of France,
Ldl 1 ■.-..■' and, purfuant to the Will of the late King his Brother,
ik Tali tj took himfelf the Title of Regent. Then he broke the
J.'chlruLi. Gieat Seal, and caufed a new one to be made, with the
Arms of France and England, and the Effigies of the
young King holding a Sceptre in each hand.
The French The Succcffion to the Crown of France being fettled
%*J™ r Q by the Peace of Troye, the Regent thought he might,
Hemy. upon that Foundation, and without a new Confent of the
Hall. States, put the King his Nephew in pofleffion of the King-

dom. Wherefore, contenting himfelf with aflembling at
Paris all the great Men of the Englijh Party, he made
a Speech, exhorting them to recognize young Henry for
their Sovereign. He infifted on the Peace of Troye, and
their Oath to maintain it, and endeavoured to convince
them, it was for their own, as well as the Kingdom's
Intereft, inviolably to obferve it. This done, all that were
prefent fwore Allegiance to Henry, and did Homage to
him, in the Perfon of the Regent, for the Lands they held
of the Crown. The fame thing was afterwards required
of thofe that were abfent, and of the Towns in fubje£lion
to the Englijh.
A Dtputatt ■ This Ceremony being ended, the Regent, the Council
Monftrek'r °^ France, and City of Paris fent Deputies to London, of
whom the Bifhop of Terouenne was the Chief, to congra-
tulate the young King upon his Acceffion to the Crowns
of the two Kingdoms. At the fame time, the Deputies
had Orders to go by the Low-Countries, and exhort the
Duke of Burgundy to remain firm to the Alliance. It
was feared, the Death of Henry V, and of Charles VI,
might caufe him to alter his Meafures.
lllutrnk Whm the Duke of Bedford was taking all neceflary
»f King of 'Precautions to fettle the Affairs of the King his Nephew,
Trance, and the Dauphin was no lefs intent upon his. He was at Ef-

'Jt malL?" 1 *' a Houfe belon g in g t0 the Bifhop of Puy, when he
Monftrekt. heard of his Father's Death. He fhed many Tears at
Hall, the News, whether Nature rouzed herfelf upon the occafion,

or he had really ever preferved an Affe&ion for a Father,
who was not to be blamed for the Mifchiefs he had done
him. The firft Day he appeared in Mourning, but on
the morrow put on Scarlet, and was proclaimed King of
France, with all the Solemnity the Circumftances of his
Court, and the place he was in, would permit. After
that, he came to Poifiiers^ where he had removed the
Parliament of Paris. He was crowned here, in the be-
ginning of November, becaufe the City of Rheims, where
the Coronation of the Kings of France is ufually perform-
ed, was in the hands of the EngUfli.
tfxftty of Thus Henry VI and Charles VII aflumedj both at the
3 d", %i ''fame time, the Title of King of France, and difputed
hijiarin of with each other the pofleffion of the Throne thirty Years.
France and This renders the Hiftory of the prefent Reign fo interwo-
ven with That of France, that they cannot poffibly be
feparated. The EngUJli were bent to preferve for their
young King, the Crown of France, acquired by his Fa-
ther's Labours, and of which they believed his Anccftors
to have been unjuftly deprived. On the other hand,
Charles meant likewife to take pofleffion of the fame
Crown, which it was defigned to wreft from him, and
which, in his Opinion, he held not fo much from the
King his Father, feduced by ill Counfels, as from a long
Train of Anceftors, who had enjoyed it before him. This
important Quarrel produced numberlefs Events, which to
be well underftood, require an exact Knowledge of the
State of the Affairs of both Kings, in the beginning of
their Reigns. It is no lefs requilite to know the Perfons
that managed the Affairs, as well Civil as Military, of
the two Kingdoms. In fhort, to perceive wherein con-
lifted the Advantages and Difadvantages of each King,
during this tedious War, it will be abfolutely neceflary
to have a general Idea of the then State of France, with
regard to the Affiftance each might have, as well from
the Princes and Vaflals of the Crown, as from Foreigners.
This Review feems to me indifpenfable, in order to avoid
the Obfcurity, which would inceffantly occur, in a mixt
Recital of fo many various Events.
Sjtvatimof J7; r ft- fa^ f or t h e Perfons of the two Kings, Charles
iabxlngs was one and twenty Years old(i), and Henry but an

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