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weeks, and furrendering only at extremity, he refolved
to make them an example, for a terror to the other
fmall towns. All the oificers and foldiers were carried
away priloners to Paris, and ordered to be put to death.
But, happily for them, the duchefs of Bedford meeting
them as they were going to punilhment, Hopped the exe-
cution, and obtained their pardon.

Mean tiine, the French army, drawn together in Aux-
errois, marched to Crevant, which they had not beer) able
to relieve, and befieged it. The army was commanded
by the Marfhal de Sevcrac, who had under him du Chdtel,
Stuart, Ventadour, and fome other officers of note. The
duchefs dowager of Burgundy, then at Dijon, fent imme-
diately to the Marfhal Toukngeon, and all the Burgundian
Nobles, to try to relieve Crevant. At the lame time,
(he defired the Earl of Salisbury to join her Generals, in
order to raife the iiege. Salisbury was very fcniible, how
necellary it was to comply with the duchefs's requeft, and
therefore leaving part of his troops before Montaigu, the
garrifon whereof was reduced to twenty Men, repaired to
Auxerre, and joined the Burgundians. Next day, they
marched together to Crevant. They had in all, but fix
thouland Men (2), however, they were fome of the beft
foldiers then in Europe. The Befiegers, hearing of their
march, railed the fiege in order to meet them, and pofted
themfelves at fome diilance from Crevant, upon a Hill,
where it was very difficult to force them. The refolu-
tion of the French Generals, furprized the Engli/h and
Burgundians, who feeing no poflibility of attacking them
in that port, altered their rout, and, as if they had lome
other deiign, pafTed the Tonne at Cologn-le-l imeux, with
intent to repafs it at fome other place, and proceed to Cre-
vant. The French finding, that by this march, their
ilution on the Hill was become ufelefs, defcended, and
pofted themfelves by the River-fide, in order to defend the
paffage. The two armies remained above three hours fa-
cing one another, with the river between them. At
length, a body of Englijh gaining a certain bridge, with-
rtood the efforts of the French army with uncommon re-
folution, and gave the reft of the troops time to come to
their fupport. This action, which was one of the boldeft,
was performed with that braver)', order, and conduct,
that it was not poffible for the French to beat them from
the bridge. As foon as all the Englijh and Burgundians
were over, they fo vigoroufly attacked their enemies, that
they put them to rout. The Marfhal de Severac was
blamed for retiring too foon, and leaving Stuart engaged
with his Scotch troops. There was flain on the fpot,
above five hundred (5), moft of them Scots. As many
more were made priloners, among whom were Stuart,
and Xaintrailles, with forty officers of note.

The lofs fuftained by the French on this occafion, ren-
dering them uncapable to keep the field before a victori-
ous army, the Earl of Salisbury returned to the blockade



of Montaigu. A few df.p. after his arrival, the place ca- 1423.
pitulated, and the fortifications were demolifhed. Then,
being apprehenfive of no oppofition from the French, he
divided his army with the Earl of Suffolk, who took Ma-
con, whilft the Earl of Salisbury finiihed the conquefis of
Champagne. After that, Salisbury entered the Ifle of
France, and took Coucy, and fome other caftlcs.

Iri the mean time, the Regent had laid fiege to Crctoy, Sieg, .-_•><.'
a town in Picardy, fituated on the Somme, over-againft ( "'<''''
St. Valery. Ralph Boteler had the management of thiSMcmftrekt.
fiege, which employed him till Oclober. At laft, James
d'Harccurt, governor of the town, agreed to furrender it
the lit of March next, if not relieved by that time. This
fort of capitulation was very common in thofe days. On
the day fixed for the relief, or furrender of the place, the
Befiegers drew up under the walls, expecting their ene-
mies. This was called Temr 'Journee. If no army ap-
peared that day to give them battle, the place was furren-
dered according to -the capitulation. Though the gover-
nor of Crotoy had given ample time to prepare for his re-
lief, Charles was not in condition to attempt it, and the
town was furrendered to the Duke of Bedford.

The battle of Crevant was the more prejudicial to
Charles's affairs, as he loft many officers of diftinction,
fome whereof were flain, and the reft prifoners in the
hands of the Englijh or Burgundians. Among the prifo-
ners, Xaintrailles was the perfun for whom the King was
moil concerned, knowing him to be one of the bravett
officers in the kingdom, and moft capable of doing him
fei vice. Though lie had not much money, he fent him Charles
however wherewithal to nay his ranfon. Xaintrailles ve- "V"

1 , r 11 1 1 ■ r 1 • 1 v-. Xaintrailles.

ry thankfully received tins favour, and to give the King Han- Guife
fcnfible marks of his gratitude, prelenily after his releafe, " rd Com-
found means to furnrize Henn and Guife. At the fame E e ?" c '?*'"■

r TT- I/- 1 i- 1 1 IM 1 •. I'V JiirMxe. -

time, La Hire or f igncles, did the like by Ccrnpeigne. Ttey ..-. c

The lofs of thefe places gave the Regent no fmall un- ' - :j: - ■■'•
eafinefs, as it obliged him to keep his forces near Paris,
in (pite of the projects lie had formed. As he could not
execute his defigns till the French were expelled the nor-
thern Provinces, he ordered the three towns taken by fur-
prize, to be befieged all at once. If I fhould flay to re-
late the circumftances of all the fieges on both fides, du-
ring this war, it would infenhbly iead me into numberlefs
relations, for which few people would be concerned. The
beft way will be to keep to generals, and only mention
the beginnings and events of the fieges.

The Regent's deiign being, as I laid, to retake thefe
three places, the Earl of Ligny inverted Flam, and the
Marfhal de ITjle-Adam made an attempt upon Compiegne.
But fife- Adam falling into an ambufh laid for him by La
Hire, loft three hundred of his Men. Neverthelefs he
obliged his enemy to keep within the walls. After Ligny
had taken Ham, he inverted Guife. Xaintrailles, who
commanded in that place, perceiving, that with his few
troops he fliouid make but a faint refiftance, went away
in queft of relief. But inftead of fucceeding in his defign,
he fell himfelf into the hands of the Burgundians, and
Guife furrendered immediately. After that Ligny joined
I'ljie-Adam before Compiegnc, and La Hire was forced at
laft to capitulate. So, all the advantage Charles gained
by taking the three places, was making the Regent lole
time, which however was no fmall matter, confidering
the iituation of his affairs.

After the Duke of Bretagne had taken part with tbechar.'es
Englijh, Charles law nothing in France able to fupport" ™««
him, and therefore refolved to apply to foreign Princes, ti ' J
for affiftance. He could hope for aid, only from Philip mi.,,,.
Alaria Vifconii Duke of Milan, and the Scots. Philip
was Uncle to the Duke of Orleans, and confequently a
friend of the Houfe of I'alois. His affairs being then in
a good fituation, he fent King Charles a thoufand Men at
arms, and five hundred Lance:., at the time when the
lofs of the battle of Crevant had made him defpair of
keeping the field. Thefe troops being arrived on the
borders of France, Grolt'e governor of Lyonnois, and Cu-
lant, lately made admiral, went to receive them. As
they were entering Baujclois, the governor of la Fuffiere
fent the Generals word, that he was in negotiation with
Toukngeon, Marfhal of Burgundy, to furrender the town,
and as' the Marfhal knew nothing of their march, it
would be eafy to furprize him when he came to take pof-
feffion. This ilratagem was executed with fuch fecrecy, Touloneeon
that Toukngeon entering la Fuffiere with feven hundred ■ Priji-
Men, was made prifoner with all his followers. TJie ' '
Duke his mafter exchanged him afterwards for Stuart u-
ken at Crevant.



(1) mehatth laT-M.

(2) /iW/l'ays, there were, of Englif.mcn and Eurgurrdiat:; , abcut fifteen thoufand Men- And ameng them, the JLurds WillcvgH .'
Sir Thomas Rawpjtori, Sir J'b I'- v. Sir Ti mas Fleming, Sir John, and Sir Reginald Grey, &c. to!. 85.

(3) Several Lout., tigliLem hundred Knights and Efquires, brides common Soldiers ; and three thoufand .'Sat:. Olthe/Tj ; , were flain, Sii ''/■'•
Crty, SaJTiUiam Halle, Sir Gilbert Hallcl, and Riebard ap Madtxke, Hall, i^d.

i This



Book XII.



15. H E N K Y VI.



539



1 4 • i .

Battle of
Gravel I< ,

mbcrc the
Enrlifh are

Halt.



Charles Ben

Aid from
Scotland.
Buchanan.



He carrjfes
the Scots.
Buchan.



Birth of
Pi incc
Lewis.



The Ea, I of
Richemont
quarrel:
with the
Duke of
Bedford.



This, little advantage was not capable of Comforting
Kin?; Charles for all his loifes. But fhortly after, he had
a frefh occafion of joy, in the news, that a body of Eng-
l : jh troops were defeated in Maine with great lofs. "John
de la Pole, Brother of the Earl of Suffolk, knowing the
Fnnch had no army in the field, departed from Norman-
dy with a body of troops drawn out of feveral garrifons,
and throwing himfelf into Anjou, burnt the Suburbs of
Angers. After that, be retired with a booty of twelve
thoufand head of cattle, taken in his incurfion. Whilft
be was employed in this expedition, the Earl of Aumarle,
governor of Anjou, afiembled fome troops to Hop his pro-
gress. The young Duke of Alenfon, Loheae, Coulonge,
the Baftard of Alenfon, and feveral others, joining him with
what troops they could draw together (1), he overtook
the Engli/h at Gra-udle in Maine. Pole perceiving it was
impofhble to drive away his booty without fighting, diew
up his troops, and intrenching himfelf with his carriages
in the front, received the French with great refolution.
But whilft his Men were couragioufly fighting, a detach-
ment of the enemy attacking them in the rear, it was not
poffible for them to defend themfelves on two fides. Af-
ter a very obltinate refiitance, they were at length defeat-
ed with the Iofi of fourteen hundred Men (2), and all
their booty. Po/eh\mi"c\i was taken prifoner (3). Charles's
flatterers would have made him believe, he was revenged
for the bnfinefs of Crevant. But there was a wide diffe-
rence between thele two actions, with refpecf to the con-
fequence. The battle of Gravclle did not affec/t the affairs
of the EngUJh, whereas that of Crevant had almoit ruined
Charles.

This fuccefs however ferved to raife his hopes, efpccial-
Iy when it was feconded with the news of the arrival of
five thoufand Men, brought him from Scotland by the
Earl of Buchan. This Lord had returned into his own
country, to take care of the interefts of his new Matter,
to whom he was entirely devoted. The great Men of
Scotland were very much inclined the fame way. The
new Regent being a Prince ot no great genius and credit,
it was not difficult for the Earl his Brother to do King
Charles fervice. By his care and foliicitations he procured
an aid of five thoufand Men, commanded by Archibald
Earl of Dowglaj's his father-in-law (4). Dowglafs was a
Lord of great repute in his own country, on account of
his quality, riches and alliances, but Hill more confidera-
ble for his merit and experience in military affairs. At
Rochel he landed his troops, which could never more fea-
fonably arrive. Charles plcafed, as may be imagined, to
fee thefe fupplies, loaded the principal Scotch officers with
honours, careffes, and favours. He had already conferred
on the Earl of Buchan the higheft military pott, to which
he could make no addition. Dowglafs was created Duke
of Tourainc. Stuart was made Baron d' Aubigni, and af-
terwards Earl of Evreux, with licence to quarter his arms
with thofe of France. To give the Scots a farther mark
of his efteem and confidence, Charles chofe out of them a
company of guards, which in procefs of time was increa-
fed to a regiment. In fhort, he forgot nothing, that
could help to gain the affection of the Scots, in order to
ingage them to fend him greater fupplies, or make a pow-
erful diverfion in England.

Thus the affairs of Charles began to flourifli, by the
fuccours of the Scots and the Duke of Milan, which ena-
bled him to withffand his enemies. His joy at the arri-
val of thefe troops, was preceded by the Satisfaction of
having a Son born on the 4th of July the fame year. He
gave the young Prince the name of Lewis with the title of
Dauphin.

Betides thefe happy fuccefies, which gave new life to
King Charles, an event was preparing in his favour, that
was no lefs proper to rcftorc his affairs : I mean [the Earl
of Richemont's change, who drew after it that of the
Duke of Bretagne. Richemcnt having confummated his
marriage at Dijon, where the Duke of Burgundy came
with the Dauphinefs his Sifter, went and paid a vifit to
the Duke of Bedford at Paris. During his flay, he fre-
quently intimated to the Duke, that he was extremely
defirous of commanding the EngUJh arm}', to which he



offered to join a confidcrable body of the Duke his Brother': 1423.
troops. But the Regent did not think proper, to lit at
the head of his army a young foreign Prince, who had
never commanded in chief, nor even ferved fince the
battle of Azincourt. The Earl of Richemont, who was
extremely haughty and felf-conceited, could not brook this
refufal. He confidered it as a great affront, and from that
time rcfolved to be revenged. We (hall fee hereafter how
he executed his reiblution.

Shortly after, Charles and the Duke of Burgundy made r "- : 'f-
a truce for Lyranois and Burgundy. This truce was abfo- B Jd *£"%.
lutely necefiary for thefe tv/o Provinces, as well as for ne-
ttle Duke of Savoy, by whofc means it was procured.
His fubjedts and the inhabitants of Burgundy and Lyonnois
not being able to live without trading together, the war
was very detrimental to thefe two Provinces.

Whilft France was the Seat of war, England enjoyed a *ff*<" '/
profound tranquillity, by the good order eftablifhed in j^'p^
the government. In the month of May (5), Edmund x. p. asi.
Mortimer Earl of March, was made governor of Ireland, '' "' r
with a very extenfive authority. Policy required that, ^j 1 ^"
during the King's minority, this Prince fhould be remo- Ireland,
ved from the kingdom, on account of his right to the
crown. Not that he had given occafion by his conduct
for any fufpicion. But it was not impofhble, that even
without his confent, he might prove the caufe of commo-
tions, which the wifdom of the council was willing to
prevent. He did not depart till February or March the
next year.

The Parliament, which met on the 20th of Oclober, A Sub/idy
granted the King a fubfidy (6) for the fupport of the war^*^
in France, where King Charles ftill kept his ground, not- Alt
withltanding the great difproportion between his and his Aa " : ■
rival's forces (7). Xl p ' - ■

I have obferved, that the Scots were extremely careffed trean t-
by King Charles, and that the nation began to follow^"',
maxims entirely different, from what they had done du- Sc'otbndar
ring the Duke of Albany a regency. The Duke of Glo- L ' b "'i-
cefter and the council of England, perceiving this altera- p ' *
tion, which might prove very prejudicial to the King's
affairs, thought it necefiary to countermine King Charles's
defigns, by means of the King of Scotland, prifoner in
England ever fince 1408. To that end, they relolved to
fet him at liberty, upon fuch terms as fhould attach him
to the interefts of England. This was indeed the only
way to ftop the career of the Scotch Nobles, who were
aimoft all inclined to an open rupture with the EngUJh.
Whilft the council was thinking how to proceed without a
too plain difcovery of their defign, an accident in Scotland
faved them the trouble of making the firft advances.

Aiurdac Stuart, Regent of Scotland fince the death of Buchanan,
the Duke of Albany his Father, had three Sons, all very
ill-tempered, and who created him a great deal of trouble,
becaufe he was neither able nor fteddy enough to keep them
within the bounds of their duty. The youngeft asking
one day for a certain Hawk, and being denied, wrung the
Bird's neck, though he knew it to be greatly valued by
his father. This action convincing the Regent, how dif-
ficult it would be for him to govern the nation committed
to his care, fince his own children had fo little refpect for
him, he afiembled the States, and propofed a negotiation
with England concerning their King's liberty. A mo-
tion fo agreeable to the wifhes both of Nobles and Peo-
ple, was received with joy and applaufe. And, not to
afford him time to repent, ambafladors were immediately
named, and impowered to negotiate the affair. As the
council of England flood affected, tlseie ambafladors met
with a very civil reception, and corruniflioncrs (8) were
prefentlv appointed to treat with them. The commiffio- Aft. Pub.
ners inltructions were, that they fhould confent to King x ' P\ 2 9+>
James's liberty, upon the following terms: That the* 9 '
captive Prince fhould pay the King the fum of forty, or
at leaft of thirty-fix thoufand marks, for his expences in
England during his captivity : That a truce fhould be
made, during which neither of the two Kings fhould affift
the other's enemies. Moreover, they were ordered to in-
timate to the Scotch ambafladors, that it would be very
proper to marry their King to a Princefs of the Royal Fa-



(1) Six thoufand Men- Hall, fol. 87. (*) Three hundred. hys Hall, ibid.

(3) With Sir "John Baff'et, 'John Aujord Lieutenant of Fataife, John Clifton, Henry Mortimer, and fix hundred other Perfons. Halt, ibid.

(4.) Buchanan calls him his Son-in-law, 1. 10.

(5) May 9. Rymer's Feed. Tom. X. p. 185.

(6) Of Twelve-pence in the P^und of ail Merchandize exported or imported, and three Shillings of every Tun of Wine, for three Years ; that is, the
fame Duties en the Staple-ware, and Tunnage and Poundege; as before. Cotton's Abridg. p. 568..— -In this Parliament it was enacted, That becaufe
Money was daily carried out of England to feveral pans of Ft attcc, no Gold nor Silver fhould Jor the future, be carried cut ot the Realm, unlefs for the
Charges ot the War, and the Payment of the King's Soldiers, upon pain 1 1 forfeiting the Sum ot Money fo carried out j and the Informer to have the

fourth part. See Statute- Boak. It was alfo enacted, That if any Pcrfon, committed to Piifon for High or Petty -Treafon, ihall break Prifin, and

cfcape, it (hall lie deemed Petty-Trcafon, and his G eds .'"hall be forfeited to the Lcrd of the Manor, where they arc found. Upon this Statute, Sir
jfphtt Mortimer, wasaccufed, for attempting to breakout of the Tower, and hanged, drawn, and quartered, at Tyburn, Status Ann. p. 364, 365. Cot-
ton's At'ridg. p. 56S.

(7) Anci about this time a Reinforcement of ten thoufand Men was raifed in England, and fent over to France to the Duke of Bedford. Hal.', fol. S7.
(Sj Thomas Bifliop of Durham, P bilip Bifliop of Wore tfter, Henry Percy Earl of Nprihuinberland, Ralph Neyill Earl cf IVeftmertland, Richard Nevitl

Waidsn of the Eift-Marchcs, Sir Ralph Cromewcll, and Sil TbtmWi Cbaviortb, J;bn H'odcvam Aichddccn of the Eaft-Ridij'.g, and R:i;rt tfatcrtan.
Rymer'i Feed. Turn, X. p- 294.

mily



54°



Tie HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



14;



1 milv of England. But the council wifhed, that if polli- took, by Scalade, Beaumont upon Oyfe, a fmall town in 1424



F.Y/? Csn/i-
rence,

September,
p. 299.



ble this motion fhould come from the Scots.

The firft conference upon this affair was held at Tori in
the beginning of September, and on the 1 oth of the fame
month the plenipotentiaries agreed, that 'James fhould
have his liberty, and return into his kingdom. That he
fhould pay, at feveral times, the fum of forty thoufand
Marks, and give hoftages for fecurity of payment. In
the fecond conference, held at London on the 4th of De-
cember, every thing relating to the payment of the money,



the Ifle of France, fix leagues from Pontoife.

On the other hand, Petrinet Graffet, a Burgundian ad- La Charite
venturer, furprized La Charite, a place of great impor - ' 1 "^" 2
tance, which might open the Englijh a paflage over the
Loire, and enable them to carry their acms beyond that
river.

The taking of places by fnrprize was then fo frequent,
that it is ftrange, the daily inftances fhould not render the
governors more vigilant. The Duke of Bedford was ex-



and the quality of the hoftages, was fettled. Then it was tremely concerned to fee, that as he promoted the exe-



A Match Is

agreed upon
between
James and
Joanna of
Somerfet.
p. 30:



cution of his projects, by taking the enemy's towns about
Paris, others were furprized, which retarded his defigns.
His fcheme was, as I obferved, to clear the northern Pro-
vinces, and yet he could not accomplifh it. There was Beaumont
no end of it, and therefore it was neceffary, in order to "taken.



1414.

Truce bc~
tiutcn Scot
hind and
England.
p. 32S.



agreed, that the King of Scot/and fhould marry Joanna.
Sifter of the Duke of ( 1 ) Somerfet, and Niece of the Duke
of Exeter and Bifhop of IVinchcJler. On account of this
marriage, which was Solemnized in the beginning of Fe-
bruary next year, Henry, or the council in his name,
3" - abated ten thoufand of the forty thoufand Marks the King purfue his project, to take Beaumont from the French.
of Scotland was to pay (2). For that purpofe, he opened the campaign in March, with

Matters being thus fettled, the ambalTadors of both an army of ten thoufand Men. After he had recovered
nations finned (3) a feven years truce, to commence May this place, he made himfelf mafter likewile in the Ifle of
the 1 ft, I4 2 4; during which, each of the two Kings was France, of feveral Caltles, by which the Parifians were
obliged to hinder his Subjects from doing any damage to very much incommoded



the other. So, by this treaty, James bound himfeli in-
directly, to recall his troeps out of France, before May
the lft. Nevertheless, whether he neglected to fend or-
ders for their return, or, as is moft likely, his Generals
found fome pretence to evade them, thefe troops, as will
be feen prefently, were ftill there in Auguft. All thefe



Mi/lakes of



Whilft he was employed in thefe flight expeditions, The French
news was brought, that Giraut , a captain of King/"'/'"**
Charles's party, had furprized Ivry, on the frontiers of "'*'
Normandy. He ported immediately into thofe parts, and, /, ;, befeged
not to give the French time to provide for its defence, laid *v r/<? Rc-
fiege to the town, the beginning of July. Giraut per-^'"''
negotiations being thus ended, James was conducted to ceiving he could not long defend it, in his prefent condi- j. chartier.
the borders, and fet at liberty the beginning of March. tion, capitulated to furrender^on the 1 ;th of Augujl, ifltapa*-
An Englijh hiftorian affirms, that before James quitted not relieved by that time. King Charles being foon in- ^ kj
y^EnVufli England, he fwore fealty, and did homage to young formed of this capitulation, refolved to relieve Lory at any prepares to
Hrferians Henry in Wind/or caftle, for the whole kingdom of Scot- rate, and to employ in that fervice the Italian and Scotch rtlievilny.
concerning ^^ j t were to be wifhed, that in advancing a fact of troops lately arrived. To thefe, he joined about eleven Ha
Hollireft.'' fuch importance, and fo very improbable, this hiftorian, thoufand Men, drawn out of feveral provinces and garri-
p. jS 7 . who relates the very words of the oath and homage (4), fons ; forefeeing, that without a great Superiority of ioi-
had difcovered the fountain from whence it was drawn, ccs, it would be very difficult to fucceed in his defign.
It cannot be denied, that, fince John Baliol, all the Kings All thefe troops together, made an army of twenty thou-
of Scotland had conftantly refufed this homage. For we fand Men (5), which was formed in Maine. Charles had
muft not reckon among the Kings Edward Baliol, who, never had one fo numerous. It was the Earl of Buchan's
to a (tend the throne of Scotland, had made himfelf Slave place, as eonftable of Fiance, to command in chief. But^,; t ,
of Ediuard III. But not to take things fo high, it will he was pleafed to refign that honour to the Earl of Dou- Douglafi
fuffice to remark, that Robert III, Father of James, re- ghifs his Father-in-law, to whom the King fent for that"'"™"'''
fufed to do homage to Henry IV ; and that iince, there purpofe a patent, constituting him his Lieutenant-General'^ ™ /5/



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