M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Infant of nine Months. However, in this very thing the
Advantage was on Henry's Side, whofe Affairs were ma-
naged by two Uncles of great Abilities, and by the wifeft
Council then in Europe. On the contrary, Charles, who
never palled for an extraordinary Genius, was, by reafon
of his Age, more difficult to be ruled ; his Paflions fre-
quently hindering him from following the belt Advice.
To the time he ailumed the Title of King, he had dif-

51 S

tinguifhed himfelf neither by his Valour nor Conduct. \\ti .

More prone to Pleafurcs than War, he appeared rav unfit

to reftore the Affairs of the French Monarchy, which was

upon the Brink of Deftructidn. The Duke of Bu

dy's Murder, committed in his prcfence, and doubtlefs by

liis Orders, had'raifed difadvantagious Prejudices againft

him. He had not been more fcrupulous, with regard to

the Duke of P.retagne his Brother-in-law. This Prince, Aa - ?<■*>•

whom the Earls of Ponticvre, by a notorious Treachery, Lg - p ' S/ " 6 '

had carried away by Force, and long detained in Prifoii, "'

came to know, after his Deliverance, that the Plot was
contrived againft him with the Dauphin's Privity and Con-
fent. And therefore, it might be faid, it was not Charles's
lault, that the Duke of Bretagne had not undergone the
fame Fate with the Duke of "Burgundy. T~hefe things
made a deep Wound in his Reputation, which was n^.t
otherwife fupported by any bright Virtue or Action. All
that could be laid to his Advantage, was, that he had not
meanly ftooped to his Enemies. But it did not require a
great Genius, to refufc running into manifeft Deftruc-

As to the Forces of the two Kings, it is cafy to fee,
that Henry had greatly the Advantage of his Rival, fince,
with what he poflefled in France, he had moreover all
England on his Side. France was then fo divided between
them, that each had whole Provinces under his Obedience,
and in others, each had fortified Towns and Adherents.
In the Provinces thus divided, there was fcarce a walkd
Town, but what had a Garrifon for one or other. And
this rendered them , above thirty Years, the Seat of the

Charles was poflefled of all Languedoc, from whence he
had lately expelled the Earl of Foix, whilft Henry V was
employed in the Siege of Mclun, and had appointed for
Governor the Earl of Clct mont, eldeft Son of the Duke of
Bourbon. From that time, the Earl of Foix had in vain
attempted to recover that Province.

The Dauphine, was likewife entirely fubjecl to Charles,
who poflefled alfo Berry, Auvcrgne, Touraine, part of
Saintonge, the City of Rochel and Poiclou. Befides thefe
Provinces, he confidered as Countries dependent of him,
Provence, Maine, and Anjou, for reafons mentioned here-

Henry was in pofleffion of Normandy and Guienne, the
richeft Provinces of the Kingdom. Picardy, Champagne, la
Brie, and the Ifle of France belonged to him, excepting a
few Places, which ftill held out for King Charles. In a
word, he was Mafter of Paris, the Metropolis of the
Kingdom, which alone was equivalent to a great and rich
Province. He could moreover rely on the two Burgun-
dies, Flanders, and Artois, which belonged to the Duke of
Burgundy, his Vaflal and Ally.

From what has been faid, it is eafy to perceive, that the
War might be carried on in all the Provinces of France,
Bretagne excepted, which hitherto had flood Neuter. But
there were fome Places more expofed than others to the
Fury of the Sword, as Picardy, Champagne, la Brie, and
the Ifle of France. The reafon is, becaufe the Engli/h, be-
fore all things, would clear thefe Provinces of King Charles's
Garrifons, in order to attack him afterwards beyond the
Loire, without being forced to leave any thing behind them.
For the fame reafon, it was Charles's Intereft to profecute
the War in the fame Provinces, to prevent his Enemies
from carrying their Conquefts into the Southern Provinces,
which were his laft Refuge.

After feeing the Difpofition of the Provinces, it will be
neceflary to examine that of the French Princes, imme-
diate Vaflals of the Crown. And firft of the Duke of

Ever fince the beginning of the War, John V, Duke Situation of
of Bretagne, had flood Neuter, without concerning him- tkt DA ' °f .
felf in a Quarrel, which could not fail of drawing the "
War into his Country, if he had been fo ill-advifcd, as
to declare for either of the Kings. But after the Peace of
Troye was figned and fworn, he believed it no longer pof-
fible to continue in a State of Neutrality. Charles VI,
and Henry V, being united by the Peace, and there
being hut one King of Frame, he could not help acknow-
ledging him, unlefs he would openly join with the Dau-
phin. But fuch a Proceeding would have been very im-
prudent, fince the Dauphin was fo low, that there was
little appearance of his ever recovering. Upon thefe ac- Aft. Pub.
csunts, as foon as the Duke faw the two Kings united, x - P 8 > 'S>
he fent Henry V word, he was ready to fign the Peace 20 ' 2 '
of Troye, and do Homage for his Dutchy to King
Charles. This Negotiation, though begun in 14:0, could
not be ended before Henry's Death. Probably, the Duke
of Bretagne prolonged it, on purpofe to lee how the War
againft the Dauphin would go. Be this as it Will, Henry
dying before this Affair was finiftied, the Duke of Bre-

No. 27. Vol. I.

{1) P. Daniel fays, he was W. la the twentieth Year cf his Age. Vol. VI. p. 1,

6 T


5 34


Vol. I.


The Sr.itr
the Earl of

Aa. Pub.
X. p. 5, S,

Hift. of

h J- B. J.
Tom I.
p. 195.

Sf ate of the
Duke of

Of tbt Dul
of Anjou
King of


Of -be Fa, I
of Foix and
b:i Brctba '■;.
Ofliag. Hilt
nt Fuix and

tagne faw bimfelf in the fame State, as before the Peace

of Troye, that is, at liberty to chufe his Side, or ftand

Neuter, according as he fhould be determined by the E-

vents. Tliere was however one ftrong reafon for his not

fiding with the Dauphin, and that was, the difcovery of

the Dauphin's being deeply concerned in the Confpiracy

of the Ponticvrians. Neverthelefs, preferring the Peace

of his Subjects, to the pleafure of Revenge, he had not

thought proper to declare for England.
f Arthur, Earl of Rkhemont , Brother to the Duke of

Bretagne, was taken Prifoner at Azincourt in 1 4 1 5 , and

carried into England, where he remained till 1420. Mean

while, the Duke his Brother being feized by the Pontie-

vrians, he defired King Henry's leave, to go and endea-
vour to free him. Leave was granted him upon certain

Conditions, namely, That on Michaelmafs-day 1422, Ar-
thur fhould return to London, and appear before the King,

or his SuccefTor, the Lord Chancellor, or the Mayor of


That during the Term of his Enlargement, he mould

make no Alliance with the Dauphin, or any other Perfon

whatever, againft the King of England, or the Duke of

Burgundy ; neither mould he attempt any thing contrary

to the Peace of Troye.

That Alan dc Rohan, the Duke of Bretagne's Lieute-
nant, the States and Barons of the Country, mould pro-
wife the fame Thing, during the Earl's Abfence from


For Security of thefe Conditions, the Earl of Montfort

was to be delivered to the King, whom he promifed to re-

ftore, upon the Earl of Richcmont's return to London.
The Earl' ratified and fwore all thefe Articles, and then

departed for Bretagne. The Death of Henry V happening

a Month before the Expiration of his Leave, inftead of

returning into England, according to his Oath, he ftill

remained at the Duke his Brother's Court, who was freed
from his Imprifonment. Thus, at the time of Charles VPs
death, he was really Prifoner of the Englijh, though he was
not actually in their Power ; and moreover, liable to the
reproach of Breach of Faith. Some have thought tojuftify
him, by faying, he only flood bound to the Perfon of
Henry V, and therefore, upon that Monarch's deceafe, be-
lieved himfelf freed from his Oath. But this pretended
Limitation of his Engagement, is deftroyed by the fore-
mentioned Articles.

Bel'ides the Duke of Bretagne's Difpofition with refpeft
to the two rival Kings, he was moreover prompted to fide
with the Englijh, by the Earl of Rkhemont his Brother,
who had a great Influence over him. Arthur not only
thereby defigned to free himfelf from his Engagement,
but had alfo other Views, which fhall be mentioned here-
after. It may therefore be faid, that though the Duke
of Bretagne ftood Neuter, or was defirous of ftill pa/Ting
for fuch, he was however upon the Point of declaring for

As for the Duke of Burgundy, there is no occafion to
repeat here his Reafons to remain firm to the Alliance of
the Englijh. It will fufHce to fay, that he did not think
the death of the Duke his Father fufficiently revenged,
whilft Charles enjoyed any part of France.

Lewis III, Duke of Anjou, and King of Sicily, who
was poiTeffed in France, of Provence, Anjou, and Maine,
was entirely in the Intereft of King Charles his Brother-
in-law. But he had been fome time employed at Naples,
in fecuring the Inheritance of Joan II , Queen of that
Country, who had adopted him for her Son. In his Ab-
fence, Violante of Arragon, his Mother, had the Admini-
ftration of Affairs, and remained firmly attached to King
Charles her Son-in-law.

The Houfe of Foix made then a very great Figure in
the Kingdom (1). Matthew of Cajllehon, Earl of Foix,
and Sovereign of Beam, dying without IfTue in 1399'
Elizabeth his Sifter, Wife of Archcmbald de Graille, Cap-
tal of Buch in Guienne, took poireffion of his Dominions.
Charles VI attempted to deprive the Captal and his Wife
ot this noble Inheritance, but they found means to keep
pofleffion. Archcmbald died in 1413, leaving five Sons
all of diftinguifhed Merit. John, the eldeft, was Earl of
Foix and Bigerre, and Sovereign of Beam. Gallon, who
bore the 1 itle of Captal of Buch, adhered to Henry V
who made him Knight of the Garter, and Earl of Longue-
ville. From him lprung the Houfe of Candale. Archcm-
bald, Lord ot Noodles, the third Son, was killed on
Motitcreau Bridge, with the Duke of Burgundy. Mat-

f.i) The Earls of Foix (part of Gafcoo-ne ) uv-r* ;« ft. u* u ■»« • , „ . «

Prince of .he Blocd, and lived in a StaVcqual t [JZa V" E rTa'"^ ^ ° f T VT' th>t tiKy t0ok PlaCe ° f the Earl ° f Vc " d > m <- th ° u 8 h ■
dom to Foix in 1479- And by Arab™ of SvU na ^"r t^ Franc " Fhxbm - b ? ™>"y in l ' hc Heirefs of Navarre, added that King,

and Sovereign of Eur,, whofc Son Henry II, Kin, 'ol Nalarr, tt""c "^T" 8 7'"", Heircfs of this Houfe, became King cf Navarre, Earl of Fvx,
King of F,ar:e. * ' 8 "' JVm " r '> &<• fucceeded to the Crown of Franet m 1589, being Grandfather to Lrui, XIV, |a£.

(a.) And Bigom. Rymer's FarJ. Tom. X. p. 1S7.

(3) A thoufand Men at Arms, and a thuufand Arch»rc F«. ,!,.**- *■ . . .

Crowns of Gold a Month, liij. p. .92. " -' he M '""«*>ce of which, he was allowed by CbarU. VI, fever, hsftdrci s „d 6fty

(4) Thofc of Clermont, Bi.irbiT., and jluveipie, dt h Ma ri b, and Vetdimu


thew the fourth Brother, married the Heirefs of Ccminge. 142:,
We fliall fee hereafter, that a Quarrel between him and
his Wife, caufed the Country of Cominge, to fall into the
Hands of Charles VII. Peter the youngeft, was at firft
a Francifcan Friar, then Bifhop of Lefcar , and at laft
Cardinal, and Legate d Latere in France, under the Pon-
tificate of Martin V. He founded the College of Foix at

Hence it appears, that the Houfe of Foix was very con-
fiderablc, as well for Extent of Dominion in the fouthera
Parts of France, as for the Merit of the four Brothers,
whereof it conlifted. The Neighbourhood of Guicnnt
obliged the Earls of Foix, to pay great regard to the Kings
of England, who were Mafters of that Dukedom. Foix,
Beam, and Bigorre, could with eafe be invaded by fo
powerful Neighbours, and with difficulty be affifted by the
Kings of France. Befides, the Captal of Buch, and the
Earl of Cominge, were Vallate of the King of England.
An antient Quarrel between the Houfe of Foix, and the
Earls of Armagnac , was a farther Inducement to that
Houfe, to continue under the Prote&ion of the Englijh,
and the Duke of Burgundy, fworn Enemy of the Armag-
nacs. Thefe Confiderations led Henry V, when he en- Aft. Pub.
tered upon the Regency of France, to give the Govern- x t- + 6 .
ment of Languedoc (2) to the Earl of Foix. He made an ]° 9 L *''*"
Agreement with the Earl, to find a confiderable Number
of Troops (3), to keep that Province in Obedience to
Charles VI. He was, as has been fhewn, expelled by the
Dauphin, and the Earl of Clermont put in his room. Im- lb. p. i 7 i.

mediately after the death of Henry V, the Earl of Foix »7*>

renewed the Agreement with his Succeiibr, who made
him Governor again. But it was not in his power to
dilpoflefs the Earl of Clermont. Afterwards, the Earl of
Foix, feeing England did not obferve the Agreement, fided
with King Charles. But in the beginning of the prefent
Reign, he and his two Brothers openly declared for the

On the other hand, the Houfes of Armagnac and Alhret, 0/Arm.^n.c
very powerful in Guienne, declared for Charles VII, tho', a "f Albrtt -
little before, they had complied with the Times, and made l '' 4I ' &C '
their Peace with Henry V.

The Houfe of Orleans confifted of two Princes, Charles Of ,l € Dub
Duke of Orleans, and John Earl of Angouleme his Bro-'/ 0,l " ns >
ther, both Prifoners in England. The firft had been there Xf ful^f
ever fince the Battle of Azincourt in 1415. The fecond "^
was given in Hoftage to the Duke of Clarence in 141 2,
for Security of the payment of the Englijh Troops, fent
by King Henry IV, to affift the Princes in League againft
the Duke of Burgundy. Thefe two Princes being Pri-
foners, were, as to their Perfons, neither ferviceable nor
hurtful to either of the two Parties, but their ftrong
Towns were at the difpofal of King Charles. Some Hift. of
affirm, that the Duke of Orleans made a Treaty with ch" 1 "^ 1 -
Henry V, whereby, in confideration of a great Penfion
paid yearly for his Expence, he obtained of that Monarch,
a Neutrality for his City of Orleans, and all his other
Places. But this pretended Treaty is only a Chimera,
fince the Foundation on which it is built, namely, the
Penfion, had never any Exiftence. The ninth and' tenth
Volumes of the Publick Ails of England, are full of Papers
concerning the Duke of Orleans ; and yet, among fo great
a Number, there is not one that gives the leaft Intimation
of this Penfion, much lefs of the pretended Treaty.
Befides, it is not very likely, that Henry V, fhould, in
the Time of his Profperity, grant fuch a Neutrality, for
Places fituated in the Heart of a Kingdom, he was under-
taking to conquer.

John Duke of Alenfon, about thirteen or fourteen Years °f ''-•< D-h-
old. Son of the Duke of Alenfon, flain in the Battle o0 Alenfu »
Azincourt, began to give Tokens of an uncommon Va-
lour and Conduit, which caufed him to be looked upon
as a Prince of great hopes. He was firmly attached to
King C/jarles's Side, as well as Peter his Baftard-Brother,
who palled for one of the ftouteft Warriors in the King-

Charles d'Artois, Earl of Eu, was Prifoner in England, of ih Earl
ever fince the Battle of Azincourt. As he was not releafed "■>' Eu '
l 'l' '434? he made no Figure in France, the firft Years
of this Reign.

John Duke of Bourbon, Head of the illuftrious Houfe Of tie DaU
of Bourbon, which was divided into feveral Branches (4), '/ Bou, ^" w
was Prifoner in England fince the Year 1 4 1 5 . So, though
he was a Prince of great Merit, he had no Share in the
TranfaSions of France. But the Earl of Clermont, his

Book XII.



1422. eldeft Son, firmly adhered to King Charles, with all his
Father's Towns.
OftbtEarl Lewis Earl of Vendcme, of the Houfe of Bourbon, was
«/ Veadome. i;k ew jf e Prifoner in England, fince the Battle of Az.in*
court. It is true, he agreed with Henry V for his Ran-
fom, whereof he had even paid Part ; but as he could
not raife the reft, was not yet releafcd. The French
Authors fay, that in 1423, he miraculoufly efcaped out
of Captivity, and in Memory thereof, inftituted an an-
nual Proceffion at Vendhne. I know not the manner of
Aft. P"K his Efcape ; but find in the Collection of the Publlck Acts,
X. p. 2S9. tna t in May 1423, he was taken out of the Tower of
London, by the King's Order, and delivered to Sir John
Cornwal, who took him Prifoner at the Battle of Azin-
p, 197. court ; that in July of the fame Year, he obtained Leave
to go into France, to provide the reft of his Ranfom, that,
upon Payment of the whole, he might have his Liberty.
In all likelihood, he fully fatisfied the King, for it does
not appear, that he was re-demanded. So, I do not fee
what Miracle there could be in his Efcape, unlefe it was
bis mifufe of his Pafs-port, in which Cafe the Miracle
would not be very great. But however, he might inftitute
a Proceffion at Vend'ime, in memory of his eighteen Years

Having fpoken of the Princes of the Royal Family of
France, it will be proper to mention the other Lords and
Generals, in the Service of King Charles.
The Karl of The Earl of Buchan ( 1 ) a Scotchman, Son of the Regent
Buchan. f Scotland, and Firft-Coufin to King James I, was Con-
ftable of France ; a Dignity conferred on him by the Dau-
phin, after the Battle of Bauge.
Other Cm:- Among the other Generals, the moft confiderable were,
"■''• the Marlhals de la Fayette, and de Severac, Andrew de

Laval Lord of Loheac, John d'Harcourt Earl of Aumarle,
John de la Haye Lord of Cologne, Culant, afterwards High-
Admiral, Aymeri Vifcount of Narbonne, Pothon of Xan-
irailles, Stephen de la Hire, firnamed Vignoles, Graville,
and fome others of an inferior Rank, or lefs Note. To
thefe I add, the Baftard of Orleans, natural Brother of the
Duke of that Name, though as yet, he did but begin to
appear, becaufe he rendered hunlelf very famous in the
Hiftory cf this Reign.
Stmt of After the Generals, it will be farther neceflary to fay

Chiries'i fomething of the moft eminent Perfons, belonging to the
Court of the new King. I have already fpoken of the
Mary %. Perfori and Qualities of King Charles. Mary of Anjou, his
•/" Fiance. Queen, was a Princefs of exceeding great Beauty, but much
more valuable for her extraordinary Merit. And yet, he
loved her not as he ought, and as fhe deferved, being con-
tinually drawn afide by other Amours, which poffeffed in
his Heart the Place, lhe ought to have held. How mor-
tifying- foever the King's Coldnefs might be, fhe bore it
with great Conftancy, without the leaft Murmur, or Re-
proach ; ftill hoping to gain his Affection by her Patience,
Moderation, and dutiful Behaviour. If this Conduct was
not capable of infpiring the King, with a Tendernefs for
fo accomplished a Spoufe, it commanded at leaft all his
Efteem, and forced him to fhew it, by confulting her ge-
nerally, in his moft important Affairs.
The Slum of Violante of Arragon Queen of Sicily, and Mother of the
Sicily. Queen, was commonly at Charles's Court, where her

Merit and Capacity gave her great Credit.
Tannegui du Tannegui du Chdtel was the King's chief Favorite. It
Chitd. was he that firft ftruck the late Duke of Burgundy, on
Montereau Bridge. It was not doubted, that, as he was
the firft in executing, fo he had been the principal in ad-
vifing, that deteftable Treachery. However, all the French
Writers reprefent him as a very honeft Man. I do not
know, how that Character can be reconciled with fuch an
Action, which, let what will be faid, was but too pre-
touvet. Louvet, Prefident of Provence, was the next in the King's

Favor. He had the Management of the Finances. Ashe
was very covetous and ambitious, he generally preferred
his own, to his Matter's Interefts. He is faid to be one
of the Advifers of the Duke of Burgundy's Murder. On
the other hand, the Duke of Bretagne confidered this
Minifter, as well as d'Avaugour, another of Charles's
Courtiers, as the chief Authors of the Pontievrian Con-
fpiracy, becaufe they had prevailed with the Dauphin to
approve it.

La Trimouille, of a very ancient Family, was in great 1422.
Favor with the King, though not in fo great as Du Chdtel '.'•» 'Frimou.
and Louvet. He was very ambitious, and notwithstanding" 1 "
his high Birth, regularly made his Court to the Favorites,
in order to increafe his Credit.

De Giac, and the Camus de Beau-lieu, Creatures f DtG ' ac ""*
Louvet, were confiderable at Court, by reafon of their Pa- B,:au " lieU4
tron's Intereft.

Thefe were the moft noted Perfons of Charles's Court,
which ufually was not very numerous. Moft of the Princes
of the Blood were Prifoners in England, and the other great
Men found it more advantagious to follow the Army;
the King's Circumftances not affording them any great
Profpect at Court.

I (hall now confider the chief Managers of the pub- Th -' EnglUU
lick Affairs of the Englijh, both at Court and in the^'''"

John Duke of Bedford, Regent of France, under the
young King his Nephew, was the moft accomplished
Prince then in Europe. Wife, judicious, of great Valour,
Solidity, and Penetration, Mafter of his Paflions, and of
a Genius, fuperior to all employed by him, he feemed born
for a Throne, though Providence had ranked him among
Subjects. To all thefe Qualities he added a majeftick State-
linefs, which became his Birth, and high Rank in France,
and in England. But this he never carried beyond what
was neceflary to command a due Refpect and Regard,
for his Perfon and Authority. To fum up his Character
in a Word, he was perfectly like the late King his Bro-
ther, and in all his Actions took him for Pattern. HeEngiifh
had with him in France, the Earls of Warwick (2), Sa- G """ U '
lisbury ( 3 ), Arundel (4), the Dukes of Somerfet ( 5 ), Fa-
Jlolff{6), Talbot (7), and many others, all eminent for
their Valour and Experience in the Art of War. The
French Authors who have writ the Life of Charles VII,
feldom fpeak of thefe Generals, without an honorable
Epithet. For my part, I (hall only mention thefe illuf-
trious Perfons. Their Names became fo famous in the
Hiftory of thofe Days, that all the Encomiums I can be-
ftow on them, would be no Addition to their Glory and

The Duke of Burgundy had, at the fame time, three Gentrth of
Generals, whom I fhall rank among the Englijh, becaufe '^^^
they were in the Service of the fame Prince. Their Ac-
tions well deferve an honourable Mention.

The firft was John de Luxemburg, Earl of Ligny, Son £"1 <f
of Valeran de Luxemburg, Conftable of France. This Ge- Ll s n >"
neral fignalized himfelf, during the whole War.

Life- Adam, Marfhal of France, was a bold and enter- Liflc-Adam,
prizing Warrior, and withal, capable of managing the moft
difficult Undertaking. It was he, that in 141 9, made the
Duke of Burgundy Mafter of Paris. After that, incurring,
by his too great Haughtinefs, the Difpleafure of Henry V,
he was committed to the Bajlile ; from whence the Duke
of Bedford had lately freed him, at the Duke of Burgundy's

Toulongeon, commonly called Marfhal of Burgundy, was TuuJongeon.
in high Efteem with the Duke his Mafter, on account of
his Valour and Parts.

I muft now pafs into England, and briefly mention fome tie Court of
of the Princes, and great Men, who were chiefly concerned England.
in the Direction of the young King's Affairs.

Humphrey Duke of Glocejier, younger Brother of the r>uh „/
Duke of Bedford, was a Prince equally qualified for the Glocefter.
Field and the Cabinet. His noble Endowments, improv-
ed by an extenfive Knowledge of the Sciences, would
have pot him upon a Level with the Duke his Brother,
had he been more Mafter of his Paflions, or lefs ambi-
tious and haughty. I fhall have frequent occaiion here-
after, to make known more fully the Character of this

The Princes of the Houfe of Lanoajlcr, legitimated by The frincet
the Name gf Beaufort, held the next Rank to the Duke=/ Lancifter.
of Glocejier. Thomas Beaufort Duke of Exeter, and Henry,
his Brother, Bifhop of WincheJler, were Sons of John of
Gaunt, and Catherine Roet, his third Wife. John Earl of
Somerfet, their elder Brother, was dead, and had left four
Sons, of whom, Henry the eldeft, bore the Title of Earl
of Somerfet. Of the other three, Thomas, John, and Ed-
mund, the laft only was at Court, the other two being

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