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ance of the Duke his Brother. But, before we proceed of Hainault, was no more able than King Charles, to

in this Affair, it will be neceffary to clofe the Account of bring an Army into the Field. This is the true Reafon

(1) The Duke ct Bi atari was an infirm and weak Prince : whereas JagucKna had a Courage and Genius uncommon to her Sex. P. Daniel Hill. Franc.
Tom. VI p. 18.

(2) Hall ilacts ir in the firft Year of Hairy VI- and fays, it was not only wendered at by the common People, but alio detcfted by the Nubility, and ab-
horred by the Clergy, fol. 84.

(4) Holland, Zealand, &s. Rimer' t Feed. Tom. X. p. 2-9.

(4) Rafhi, deceived by the likeoefs ol Names, calls Sir Jsbn Mortimer, Brother of the Earl of March. The Genially Hands thus. Edmund Mortimer,
thiid Earl ol March, married Pbilippa, Daughter 1 r Lima Duke of Clarence, third Son ot Ediaard III, and by her had, 1. Roper; 2. Edmund, who mar-

:r dying in belaud. 22 Richard II. left, I. Edmund,



Hook XII.



15. HENRY VI.



54^



Hainault.
M nitrelet.
Stow.



why, during the Year 1 + 2;, the War was, at it were,
dilcontinued in France, and no confiderable Conqueft made
on either Side.

I left the Duke of Glocejler Mailer of Hainault, and
the Duke of Burgundy preparing to difpoffefs him. In
Burgundy's Orders to his Generals for levying an Arm)',
he let forth, that having agreed with the Duke of Bedford,
upon an Expedient to end the Quarrel, it was accepted
by tiie Duke of Brabant, but rejected by the Duke of



Duke of Burgundy fliould content to the propofed Afiair. i.i.-;
His reafon was becaufe he had engaged himfelf by Oath
with the Duke of Burgundy, in the Treaty of Amiens.
He had not the fame Scruple with refpect to the Duke of
Bedford, though he was no Jefs engaged with him, than
with the Duke of Burgundy. But Paflion frequently
caufes the fame thing to appear with two different Facer,
according to the Perfons with whom we are concerned!
Tiie Queen and du ChdtA readily allured him, the King



ACbMam (Jlocejler. The Englijh Prince hearing what the Duke of would comply with his Demands. Whereupon he can



Lttiueen the
Duke of Bat-
giT.dy and
Glocefter.



to Tours



Braine taken
by tbe Bra-
banders.
Monftrelet.

Stow.



Burgundy had advanced, lent him a Letter, dated from
Moris, 'January the 12th, 1424-5, taxing him with faying
an Un-truth. The Duke of Burgundy, provoked at this
Affront, returned him a very abulive Anfwer. He told him
he lied, and offered to make good his Affcrtion, in fingle
Combat, and to take the Duke of Bedford for Judge (1).
The Duke of Glocejler accepted the Challenge, and ap-
pointed St. George's day for the Combat. Several other
bitter Letters palled between them, but of no confequence
to what I have farther to fay.

Whilfl thefe two Princes were thus reviling each other,
the Earl of St. Pol, Brother of the Duke of Brabant,
befieged the little Town of Braine in Hainault, delemled
by two hundred Englifl). After a faint Rchitance, the
Garrifon capitulating, the Bra banders violated the Arti-
cles, put the Englifl} to the Sword, and fet Fire to the The Murder of the Duke his Father being Hill fj



s, where Charles took care to flatter his Vain!
with all poffible Civilities and Careffes. But however,
the Earl Hood firm to his previous Demand?, and told the
King plainly, he could lift in his Service, only upon the
Terms propofed. The King gave him hopes of the firft
without however fixing the time; and as to the fecond'
was pleafed, that he fhould talk with the Duke of Du, '
gundy, to obtain his Confent. He took likewife this op-
portunity to fend to the Duke of Burgundy the Bifhops
of Buy and Chartres, with orders to found him, whether
there was any way to difengage him from the King of
England.

Though the Duke of Burgundy was extremely incenfed 1U Duti </
agamft the Duke of Glocejler, he appeared not fo iriclinabl
to an Agreement, as Charles and his Council expected



Truce be-
ttuecn tbe
Dates of

deceit, r



(z).



his Mind, he fhewed at firft great Averfion to a Reconci- CbarTcsVII



Mean while, as the fingle Combat of the Dukes of liation. Neverthelefs, pre(l«f bv the King's Envoys who

Burgundy and Glocejler was of courfe to decide the princi- endeavoured to excufe their Mailer by calting the Blame

pal Quarrel between Glocejler and Brabant, it was thought on his evil Counfellors, he replied, the Kin"- therefore fhould

j.vi Brabant, proper to make a Truce, in expectation of the Succefs of difmifs thofe pernicious Counfellors, and then it would be

Gloc iter, the Combat. Upon figning the Truce, the Duke of time to talk of an Accommodation. This was a fufficient

Glocejler returned into England. He would have carried Intimation, that he was not inexorable, efpecially as he

his Dutchefs along with him, but the People of Mons were readily confentcd, that the Earl of Richemont fhould accept

fa urgent with him to leave her behind, that he could not of the Conftable's Sword,
deny their Rcqueft. He made the Magiftrates, however,
folemnly fwear to defend her, at the Peril of their Lives,
againft all Perfons whatever (3).

Whilll rhe War of Hainault fufpended that of France,



returns to
Ejiislar.d.
flail.



Chiles takes
sid'var.tage
<.flbe Hai-
nault Di-
■Jerfton.
P. Daniel.



Charles took meafures to improve this happy diverfion. > In
a great Council, held to confider the State of his Affairs,
it was unanimoufly agreed, there was but one way to free



lie gams
the Earl of
-Ricru'mor.t,
art by bis
mtatts the
Duke of
Bretagne.
Menfuckt.



Charles, it feems, had reafon to congratulate himfelf Tie
upon his good Fortune. It was in his own Power to gain*"^*'?
tiie Duke of Bretagne ; and moreover, he had hopes that "rZLtue,
the Duke of Bm gundy was not Proof againft a reafonable
Satisfaction. However, the Terms impolcd upon him threw
him into great Perplexity. To procure thefe Advantages, P- Daniel.
he muft part with his two principal Minifters, Favorites D "' ; -''
him from his prefent Circumftances. And that was, to and Confidents, namely, Tannegui du Chdtcl, who flew
offer the Duke of Burgundy and Bretagne a Carte Blanche, the Duke of Burgundy, and Louvet, Prelident of Provence.
in order to win them from the Englijh. The firft had whom the Duke of Bretagne confidered as Author of the
openly broke with the Duke of Glocejler: The other Pontievrian Confpiracy. Du Chat el faved him part of his c ^"^' *-
might be gained by the Earl of Richemont his Brother, Trouble to make this Sacrifice. He came and call himfelf -' :r "; w '
who had great Influence over him, and moreover was at his feet, intreating him, in Reward of his Services to "
very angry with the of Duke Bedford. This was a June- give him leave to retire, fince his Prefence at Court could
lure which was not to be neglecled. On the other hand, not, for the future, but be detrimental to fo good a Mailer.
Bona of Artois, lately married to the Duke of Burgundy, It was with extreme Reluctance that the King granted his

Rcqueft. It was a long time before he could come to a
Refolution. Meanwhile, preffed by the continual Inftan-
ces of a faithful Servant, who defired his leave, only to
give him a frefh Proof of his Zeal, he fuffered him at length
to retire. There are few Favorites, who thus prefer their
Mailer's Good to their own. Louvet, who was not fo r, , ; , , ....,
dilinterelled, did not think himfelf obliged to follow this
Example. He would have kept himfelf rn his Poll, at r " J -
of his Army. This was attacking the Prince in the moll the Expence of all the Advantages the King could exneel
fenlible Part. As he had a high Conceit of his own Me- from an Alliance with the Duke of Bretagne.

rit, it was no fmall Pleafure to him, to fee King Charles Mean while, the Earl of Richemont not doubting in the Charleses.
offer him a Puft, fcornfully refufed him by the Duke of lealt, that the King would perform his Promife in rela-
Bedfovd. However, knowing the Peifons that talked to tion to Louvet, came to him at Tours, where he received 1

the Conftable's Sword (4) the 7th of March, 142 j. He P. Daniel.
had promifed to win the Duke of Bretagne from England,
but, as he ftill faw Louvet and d'Avaugour about the Kino-,
was not in hafle to perform his' Engagement. Charles was
willing enough to make him a Sacurice of the laft. But
Louvet had a furer footing at Court. Bcfides his being
beloved by the King, one of his Daughters, Wife cf the
Lord dejoyeufe, fhared Charles's Heart with Agnes Sorrel,
who began to appear at Court as a Favorite. Wherefore,
to gain the Duke of Bretagne, Charles faw himfelf forced
to difmifs a beloved Minifter, and difoblige a Miftrefs.
This gave him no fmall Concern. On the other hand,
Louvet ufed his utmoft Endeavours to ruin the Con (table
in his Mailer's Favour. He reprefented to him, with what



being French, and Half-Sifter to the Earl of Clermont,
the King's zealous Adherent, it was likely fhe would readily
endeavour to gain the Duke her Spoufe.

The Refolution being then taken to try thefe two
means, Charles fent to the Earl ot Richemont private
Emilfaries, who told him, what a great Eileem the King
had lor him ; intimating, that he had often laid, he fhould
deem himfelf invincible, if he could have him at the head



him thus, were fent only to found him, he contented
himfelf with returning a civil Anfwer to their Compli-
ments, and artfully iniinuating, he had a great Inclination
to ferve their Mailer.

The firft Step being taken, Charles fent to him the
Queen Dowager of Sicily his Mother-in-law, with Tan-
negiii du Ch itel, and empowered them to offer him the
Conftable's Sword. This Poll had been vacant ever fince
the Death of the Earl of Buchan, flain in the Battle of
Verneuil. The Queen of Sicily and du Chdtel found the
Earl entirely difpofed to the change. He was exafperated
againft the Duice of Bedford, and being extremely proud
and vindictive, was pleafed to think, he fhould have an
opportunity of revenging his Contempt. So, without



much Solicitation, he accepted the King's Offer, with Haughtinefs he had impofed Terms on his Sovereign, as if

great Demonltrations of Thankfulnefs, and promifed to he had been his Equal, and caufed it to be confidered as

Cmditiens engage the Duke his Brother in his Interests. However, a Favour, that he was pleafed to accept of the Conftable's

"' '"'. he required two Conditions without which, he protefted, Sword. In fhort, he fo managed the King, that Charles,

Richemont. he could not accept the Honour dcfigned him by the who was very obftinate, refolved net to part with his Mi-
King, or promife any thing, with regard to the Duke nilter, let what would be the Confequence.
his Brother. The firft was, that Louvet and d'Avau- The Conflable finding himfelf difappointed, refolved to ,,.
gour, the principal Authors of the Pontievrian Confpiracy, ruin Louvet, in fpite of the King himfelf. For that pur- '■"

fhould be removed from Court. The fecond, that the pofe, knowing this Minifter was no: beloved by the great y

ffeblc.

(1) He ottered to tike the Kmperor for J-adge, and if that would not d.>, then the Duke of Bedford. Wtmflrelet, fol. so.

(z) There was ai this Siege a R. dy of in-neb Troops, commanded by Xtiiureitta ; which the Duk< o) '■ b iro ufly '.1L Matftrehl. P. Da-

niel. Tom. V!. p. 2. ■

(3) Hi alfoli thouland Englifimen with her. Hall, fol. 93.

(4J F. U ■,.:.' '.'.; ,'u a CI *. Tom. VI. p. 16,

Men



544



The H I S T R Y of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



72. Dukiof
Bretagne
does Homage
to Charles.
Du Tlllet.
P. Daniel.



Sluarrtl be-
tween the
D*te of
Gloccrf



Hall.



1425. Men at Court, he f« caballed with them, that a Plot was
formed to remove him from the King. When he was
fecure of the Succefs of his Project, he withdrew from
Court without taking leave, and fent the King word, he
would never return fo long as Louvet was there. Charles
little regarding his Retreat, dill perfifted in the Refolution
to keep his Miniiter. But when he faw, that by degrees
the great Men retired to their Governments, on divers
PreteVices, that they refufed to receive his Orders, and
that he had but two or three Towns left, which he could
call his own, he found he muft refolve to part with Louvet,
or his Kingdom. He was even apprehenfive, that the Con-
ftable would deliver the Duke of Brctagne's Places to the
Englijh. So, he was forced, tho' with extreme Indigna-
tion, to difmifs his Miniiter, who had ftill Credit enough
to caufe his Creature de Giac to be received in his Room.

Upon this Removal, the Conftable was willing to re-
turn to Court, but Charles was fo provoked with him,
that he could not bear to fee him. However, the State of
his Affairs obliged him at length to admit him again. The
Conftable, content with having accompliflied his Defigns,
performed his Promife concerning the Duke his Brother,
and brought him to Saumur, where he did Homage to
the King ( 1 ).

Whilft the Earl of Richemont was raifing diflurbances
in the Court of King Charles, Henry enjoyed not greater
Tranquillity. I have obferved, that the Duke of Glo-
rlBi/hpcfceJIer, and the Bifhop of Wine hefter, his Uncle, were not
Wincheflcr. Friends. On which Side foevcr the Fault lay, they loft
no opportunity of plaguing one another. The Hainault
Expedition furnifhed the Bifhop with one, which he knew
how to improve. When that undertaking was propofed
in Council, he ftrenuoufly oppofed it, and maniteftly
fhewed, how prejudicial it might be to the King's Affairs.
But though, on this occafion, he was in the right, the
Duke of Gloccjler had Intereft enough to have it approved.
He departed with a Mind imbittered againft his Uncle,
and with a refolution to be revenged, the firft oppoxtu-
nity.

The Hiftorians inform us not, how the Government
was fetthd during the Duke of Gkceftcr's, Abfcnce, which
tailed about a Year (z). Very likely, the Bifhop aiWin-
chejhr had the greateft Share in it, and made ufe of this
Advantage to create his Enemy many Vexations. Some
even fay, all his Proceedings tended to deprive him of the
Protedtorfhip, in order to obtain it for himfelf.

The Duke being returned into England, about Oclober
142;, this Quarrel was kindled afrefh, with great Ani-
mofity on both Sides. One day as he intended to go to the
Tower, Sir Richard Woodville the Governor refufed him
Admittance, by the Bifhop of Winchefler's Advice. The
Protecfor, who was exceeding high-fpirited, flew into a
great Paffion with the Bifhop, and proceeded even to
Threats. In a word, the Quarrel was carried fo far, that
they both began to arm their Friends, either to attack or
defend. The Duke of Coimbra, Prince of Portugal, then
in England (3), and the Archbifhop of Canterbury, endea-
voured in vain to reconcile them. An Hifforian fays, the
Bifhop of JVinchcJler was forced to fly for refuge to the
Tower, and that eight or ten of his People were killed by
the Duke's. But this is unlikely, fince, in their mutual
Complaints, laid before the enfuing Parliament, there is
no mention of any fuch thing.

The Prelate having no Warriors on his Side, did not
find his account in deciding the Quarrel by Arms. The
Intrigues of the Cabinet were more within his Province.
And therefore, to prevent the Mifchief that might befal
him, if things remained in this date, he writ to the Duke
of Bedford, defiring him to come into England. He told
him in his Letter, unlefs he made all poffible Hade, the
Kingdom was in danger of being expofed to fatal Com-



motions, by his Brother's violent Temper. The Duke of 1425.
Bedford perceiving the Importance of this Quarrel, fet out Warwi



immediately, leaving in France, Richard de Beaucbamp 'l™^f u '"
Earl of Warwick, to command in his room, and arrived \c. p u b.
in England December the 20th. x ' r- 3:9-

As foon as the Duke fet foot in the Kingdom, he af- 1426.
fumed the Tide of Protector, and was received as fuch, f^f*/* °f
purfuant to the Ail of Parliament in 1422. We find in



Bedford
received fir



the Collection of the Publick Ails, not only that Petitions PnteB
were prefented to him as Protector, but the Parliament li - P- 3 ■>
adigned him the Salary of eight thoufand Marks, annex- 3;9> 3 3 '
ed to that Dignity, and which the Duke of Glocejler till
then had enjoyed.

A few davs after his Arrival, the Duke of Bedford England pro.
fpoke in the Council, of the Treachery of the Duke ofelaim n'ar
Bretagne, and the Earl of Richemont, reprefenting the™'' ne "
Prejudice it brought to the King's Affairs. Upon his it,, p. 3+0.
Remondrances, and by his Advice, it was unanimoufly Argcntre.
refolved, to declare War againft the Duke of Bretagne ;
which was accordingly done on the i;th of January, by
Proclamation. Moreover, to find that Prince Employ-
ment in his own Country, and hinder him from affift-
ing King Charles, 2e refolution was taken to fupport the
Pontievrians his Enemies, and try, by their means, to raife
a Civil War in Bretagne. To that end, Safe-Conducts
were difpatched to the two Brothers of Pontievre : But
however, nothing came of it. Probably, their Intereft
was not great in that Country.

This affair being ended, the Duke of Bedford wholly Co „ ti „ aat ; „
applied himfelf, to procure a fincere Reconciliation between e f ,be %ar-
the Duke his Brother and the Bifhop of Ifrinchcjhr. The rd of the
way to fucceed, was to favor neither. Had he taken his g?^
Brother's Part, as the Ties of Blood feemed to require, he anlBifkop
would not have been fit to perform the Office of a Media- °S Winchef-
tor. Moreover, befides the Character of Brother and Ne- J^
phew, he had another to maintain, in order to anfwer his
Duty, and the Expectations of the Publick ; I mean that
of Protector, chiefly concerned in the Good of the State,
independently of the Duties of Nature. So, not to take
upon himfelf alone fo nice an Affair, he affernbled fome of
the prime Nobility at St. Albans, in hopes of finding, with
their Affidance, fome expedient, to content thefe two
Princes. But their Animofity was fo great, that it was
not poffible to fucceed by this means. After many fruitlefs
Endeavours, the Decifion of the Affair was forced to be JjJJS™
referred to a Parliament fummoned at Leicejler for March Hall.
(4). When the Parliament met, the Duke of Glocejler
exhibited fix Articles againft the Bifhop.



I. He accufed him of caufing him to be denied Entrance



Articles ef



Hall.



IWonftrelet.



17.'! DM of
Bedford
tomes into
England.

Hall.



into the Tower, and thereby rendering the Dignity oi Acnfathn
Protector contemptible. 'gfj*fi ,bt

II. That he would have removed the King from his ffajf'
Palace at Eltham, to Windfor, with defign to become
Mader of his Perfon.

III. That not being fatisfied, with caufing him to be
denied Admittance into the Tower, as was faid in the firft
Article, he had placed armed Men on London Bridge, and
in Southward, on purpofe to murder him.

IV. That he had concealed a Villain in the late King's
room, when Prince of Wales, in order to murder him.

V. That he had advifed the fame Prince, to feize the
Crown, before the King his Father's Death.

VI. That in his Letter to the Duke of Bedford, it evi-
dently appeared, that his Defign was to raife a Civil War
in the Kingdom.

The Bifhop gave a particular Anfwer to thefe Accufa- Bljbap't
tions, by explaining fuch of his Actions as might have Reply.
been ill conftrued, or by denying the Facts laid to his
Charge (5).

The



(1) And at the lame time, i'i'z. O.lob. 7. concluded a Treaty with him, whereby he engaged to aflift him in driving the Englip out of France, upon the
following Conditions : I . That Charles (hould be reconciled to the Princes of the Blood, particularly to the Duke of Burgundy. 2. That he fh uM not protect
the Earl of Pomievrc. 3. That the Duke of Burgundy ihould have the Adminiftration of the Finances in the Languedoil, that is, the Country between the
Loire and Languedoc. Du Tillet, p. 349, 363. P. Darnel, Tom. VI. p. 19.

(?.) Before his going over, a Parliament was held at Wefminfier, which met on April 30, and granted the King the Subfidy of Wools, namely, forty three
Shillings and four-pence en every Sack, f.om Strangers; and horn Denizens, thirty three Shillings and four-pence J as alio thiee Shillings of every Tun of

Yv 1 , ,:nd Twelve-pence in the Pound of all forts of Merchandize imported or exported. Cotton's Abridg. p. £,78. Status Ann. p. 366. Hall, lol. 91

'I be young King rid in great Triumph to this Parliament through the City of London upon a large Courier. Hall, ibid -Several Perfons having made

a Trade of carrying from time to time a great number of Sheep and Fleeces out of the Realm into Flanders, and other Countries beyond Sea, it was -naft-
td in this Parliament, That no Perfon whatfoever Ihould be fuffered to carry any Sheep out of England, upon pain of forfeiting the fame, cr the Value

thereof, to llie King. See Statutes It being feared, that fome Quarrel Ihould arife between the Attendants of the Duke of Glscefter, and the

Bifhop of li'incbejler, during the Sell'ion of this Parliament, flrift Orders were given, that no Perfon ihould come to it with Swords, or other warlike Wea-
pons. This Order was literally obferved, yet the Lords came with Batts, or great Clubs, from whence this Parliament was called the Parliament of Baits.
Cinp. Htfi. p. 352.

(-,, He was Srn of Pbilippd, eldeft Daughter of John of Caur.t, Duke of Lancafler. During his Stay in England, he was made Knight of the Garter.
Ha , 1 1. 92. Ry>ner\ Ford. Tom. X- p. 405.

(.}) It met UVre the iSth Day of February, and continued the Subfidy of Wools, and Tunnage and Poundage for two Years. Cotton's Abridg. p. ;f ;,

58 5- . , ,

(5} 1\> (he firft Article, the Biiho? anfwered, That, after the Duke of G!oce/Ier"s going to Hamauit t fed:tious and odious B.lis (or Papers) snd

Language, being caft and ufed in the City of Landon t founding of Infurre&ion and Rebellion againft the King's Peace, and d>. ftruclion as, well of the

feveril eftatca of the Land, as of Strangers, who thereupon m gieat Numbers fled out of the Land ; it was thought advifeable, to allign Richard

Wt dville t Efq; Deputy- Governor of the Tower, a certain Number of de fallible Perfons, for the more lure keeping of the ("aid Tower: 1 And h-; was

ftraightly charged by the Council, that during the time of his faid Charge, he fliould not fuffer any Man to be in the Tow« ftronger than hirm'Jf,

without efpecia] Charge or Commandment of the King, by the Advice of his Council. 2. To the fecond he anfwered, That he never purpo&d I 1 ; ■

Hands on the Rinj, or remove him, without the Advice of the Council: For, the doing of it would have been no Advantage to him, but rather

great Pcnl and Charge, -. To rhs third he faid, That what armed Men he employed, it was only in his own Defence for he was often warn &„

z th-tc



Book XII.



15. HENRY VI.



545



ft 1 '.:,>

'-."'. cent.
7 / 1 v art
ret ■■"< r/«f
cuiiuuraiy.



£>£<{iicrts to

fotlify b*b

I'.iu', r.
Act. Pub,
X. p. 5 > 3



P- 3



Mowbray
y tft wed, ant
the Duke of
York, With
forty others
kmgltaij

p. 3i 6.



fjjrei Pontor
loll, and

Btuvr< n.
Argentce.



The Parliament appointing CoitimiiTioners to examine
'the Accufation and Anfwers, declared, upon their Report,
that the Charge was groundlefs, and acquitted the Bifhop.
Then they obliged the two Princes to be reconciled.
Whereupon they fhook hands, and feemingly parted
good Fiiends, but however were no lefs Enemies to each
other.

Mean while, as the Times and Circumftances of Af-
fairs would not allow the Duke of Glocejier to be entirely
facrificed to his Enemy, the Protedtor took care to pro-
cure him alfo fome Satisfaction. In the firft Place, he
took the Great Seal from the Bifhop of IVincheJler, and
gave it to the Bifhop of London. Moreover, as it was
impoffible for the two Advetfaries to be together in the
Council, without great Prejudice to the King's Affairs, he
prevailed with the Bifhop to go with him into France,
under colour of performing a Vow. But to repair the In-
jury his Abfence might do him, he had leave to follicitc a
Cardinal's Cap, which was fent him fhortly after.

This Affair being thus happily ended, the Protector re-
'ffored John Mowbray, Earl Marflial, to the Title of Duke
of Norfolk, which his Father Thomas was deprived of by
Richard II. At the fame time ( 1 ), he made forty Knights,
among whom was the young Duke of York. Hence,
doubtlefs, it is, that this Prince is faid to receive in this



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 229 of 360)