M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Prifoners in France (8).


(1) John Stuart. (2) Richard Btauebamf. (,) Tb.mu Montacntu

(4) John FitxAlatt. ( 5 ) Henry Beaufiit.

(6) Sir John Faflolff, for fo he is called in Rymer\ Fad. and not FalJIaff. In T. X. p. 40S. he is named Talfiotf.

(7) Sir John 'Talbot; who had this notable Motto on his Sword-Blade, Sumlalboti. trovinccre inimical sues. Sfeed, p. 653.

(8) 1 here is no Pedigree wherein Rafin differs more from our Gcnealogifls than in this of Beaufort. Neither does it appsar from whence he had his Ac
Count. For Dugdalc, Sandford, Sec. make it thus: John of Gaunt, by Catherine Roet, had one Daughter called Joan, Countefs of Wojlm'.rcland ; and three
Sons! I. Jdm Beaufort Earl of Seme, fit, who died II Henry IV. 14.10, and lies buried at Canterbury. ■>.. Henry, Cardinal Bilhop of tVtncbeficr. 3. Tbow.ai
Duke of Exeter, and Earl of Dcrjet. '(See Note (1) p. 537.) The faid John, by Margate! Holland, had tour Sons: I. Henry Earl of Somerfet, who died
without Heirs, 7 Henry V. 2. John, taken Prifoner at the Battle of Bauge', and long kept in Captivity. He was, after his releafe, advanced in 21 of
Hair) VI, to the Dignity of Duke of Somerfet. By Margaret Beauchamf he had an only Daughter named Margaret, (Wife of Edmund Tudor, by whom (lis
had Henry VII.) Hs died 22 Henry VI, 14.4.4., -. Edmund, whu had the Giant 0/ his Brothw's Dukedom in 26 He-.y VI, iuving befoie fucceedtd hia

53 6



Other Lords

The H I S T R T of E N G L AN D.

r o\. I.

Richard Duke of JV/f, Son of Richard Earl of C<??k-
fo™&* beheaded at Southampton in 141 5, and Grandfon of
Edmund de Langley Duke of York, fifth Son of Edward III,
was the only Male-Ifl'ue of this Family. He was very
young; at the time I am fpeaking of, but I fhall have
frequent occalion to mention him in the courfe of this

Humphrey Earl of Stafford, was Son of Ann of Glocef-
ter, Daughter of the unfortunate Duke of Glocejler,
whom Richard II, his Nephew, caufed to be ftrangled at

againft them, for fear of depriving his Subjects of their .id- [422
vantagious Commerce with England.

As for the Scots, the War in France ought not to have ?tdtlanA
been indifferent to them. It is certain, their Intereft re-
quired their utmoti endeavours, to flop the Progrefs of the
Englijh in that Kingdom. Belides their ancient Alliance,
whereby they were obliged to affift the French, it was
eafy for them to perceive, it could not but be very dange-
rous to their State, to fuff'er the King of England to grow
fo very powerful. But, the private Interefts of the
Regent had hindered them horn taking the Courfe, moft '

Henry (1) Earl of Effex, Half-Brother of the Earl of agreable to the Good of their Country, till at length, they

Stafford, had married Ijabella, Sifter of the young Duke of


Ralph Nevill Earl of IF. Jlmor -eland, was allied to the
Royal Familv, by his Marriage with Joan Beaufort, Sifter
of the Duke 'of Exeter, and Bifoop of Wmchejier.

Thomas Courtney Earl of Devon/hire, had for Wife a
Sifter of the Duke of Somerfet.

Henry Talbot, had married a Sifter of the Earl of


Henry Holland Earl of Huntington, defcended from a
Half-Sifter of Richard II, was Prifoner in France, fince
the Battle of Bauge, wherein the Duke pf Clarence was

Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland, and John Fitz-
Alan Earl of Arundel, were married to Princeffes of the
Uoufc of March (z).

Nothing more remains, in order to give a general
Knowledge of the Affairs of the two contending Kings,
but to fee how fome foreign Princes flood affected towards


It is very ftrange, that during this long War of thirty-
eight Years, no Prince in Europe would be concerned in it

fent feven thoufand Men to the Dauphin. From that
time, growing more and more fenfible of their Error, in
permitting the Englijh to become Matters of France, thev
had refolved to fend thither a more powerful Supplv.
But the Duke of Albany dying in the mean time, and
Mordac his eldeft Son, a Prince of a mean Genius, fuc-
ceeding him in the Regency, interline Troubles arofe,
which prevented the Scots from executing their Refolution.
So, till the Death of Henry V, they had actod nothing in
that refpect, and King James was returned into England
Prifoner as before.

Here I fhall end this Digreffion, which will not appear
needlefs, when we come to fee the Relation it bears to
the Events mentioned hereafter. And now having given
a general Knowledge of the Affairs of the two Kings, it is
time to relume the Thread of our Hiftory.

The Parliament met on the 9th of November, according 72 " Pl!r! ' -
to the Summons. The Duke of Glocejler, by a Patent Gotton'i "
under the Great Seal, was commiffioned to hold it in the Abrid?.
King's Name, according to the ufual Practice, when the Aa - ^'k^.
Sovereign is not in condition to be prefent in Perfon.
The Parliament's firft care was to fettle the Government,

Hh» the

Immediately after' the Peace of Troye, Henry V fent Am- during the King's Minority. They nominated the MenV^"'^
; uumiuijiu) aiiu u.^ , J, .„. J ■ , 1 „i.u-/-' :i . £ii_j »i._ r\cz .r.u.r 1 Council ]"-

rt?ard tht
twi Kim




ft„le of

bers of the Council ; filled the Offices of the Crown; and fl y.
gave the Great Seal to the Bifhop of Durham (3), and lb. P . 259.
not to the Bifhop of IVinchtJler, as fome affirm. To c ? u .™''
purfue the Plan that was formed, it was neceffary to ap- rl
point a Protector, who fhould take upon him the Admi-
niftration of the publick Affairs, during the Minority.
Henry V had ordered, on his Death-bed, that this high
Dignity fhould be conferred on the Duke of Glocejler his
Brother. But his Will could not be obeyed, without
great Injury to the Duke of Bedford, the eldeft Brother,
the fecond Perfon in the Kingdom, and prefumptive Heir
of the Crown as long as Henry was Childlefs. This
Prince would thereby have been below the Duke of
Glocejhr, his younger Brother. It is true, he was Regent
of France ; but very poffibly, he might return into Eng-
land, during fo long a Minority Wherefore, it was ne-
ceffary to find fome Expedient, to perform the deceafed
King's Will, without derogating from the elder Bro-
ther's Rights. After a ferious Examination of the Af-^' P" h, f
fair, the Parliament nominated the Duke of Bedford, oetkPn-
Proteclor of England, Defender of the Church, and firjl rflw ;
Counfellor to the King. But a Claufe was added, that he Atl Pub -
fhould exercife this Office, only whilft in the Kingdom, ' p '
without having, in his Abfence, any concern in the Go-
vernment. At the fame time, the Protectorfhip was m ^ '■" *'' '
likewife conferred on the Duke of Glocejler (4), with ' D J k ""f
Power, to aft only in the Abfence of the Duke ofGloceiW.

baffadors into feveral Parts, to make Alliances, in order to
render himfelf fo fuperior to the Dauphin, as to put it out
of his Power to make any Refiftance. But we do not
find that he fucceeded in this Defign. If he made Alliances
with fome Princes, they were fo worded, as did not oblige
them to be Parties in this War ; fo that he reaped but lit-
tle Advantage from thence.

The Emperor Sigifmund might, by Virtue of his
League with Henry V, have aflifted his Son. But he was
himfelf embroiled in Troubles on the account of Reli-
gion in Bohemia, which wholly employed him. The reft
of the German Princes were unconcerned at what palled
in France. They were not forry to fee the Englijli and
French unable, by their Diffenfion, to difturb their Neigh-

All Italy flood Neuter. The Duke of Milan alone was
inclined to King Charles, but hitherto had fent him no

Cajlile, Arragon, and Portugal were in Peace, or in
Truce, with the two rival Kings, and aflifted Neither.
Their Policy was to let them beat one another, and after-
wards join with the Conqueror.

The Duke of Lorrain was inclined to King Charles, on
account of the Alliance between their Families. But he
durft not affift him, for fear of drawing the War into his

Among all the neighbouring Princes of France, Ama-
dcus firft Duke of Savoy, and Lewis de Chalon Prince of Bedford his Brother, who, upon his return into England, »»- g P- "«»

Orange, were thofe, on whom the Eyes of both Parties
were chiefly fixed, by reafon of the Diverfions they could
make in Provence and Dauphine. Mean while, thefe two
Princes obferved yet a Neutrality, pleafed with being courted
by both Sides. It was, however, eafy to percejve, they

The Law

was to be acknowledged for fole Protector. The Pro-"
tector's Salary was fettled at eight thoufand Marks a
Year (5).

It has been feen, that the Duke of Glocejler was ntft ?"/"•§"£
fo moderate, as the Duke of Bedjord his Brother. tle a „ a ; z j> lbe
ieaned to the Engli/b, on account of the Duke of Burgundy}, was impatient of any oppofition to his Will. For th ' s ^^£ a
the- Prince of Orange being his Nephew, and the Duke of reafon, the Privy-Council were always upon their Guard,
Savoy his Vaffal. t0 hinder his affirming a greater Authority, than his Sta-

"" As for the Neighbours of England, there were only tion entituled him to. As they held not their Places of
the Princes of the Low-Countries and the Scots, that could him, but of the Parliament, they were the lefs afraid of
be fo concerned in the Quarrel, as greatly to advantage, difpleafing him, knowing it was not in his Power to re-
move them. Therefore, in the Council ttfelf, there was
a fort of Confederacy againft him, managed by the Bi-
fhop of Winchejler his Uncle. The Bifhop's oppofition to
the Protector, ended at length in a Quarrel, the fad Effects
whereof, we fhall have occafion to mention in the Sequel
of this Reign.

After having fettled what related to the Protectorfhip, Gnms
the Parliament appointed Governors, to take Care of the'A*^ I'


Uncle tlieDukeof£.vf.\-r in his Title of Earl ofDsrftf. He was killed at St. Albans, 3J Hairy VI. 4- *****$ whofe Name is only mentioned; and

folir Daughters. The laid Edmund had four Suns : I. Ban, (from whofe natural Sim by Jean Hit!, arc /[.rung the prelcnt Dukes of Beaujort) beheaded

,/|V, z. Edmund Duke of Sbmirfet, beheaded) ^7 S 3. John Duke of Somcrfet, ilain at -leukfbury, 11 Edward IV. 4. -Thomas, who died wiiri-

iut blue-Male; and i'even Daughters.

rrpi^rt p-,.1 nf F/&*. »;!l ■?.,»* i~ ..*;« .k« .ft «f F.Uimr,! IV. See Dupdalc s I>.lrbn. Vol. II. D. I2Q

» Nruil Earl of

or prejudice the two Kings. The Duke of Burgundy
poffeffed Flanders and Artois. John of Burgundy, his firft
Coulin, held Brabant, and the Earldom of Limbourg.
Moreover, by his Marriage wfth Jaquelina of Bavaria,
Daughter of the late Earl of Hainault, he had acquired
the Sovereignty of Hainault, Holland, Zeland and Frife-
land. The firft of thefe two Princes was firmly united
with the Englijh, and the other took care not to declare

(I) Henry Buur chief. He was nut created Earl of Effix till June lo. r^o, the rfl ot Edward XV . See Dugdalc's Ejren. Vol. II. p. 119.
(. Theformer was'jndeed Son of Elasaitth, Daughter of EdmurJ Mortimer, Earl oiMarcb; but he married Eteanu; Daughter of Ralfb

; and the latter married Maud, Daughter of Robert tovttl. Idem Vol. I. p. iSl, 3:3.
( j Thomas Langkf. At the lame time IVtltiam R:ndnffe was appointed Treasurer of E»jj»d, and John Staffed Keeper of the Privy Seal. LMm s
jSbridg, p, ^63.

(4) Humphry Duke of Glocejler, was alio conftituted Lord-Chamberlain, and High-Conrtable of England. Ibid. p. 564.

1 iu , Parliament granted the King the Sublidy uf Staple- Ware, vine, three and thirty Shillings and Fuur-pence, on ever Sack 0/ Wool exported, and



nagc and Poundage, tor two V ears.



Book XII.



I422. King's perfon and education. Thefe were Thomas Btau-
fort Duke of Exeter, and Henry his Brother, Bifhop of
IVinch'Jler, both Great-Uncles of the King, I know not
the qualities of the Duke of Exeter, not having met with
his character in any hiftorian (1).
Ctarafier of fa ,' or the Bifhop of JVincheJler, he was a Prince more
"rwin"-"^ proper for the World and a Court, than the Church.
vheiKr. However, he is placed by fomc in the clafs of the Learned
of thofe days. After lie was made Bifhop of lyinchejier,
in 1405, his principal buftnefs was to heap up riches ;
wherein he had fo happily fuccecded, that he was com-
monly reckoned the wealthier}, of all the Englijb Nobles,
Henry V, his nephew, had fome regard for him, but was
apprehenfive of his intriguing temper. Hence he oppofed
the Pope's making him a Cardinal, for fear that dignity
would give him occafion to exercife his talents too much.
The truth is, he was a Man of fenfe, and well-skilled in
all the means humane prudence fuggefts to the Ambitious,
to accomplifn their ends. His birth, parts, riches, and
office of governor to the King, gave him great credit in
the council, and of couife in all the reft of the kingdom.
In a word, he knew fo well to manage his affairs, that
he had a better intereft than the Duke of Glocejler his
Nephew, though Protector, and ruined him entirely.
Jtahvfr be- The occafion of their quarrel is not fully known. Some
nucintlc f a y 5 t ] lc Bifhop, angry that the Duke of Ghctfier was
Glocefter preferred before him in the government of the kingdom,
and Bifhop which he would rather have had, than that of the King,
^ Wm- never ceafed plotting to fupplant him. Others on the con-
trary affirm, the Duke of Glocejler hated him, only be-
cause he always found him ready to oppofe his affuming
too great an authority, as Prof.edr.or, which might in the
end, prove fata] to their common Mafter.
Tmi -warlike Whilft the courts of the two new Kings were equally
Hxflutt employed in affairs, which would not admit of delay, the
jj'ffa war was but faintly profeCuted in France. Befides, the
year 1411. feafon permitted not, (after the death of Charles VI, on
the 2 lit of October,) great armies to keep the field. So,
from that time, to the end of the year 1422, the troops
of the two Kings took fome rcpofe, in order to prepare
to renew the war. There is nothing therefore remarka-
ble in this interval, but the taking of St. Valery, a place
of great importance, furrendeied to the Englijh, purfuant
to a capitulation made fome months before, and of Bujji
in the Earldom of Guife, by the Earl of Ligny, the Duke
of Burgundy's General. On the other hand, James de
Harcourt became mailer of La Rue in Picardy, and La
Hire of Viiry in Champagne.

The Duke of Bedford's defign, according to the late
King his Brother's project, was to reduce all the towns
Charles (till held in the Iflc of France, and the adjoining
Provinces, that he might afterwards attack him beyond
the Loire. It was the more neccfiary to proceed in this
manner, becaufe, fo long as Charles had places about Pa-
ris, the Englijh durft not remove from the Metropolis,
without leaving a ftrong garrifon, and much weakening
Meul»n tne ' r armies. At the time the Regent was preparing to
ttkmfa execute this defign, he received the ill news that Gravi/L;
Ymch"*' one 0I " King Charles'* captains, had taken Meulan by
Moaftrelet. (form, the 4th cf 'January. This lols troubled him ex-
Hall, tremely, as well becaufe it retarded the execution of his
projects, as by realbn of the neighbourhood of Meulan,
which was but fix leagues from Paris. Befides, the ta-
king of a place fo very near him, was a fort of affront he
could hardly digeft. And therefore, he determined to
open the campaign with this fiege.
They iatc Shortly after, King Charles's troops took likewife La
«.r. la Fertc- Ferte- Milon, a fmall town between Meaux and Soijfons.
Milon. g ut t ] 1e ca < t ] e making a brave refirtance, the Marfhal de
L'ljle Adam had time to relieve it, and drive the French
out of the town.
The Regent In the beginning of February, the Regent himfelf be-
ieficga fieged Meulan (2). As it was King Charles's intereft to
Meulan ; k ec .p t i le war j n tne Jf| e Q c p rance ^ an J the neighbouring
Provinces, he ordered the Earl of Aumarle to join Stuart,
who commanded the Scotch troops, and match with him
P. Daniel to tne rc l' e t °f that place. The French give Stuart the
T. 6. title of Conjlable of Scotland ; but it does not appear, he
was ftiled fo by the hiftorians of his nation. I imagine,


the miftake of the French fprung from their ignorance of 1425,,
the Englijh and Scotch tongues, where the title of Confta-
ble may be given to every Leader, or Commander in
chief, of a body of troops, without his being, for all that,
Conftable of the kingdom. Be this as it will, the Earl of
Buchan, being then in Scotland, Stuart commanded the
auxiliary troops of that kingdom. The two Generals
v/ere actually joined ; but a conteft arifing about the com-
mand, they parted again without action. Graville hear- iM'kcapU
ing of it, capitulated the 2d of March. The capitulation " Ua "'
ran, that fuch of the Befieged as had any caftles in their
power, fhould deliver them to the Regent. Purfuant to
this agreement, the Regent took poffeffion of MarcouJJi,
Montlheri, and feveral other places (3).

Though thefe towns are of little confequence at this
day, they were then of great importance, chiefly on ac-
count of their lying near Paris, and keeping the Englijh
at a diftance from the Loire, which was very advantagi-
ous to King Charles. For this reafon he fo managed,
that his adherents fortified themlelves in thofe parts, in all
the towns and caltles capable of making any refiffance in
order to continue the war there. And this alfo was the
reafon, that induced the Regent to form the project, of
clearing the Ifle of France of all thefe garrifons. How-
ever, he would not have opened the campaign fo on-
ly, had he not been forced to it by the lofs of Meulan.
He was meditating a much more important defign,
which he executed immediately after the retaking of that

I have obferved, that the Duke of Bretagne made fome interview c/
advances towards fwearing the peace of Troye, but that '** L>ul " : l f
the death of Henry V, broke off the negotiation. The ^"und'y
Duke of Bedford perceiving of what confequence it was Bretagne,*
to the King his Nephew, to gain this Prince to his in- "id Earl tf
tereft, had ("pent the whole winter in negotiating; an al- R,ttemcnt »

., .11. 1 t\ 1 t Amiens,

liance with him, by the Duke of Burgundy's mediation. April.
This negotiation fucceeding to his wifh, he came to Acl - Pub -
Amiens, where he met the Dukes of Burgundy and Bre- p ' 2
tagne, with the Earl of Richemont his Brother. Accord- „ ,
ing to the plan before formed, they figned a treaty of „ VeaJL &
league and alliance againft King Charles. To render x*'^ A '"£
their union more firm, they moreover concluded two £f".

1 t-v 1 t-» Marriages.

marriages, namely, between the Duke of Bedford and Monftrtkt.
Ann, fifth Sifter of the Duke of Burgundy j and between
the Earl of Richemont and Margaret, eldeft Sifter of the
fame Duke, and Widow of Lewis the Dauphin, who died
in 141 5. As the Earl of Richemont had been the means
of engaging the Duke of Bretagne in this alliance, it was
very reafonable the mediator mould find his advantage
therein. The young Earl, having an extraordinary opi-
nion of his own merit, his vanity was agreeably flattered
by this marriage. Indeed, it was no fmall honour for
him, to efpoufe a Sifter of the Duke of Burgundy, Wi-
dow to a Dauphin of France. But to obtain the Princefs's
confent, he was forced to agree, that, according to the
cuftom of England, flic fhould keep the title of Dauphi-
nefs, becaufe fhe ablblutely refined to take the inferior one
of Countefs of Richemont. The treaty between thefe
Princes was concluded April the Sth.

Soon after, the Duke of Bedford went to Troye, where Tie 'Regent
he confuminatcd his marriage. An hiftorian favs, that '"J 1 """"""
the Duke of Burgundy, in cafe he died without Male- M-nftrdki.'"
IfTue, promifed him the Earldom of Artois, but there was
no occafion to perform this engagement. In conducting
his Bride to Paris, the Regent flayed fome time in Cham-
pagne, to form the fiege of Pont-Sur-fcine, a imall town
of that country, which was carried by ftorm. After
that, he came to Paris, and lodged in the Hotel des
Tournelles, which he had ordered to be repaired, and mag-
nificently furnifhed.

In the beginning of the year, the Earl of Salisbury had Tie Ear! if
been inveited with the government of Champagne and Salisbury
La Brie, and had received orders from the Regent, to Montagu,
clear thefe two Provinces of King Charles's garrifons. .April.
This General, having taken the field in April, befieged, Moatoelefc
or rather blockaded, Montaigu an exceeding ftrong Caf-
tle, (bated upon a cape, belonging to the Province of
Burgundy, but running into Champagne. There were but
fixfcore Men in the Caftle, and yet, by realon of its fi-

(1) Fapin feems to have mifraken this Thimai Beaufort for his Nephew of the fame Name, of whom inJeed there is no mention but of his
Name. This 'Thjtnas Beaufrt, third Son of 'John of Gar.t by Katkavine Siiynfcrd, was in the 5th of Her.ry IV made Admiral of England, and
afterwards Lord Chancellor. He was created 13 Hen. IV, Earl of Dorfet ; and 4 Hen. V, Duke of Exeter, fcr Life. He was Earl of Hartemrt
in Normandy, and behaved with much Valour and Conduit in the French Wan, and particularly at the iamous Battle of A~inceurt, wh^re he
commanded the Rear-ward. He bravely defended Harfcur in Normandy, (of which he was Governor) and in a pitch'd Battle, encountered ai.J put
to flight the Earl or Armagr.ae. He married Margaret, Daughter of Sir Tbcmas A evilg and hdd a Son by her, who died young. So that leaving no
Child, he departed this Life at Greenwich in ^24., and was buried at St. Edmundjlury in Suffolk, leaving his Nephew 'J*tn, Earl of Somcrfet, his Heir,
who was twenty-three years old. Sandf. Geneal. p. 263.

(2) Being accompanied with 'lhomai Mfntacute T.arl of Salijbury, Michael de la Pole Earl of Suffolk, the Lord Scales, the Lord Feyninget, Sir

John Fajtdtf, Mallei of the Houlhold, 6Tc. Hall, fol- S4. After the taking of tht Town, Sir Henry Mourner, and Sir Kuhaid Vernon were

appointed Governors ot it. Ibid.

^3) And the Lord of Gratiille »lfo declared for the Englijh. P.Daniel, Vol. VI. p. S.

N° 17. Vol.1.

6 U

fuation 4


He A-lIT."1

the Siege to
the Earl of

iiticmpti to


Vol. I.



Charles pre-
paid ta re-
lieve ;.*.

is taken.

Orfay taken
by the

the French
befiege Cre-


The Batik
0f Crevant,
V>btrt the
French ate
P. Daniel.

M.!con and
other places
taken by the

tualion, it was alinofi impregnable. The tail of Saltf-
bury having formed the blockade, left the Eari of Svjfolk
(i)'with fome troops, and marched himfclf to other con-
qtiefts. In June, he became mailer of Vertus, Sezanne,
Epernay, and fome other places.

Meanwhile, King Chailes, to whom the keeping of
fome towns in thofe parts was of great confequence, or-
dered Tannegui du Chat el to relieve Montaigu. The Earl
of Salisbury, who had left but few troops before that
caftle, fearing fome misfortune, pofted immediately to
their afliftance. He made fuch fpeed, that Tannegui du
ChiHel, who was now far advanced, finding himfelf too
inferior to the EngliJIj, was forced to retire into Burgundy,
where the French had lately furprized Macon and Crevant,
at the two extremities of that Province. Salisbury fol-
lowed, but not being able to overtake him, refolved to
befiege Crevant, a ftrong place upon the Tonne, three
leagues above Auxerre.

Charles had no fooner received this news, but he or-
dered Stuart, who was lately reinforced from Scotland, to
draw fome troops out of the neighbouring garrifons, and
join du Chatel, in order to attempt the relief of; Crevant,
All thefe forces together made a body of ten thoufand
Men, whereof, by order of the King, the Marfhal de
Sevcrac went and took the command. But as it required
lome time, before they could be joined in one body, Sa-
lisbury had fufficient leifure to take the place. After that,
not knowing yet the defigns of the French, he joined
Suffolk before Alontaigu.

VVhilft thefe things paffed in Burgundy, the Duke of
Bedford caufed Or/ay to be befieged, a fmall place between
Paris and Montlhen. The garrifon holding out fix

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