M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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a cotemporary Author, fays the contrary. The Convoy
being arrived on the 29th in the Morning, near the Bur-
gundian Gate, the Baftard of Orleans made a Sally to fa-
vour their Palfage. A fierce and bloody Battle enfued, Mbnftrelet.
wherein, after a long refiftance, the Englijh were defeated,
and forced to let the Convoy go in (6). Joan made her F 3n aitn
Entry into Orleans, amidft the Generals, and Acclamations S?^Sfc"
of the People, who afcribed to her the good Succefs of that
Day.

On the 4th of May, Joan at the head of a Detach- She takes four
ment of theGarrifon, attacked, Sword in hand, the Fort ' '"' *"
of St. Loup, one of the fix largeft before-mentioned. Af- Mot^S*'
ter a Conflict of four Hours, the Fort was carried, and Hail.
of the twelve hundred Englijh who defended it (7), four
hundred were killed on the fpot. Two days after, fhe
affaulted likewife the Fort of St. John ; but as it was
almoft abandoned by the Englijh, fhe met with little Re-
fiftance. Prefently after, without giving her Troops any
Refpite, fhe led them againft the Fort, called London, the
moft confiderable of the Six, built upon the Ruins of the
Church of the Auguflincs. Notwithftanding the gallant
Refiftance of the Englijl), this was alfo taken, with great
Lofs on their Side. Joan's Troops thought of refting
themfelves, after fo hard Duty, but immediately fhe marched
them to the Fort of the Tournelles. But as fhe could not
attack it that Evening, for want of day-light, fhe kept it
inverted all Night. On the morrow, at break of Day,
the Affault began, and lafted fourteen Hours without Inter-
miffion. The French were repulfcd four feveral times, and
as often renewed the Charge ; Joan animating them by her
Words and Actions, though wounded with an Arrow be-
tween the Neck and Shoulders. At length, about eight
at Night, the Fort was carried like the reft, and fix hun-
dred Englijh cut in pieces. In all thefe Actions, Joan
fhewed a Valour and Refolution very uncommon in Perfons
of her Sex (8).

It may eafily be guelfed, how great was the Confterna- -jt- TntWih
tion of the Englijh, after the ill Succefs of that Day, raifethe
The Lofs of four of their largeft Forts not permitting



(1) Together with Sir Thomas Ramfjlon, and Sir Philip •Hali. Kill, fol. 105.
Cz) And about a thoufand People belides. Monftrclet. fol. 40.

(3) Between five and fix hundred. Ibid. fol. 41.

(4) She was born in 1407, in the Parifh of Grcux upon the il/ea/e, InDomrmy. Vit. MSS.
(>) Alter the had been about two Months with the King at Chinon. Mtn/lrelct, fol. 41.

(6) In the dead time of the Night, and in a great Storm of Rain and Thunder. Hall, fol. 107.

(7) Among the reft were HaSntPilliamGlaJdifdalc, the Captain, and the Lords Motrin, and Pyniugu Ball, fol. 107. StcrzusAnn. p. 370.

(5) But Monftrclet oblerves, that though Joan was at the Head of thefe feveral Actions, and had the Glory of them, yet thty were ihicrty performed by
thofc nuble Kn.ghts and Captains, who had fo bravely defended Orleans, ful 43. In thefe Attacks, the Englijh left near eif,hc thoufand Men, and the Fmtb
not above a hundred. Ibid.



' Monftrclet.
Hall.



No. z8. Vol. I,



6 Z



tberr-



55°



The H I STO RY of ENGLAND,



Vol. I.



1429.



Aft. Pub.
X. p. +c8.



lit rrcat



them to continue the Siege, they raifeJ it "the 12th 'of
Mat, after having been before the Place feven whole
Months.

Here is a Fragment of the Duke of Bedford's Letter
to the Kin"- his Nephew, a.ter the raifing of the Siege of
Orleans, which fhows hows much the Englifh, and the
Duke of Bedford himfelf, were difcouraged by this unex-
pected Event.

" And alle thing there profpered for you, till the tyme
" of the Siege of Orleans taken in hand, God knoweth
" by what Advis. At the whiche Tyme, after the Ad-
" venture fallen to the Perfone of my Coujin of Salysbury,
" whom God affoile, there felle, by the Hand of God as
" it feemeth, a greet ftrook upon your Peuple that was
" aflembled there in grete Nombre, caufed in grete Par-
" tie, as y trowe, of lakke of fadde Beleve, and of un-
" levefulle doubte, that thei hadde of a Difciple and
" Lyme of the Feende, called the Pucelle, that ufed fals
" Enchauntements and Sorcerie. The whiche Strooke
" and Difcomfiture nought oonly lefTed in grete partie the
" Nombre of youre Peuple there, but as well withdrowe
" the Courage of the Remenant in merveillous wyfe, and
" couraiged your Adverfe Paitie and Ennemys to afiemble
" hem forthwith in grete Nombre c5V. (1).

The raifing of the Siege of Orleans ufhered in the De-



very mortifying Terms to a Piince of his Character. It 1429.

was required of him, that he fhould not pretend to govern

the King, nor be prefent at the Coronation, where La Tri-

mouille was unwilling to be out-fhone.

Batigenci being taken, the King had Intelligence, that The Bank of
the Englifh weie affembling in Beauce. Whereupon !; ;/,', .
Charles holding a Council of War, it was unanimoufly Kn.iini an
refolved to give them Battle. Indeed, there was no pro- difiattd,
bability of going to Rheims, with the Enemies in the M°nftrelet.



the Fp-nch
and Englifli



The Englifli
reTrcat ;n
Dlfordtr.
Monihelet.



Miration >f c ]\ ne f tne Englijh Affairs. From that time, the French
and Englijh feemed to have mutually changed Tempers and
Characters. The Englijh were feized with a Spirit of
Fear and Amazement, whilft the French were filled with a
Courage, almoft entirely loft fince the Battles of Azincourt
and Vernueil. Though, after the raifing of the Siege, the
French exceeded net fix thoufand, they fearlcfly and
briskly purfued the Englijh, who, though they were ftill
fuperior in Number, retreated in a ftrange Diforder.
Their Confternation was fuch, that they knew not what
they did. Inftead of keeping together, to withftand their
Enemies, they amufed themfelves with throwing nume-
rous Garrifons into the Places, conquered before the Siege,
about the Loire. By that means they fo weakned them-
felves, that they were no longer able to expect their Ene-
mies who were clofely purfuing them. As they dreaded
a Battle, as much as they were wont to defire it, they re-
tired at a diftance, and gave the French time to retake
Earl of thefe Places one after another. The Earl of Suffolk was

Sufi'. II; mad
Prifoner.
Monftreiet.
Hall.



Rear. Charles's Army was then ten thoufand ftrong (3.), ,
including the Bretons, brought by the Conftable. But of
the twenty two thoufand Englijh, lately before Or.'
there was left but fix thoufand with Talbot, who had taken
the Command of the Army, after Suffolk was Pri-
foner. By an effect of the great Amazement of the Eng-
lijh, fince the Affair of Orleans, they fuffered themfelves
to be furprifed near Pat ay, by the French, who appeared
in Sight before they had heard any thing of them. They
had fcarce time to draw up, which was done in fuch Con-
fufion, that they made but a very faint Refiftance. Tal-
bot alone maintained the Fight, by his Valour and Con-
duct, but at laft, the General being taken Prifoner, the and Talbot
Englifh Army was routed with the Lofs of two thoufand f^
five hundred Men (4). Fajlolff run away with the flying Monftrete,
Troops, feized by one of thofe fudden Terrors, which,
for the time, deprive a Man of the ufe of his Reafon, and
may happen to the moft Couragious (5).

If the raifing of the Siege of Orleans was a great Check The Dultof
to the Affairs of the Englijh, the Defeat of Patay was a^°£
no lefs grievous and fatal Blow to them. The Regent faw uf ,„ p^-i,.
himfelf forced to keep within the Walls of Paris, being
unable to appear in the Field, to oppofe the Progrefs of
his Enemies. Mean while, Charles improved thefe Advan-
tages. LewislII, Duke oi~ Anjou, and King of Sicily, his"',^"f/
Brother-in-law, being returned from Naples, where he chiles,
had made along ftay, brought him immediately after the
Battle of Patay, a Supply of feveral brave Officers, who
had attended him into Italy, and were come back with
him into France.

King Charles's Adherents increafing, as his Affairs be- Charles






Charles re-
follies to hi
vi I at
Rhctms.



made Prifoner in Gergeau, where he had imprudently fhut
himfelf up, with four hundred Men only (2), which muft
have proceeded from his Confternation at the Defeat of his
Troops. Of all the Places in thofe Parts, Batigenci held
out the longeft, but could not help undergoing the fame
Fate with the reft. In (hort, Diforder and Confufion had
fo poffeiTed the Englijh, that Charles by Joan's Advice,
refolved to be crowned at Rheims. Mean time this City
was ftill in the hands of the Englijh. Befides, there was a
Neceffity of traverfmg above one hundred and twenty Miles
of the Enemies Country, and of taking feveral Places,
which at any other time he would not have ventured to
approach. Strange Effect of the Terror ftruck into the
Englijh by a Woman, and of the Confidence inftilled into
their Enemies by the fame '
Tb, CnftaUi The Conftable Richcmont, feeing the Profperity of the
"' King's Affairs, began to abate of his haughtinefs. Hi-
therto he imagined himfelf necefiary, but the late Events
made him fenfible he might be entirely forgotten, and
lofe his Share of the Glory the King was, probably, go-
in" to acquire. In this Belief, he aiiembled all his Friends,
and forming a Body of twelve hundred Horfe, and twelve
thoufand Foot, he marched to join the King who was
then before Baugenci. The Duke of Bretagne, doubtlefs
connived at this Levy in his Country, the late Revolution
caufin " him to alter his meafures. Whilft the Conftable
was upon his march, La Trimouille, who defired not his
Company at Couit, artfully perfuaded the King, he was
coming with a numerous Army, to have his Perfon in his
Power. This firft ImprefTion fo affected the King, that
he was going to raife the Siege of Baugenci, and give the
Conftable Battle, but upon better Iniurmation, was pleafed
to receive him with his Succours. It was however upon



Hall.



came more profperous, he reviewed his Troops at Gicn,'"f!f '"
and found them augmented to fifteen thoufand Men. HeMonftrelet.
gave a Part to the Conftable, to make a Diverfion in Hall.
Normandy, or rather, under that honorable Pretence, to
remove him, that he might not affift at the Coronation,
according to Agreement. The Earl of Perdriac had an-
other Part, to carry the War into Guienne. Thefe two^J" { - ur _
Detachments were but five thoufand Men. With the render to bim.
remaining ten thoufand, Charles took the Road to Rheims, Hall.
knowing there was no Army in the Field to oppofe him.
In paffing through Burgundy, he fummoned Auxerre, which
promiled to follow the Example of the principal Towns
of Champagne. Troye and Ch.ilon furrendered upon the
firft Summons. A few days after, the Inhabitants of
Rheims drove the Englijh Garrifon out of the City, and
fent Deputies to the King, to prefent to him the Keys of
their Gates. Thus every thing fucceeding to his wifh, R ^ mSi ' aai
Charles entered Rheims (6) in Triumph, and was crowned 1, ,
prefently after (7). The Ceremony being ended, Joan Monftreta.
would have retired, affirming, fhe had nothing more to
do, after executing what God had commanded. But the
King preffed her fo earneftly, that at laft he prevailed
with her to ftay.

It is now time to fee what was tranfacting in England, ri !' D ^ e 'f

O (jioCt'IT'T

during the late fatal Revolution in France. The Quarrel m , r „j;,' s ,b c
ftill lubfifted between the Duke of Glocefler and the Bifhop Cardinal of
of IVinchcJler, who was returned to London. As the Pre- Winchefter.
late's new Dignity rendered him more haughty than ever,
the Duke of Glocefler took occafion from this Dignity,
to give him a fenfible Mortification. St. George's Day,
Patron of the moft noble Order of the Garter, being at
hand, the Cardinal was to officiate, as Bifhop of Win-
chefter. But the Duke of Glocefler, and his Friends, op-
pofed it, affirming, he could not hold the Bifhoprick of
Winchejler, with the Dignity of Cardinal (8), without the
King's exprefs Licence. The Affair being brought before
the Council, it was refolved, that for this time the Car-



, Aft. Pub.
-X. p. 4.14*



dinal fhould not officiate as Bifhop of Winchefter ; and two
Lords were fent to give him notice thereof. Next day,



(1) This Fragment, which is without date, is placed wrong in the Col'eS!i;n of the Publici Ads, among the Records of the Year 14.3S. Rafin.

(i) About three hundred of them were llain at the taking of the Place. Monjlreltt, fol. 44- Two hundred, fay* Hall, and among them Sir Alexander
di la Pole, the Earl of Suffolk's Brother, fel. Jos.

(3) Here mult be forr.e miftake either in the Author or the Printer, (ince Rapin fays above, the Bretons alone were thirteen thoufand two hundred.
Probably the Britons Were nut fo numerous, as is fa. J above- P. Daniel fay:, they did not exceed twelve hundred. Tom. VI. p. 69. Hall, fol. icS.
Slteiu and Hall fay, the Frincb Army confuted of twenty three thoufand Men, fol. 10S. p. 370.

t 4) Manftrtltt lays, there were ab-uit eighteen hundred Englijh killed, and between a hundred and fixfeore taken Prifoners ; the chief of whom were the
Lords Scalts, Talbot, Hmgtrford, Sir Tb mas Rampjloa, &c. fill. +> According tu Hall, about twelve hundred were flain, and forty taken Prifoners, )ol. ioS.

(5) The Englijh could n t agree about the Place and Manner of fighting, whether it fliould be on foot or on Horleback ; which was the chief Caufc of
their Defeat. Befides they had neglected ro provide themfelves with ffiarp Stakes, which ufed to be their main Defence againft the Enemies Cavalry.
Monflrtlet, fol. 4.-. Sir f -on Fajlolff had the Uavttr, of which he was a Knight, taken from him by the R.gent, fur runn.ng away, but it was restored to
him again. Hall. fol. < ■'.

.6) July 6. .Monjlrelet, fol. 47.

(7) July%. Ibid. P. Daniel fays, it was the 17th. Tom. VI. p. 71.

(8) Quia erat res invifa eflc Cardinalem, Sc fitnilitcr ittinert in Angiia Epifcoparum Wyntcnienfcm. — Rymer'i Fad. Tom. X. p. 414.

he



Book XII.



HENRY VI.



55*



TbeC


«rA»J,


;j wj.


/<■ Ge-


Ticral


t/a


Cru fa


dr.


Act.


Pub.


X.p.


422,


+»3-




He petitions


to publi/h


the C,


ufade.


a a.


Pub.


X. p.


4.9.


4-5-





14:9. he came himfelf to the Board, and demanded upon what
Foundation he was deprived of his Right. He was told,
it was for fear of prejudicing the Prerogatives of the Crown,
and the Council perfifted in their Refolution. Hence the
Cardinal perceived, his Adverfary's Interelt to be ftill
much greater than his.

Shortly after, the Prelate received the Pope's Bull, ap-
pointing him his Legate in Germany, and General of the
Crufade againft the Bohemian Hereticks. The Pope's
View was to draw a Powerful Aid from England, againft
the Hujfites ( 1 ). Nay, it is not unlikely, that as he
greatly favoured King Charles, his Defign was to weaken
England, by draining the Kingdom of Men and Money,
under colour of the Crufade. However, the Cardinal re-
ceiving the Bull the beginning of June this Year, though
it was dated March the 18th, 1427-8, prefented to the
King and Council a Petition, defiring leave to publifh the
Crufade. He prayed likcwife, that he might have Power
to levy in England, five hundred Lances, and five thou-
fand Archers, and to appoint the Generals and Officers of
p. 410. fhis Army. His Petition being examined in Council, it
was refolved to grant it in Part, under the following Re-
ftriclions :

That no Perfon fhall be obliged to contribute Money for
the Crufade, but every one give what he pleafed. That
the Sums thus voluntarily furnifhed, fhould be put into
fuch Hands as the Council fhould nominate. That the
Gold or Silver fhould not be conveyed beyond Sea, but
expended in the Kingdom (2).

That the Cardinal fhould be empowered to levy only
two hundred and fifty Lances, and two thoufand five hun-
dred Archers : That even this fhould be granted, only
on condition, that the Pope, out of regard to the King
and Kingdom, fhould not impoie any Tax on the Laity
or Clergy.

That no Soldiers ferving in France, fhould be lifted or
received among the Troops of the Crufade.

That the Cardinal fhould give the Council fufficient
Security for the return of thefe Troops.

That he fhould effectually ufe his Intereft, to induce the
King of Scotland to leave England in quiet, and obferve
the Truce.

That in publifhing the Crufade, it fhould exprefsly be
faid, that it was with the King's A/Tent and Licence.

That the Officers fhould be nominated by the Cardinal,
but commiffioned by the King.

That it fhould be the fame with regard to the Confta-
ble, or Commander in chief of the Army.

That if the Crufade did not take place, the Money fur-
nifhed by private Perfons fhould not be employed without
the King's Approbation.

New Levies By thefe Reftrictions may be feen, how careful the Coun-
fnr France. c ji waS5 t0 hinder the Pope's exercifing in the Kingdom, an

Authority but too much abufed by his Predeceffors.
The Cardinal Mean while, the News of the Battle of Patay flying
is to feme in into England, caufed a great Confternation, and made it
eafily judged, that the Regent wanted a fudden and pow-
erful Aid. And therefore, without lofing a Moment, the
Council ordered new Levies, the Command whereof was
defigned for Sir John Ratclijfe. But, as in the prefent
Pofture of Affairs in France, it would have been very im-
prudent to fend Troops into Bohemia, the Council refolved
to make fome alteration in what was granted to the
Cardinal of IV'inchcJlcr. Upon this urgent occafion, a new
Agreement was made (3) with him, whereby he engaged
to ferve in France, under the Duke of Bedford, till the
end of December, with the Troops of the Crufade, pro-
vided they were not employed in any Siege.



France till

December.

July.

Aft. Pub.

X. p. 42*.

Monfhekt.

Hall.



3 e"9*
': ■ ■
cdf.ird'l

irter.
I»i b.



A few Days after (4), arrived from France, Garter King 1
at Arms (<;), with InftWrions from the Regent, to inform r
the Council of the State of Affairs in that Kingdorrii ThejCj
Subftance of his Inftrudtions was as follows: raC

!• That it was neceflary to haffen the departure of P " 4:3 '
Ratcliffe's and the Cardinal's Troops, and inform the Re-
gent of theprecife time of their Imbarkation.

II. The Dauphin, (for fo the Regent called Kin<r
Charles,) was matter of Troye, Chdlon, and feveral other
Places, fome of which had voluntarily furrendrcd. Thai
he was to enter that very Day, July the 1 6th, the City
of Rheims, where he would be crowned ; and afterwards
intended to exert his utmoft, to take Paris, but fhould
find it more difficult than he imagined.

III. That the Duke of Burgundy (6) had fully dif-
charged his Duty, and the City of Paris, had it not been ' ■
for him, would have been loft before now. That he- was
departed, that very day, for Amis, to haffen his Troops,

and join them with the Englijh Army.

IV. That the Regent was to fet out within two davs
for Normandy and Picardy, where he would draw the
Garrifons together, and cxpecl the Troops that, were to
come from England.

V. Laftly, The Council of France moft humbly be-
fought the King, to come and be crowned at Paris.

^ Upon this laft Article, it was refolved, that the young
King, now but eight Years old, fhould go into France
and be crowned, but fhould firft be crowned in Env-
land{ 7 ). *

In purfuance of this Refolution, the Ceremony of the" "
Coronation was performed on the 6th of November. S'lKjT'i'a"'
days after, the Parliament, then afferhbfed, ordered the I'be Pr -
Dignity of Protector and Defender of the Church to be'r ,? "^"-*
fupprefied, but that the Duke of Gloecjler fhould keep ' t&!vti.
that of firft Counfellor to the King. This was a very x. P . 43+,
great as well as unexpected Mortification to that Prince. V^' 4 , 36-
Indeed, as the King's Coronation increafed not his Ca- AbridV
pacity, the Kingdom feemed ftill to require a Protector. Hal1 -
But it was pretended, the Prote&orfhip was inconiiftent
with the Dignity of a crowned Head. We fhall fee here-
after, this Rule was not always obferved. The Duke
however, handfomly fubmitted to the Ordinance, as far as
it concerned him, the Rights of his Brother the Duke of
Bedford remaining entire.

Whilft the Preparations were making in England for Charla
the Coronation, Charles had continued his Cbnquefta™""™" *■»
with great rapidity. However, his Coronation had de-'^f''
tained him eleven days at Rhcims. If the Regent had
then been provided with an Army, he might eafily have
inclofed him in that Corner of France, where he had
but few Places, furrounded with the Enemies Garrifons.
But the Duke was then in Picardy, with few Troops, ex-
pecting thofe that were to come from England. Charles
therefore improved the Advantage, procured by that
Prince's Diitance. The Inhabitants of the Englijh
Towns being, for the moft part, well inclined to him,
nothing hindered them from fhewing him Marks of their
Affection, fince the Duke of Bedford had been forced to
weaken the Garrifons extremely, to compofe an Army.
This was the Caufe, that, in a very fhort Space, CharlesSrveral fla.
became matter of Soiffons, Provins, Chateau-Thierry,'' 'f".""' J ''
Crepi, and fome other Places, even before they were {' ai "f '
attacked ; the Englijh Garrifons not being ftrong enough
to prevent the Burghers from following their Inclina-
tion.

Mean time the Duke of Bedford, having at laft re- t:. Regent
ceived the expected Supplies, beg n to march (8), in'" , ' r '^""'
order to flop the Progrefs of his Enemy (9). At Crept, tiiaktt^i.



(1) There will be a large Account of thefe People in the Hiftory of the Council of Bajil, in the State of the Church, at the end of the Reign of
Henry VII.

(2) That is, be laid out upon Merchandizes, which were to be delivered to thofe that engaged in the Crufade, and by them exported. Rymer's Ford.
Tom. X. p. 420.

(3) At Rochefter, on July i. Ibid. p. 424. (4) July 16. Ibid. p. 432.

(5) There are thiee Kings at Arms in England^ namely, Garter, Clarencieux, and biorrcy. Garter is the principal, inftituted by Henry V, as is re-
lated above, p. 531. Ncte (4). His Bulinels n to attend Knights of the Garter at their Solemnity, and to rmrlhal the Funerals of the greater Nobility.
Clarencieux was created by Edward IV, who, upon attaining the Dukedom of Clarence by the Death of his Brother, made the Herald belonging to. the
Duke of Clarence, a King at Arms, and called him Clarentius. His proper Office is to marlhal the Funera.'s of the lelfer Nobility, or Gentry, on the
South-lide ui the Trent. Ncrrcy's Office is the fame on the North-lide of Trent, as appears by his Name, 'The Northern King. The Buiinefs of the He-
ralds is likewife to denounce War, to proclaim Peace, or to be employed in the Kind's martial Melfages. They are Judges alfo of Gentlemens Arms,
mariha! all the Solemnities at the Coronation of Princes, &c. Vcrflegan derives rhe Woid Herald from Here an Army, and Heait a Champion, as much
as to fay, The Champion cf the Army. Belides the three Kings, there are fix other pr.pcrly called Heralds, as they were created to attend Dukes, &c. \;z.
York, Lancafltr, Somerfet, Richmond, Chejier, and If'inJf.i: There are four more called Marjhal or Pvrfuivasm at Arms, who Commonly fucced in the
Places of Heralds; namely, Blue-Mamie, Rougt-Crofs, Rouge-Dragon, and Peter-Cullis.

(6) Rapin, by miftakc, fays Brctagne.

(7 I Between thefe Tranfacrions and the King's Coronation, a Parliament met at fpejlminftcr, en September II, which granted the King a Tenth and

a Fifteenth; and continued the Sublidy of Wools, and Tunnage and Poundage as before. Cotton's Abridg. p. 591, 592, &c. In this Parliament

it was enacted, That every City, Burrough, and Town in the Kingdom, mould have, at their own Charge, a common Balance, and Weights lcalcd, ac-
cording to the Standard of the Exchequer, in the keeping of the Mayor or Conitabiej at which Balance, all the Inhabitants cT the fame City or Two

were to weigh without paying any thing ; but -Strangers were to pay It was alfo enacted, That whereas Kn : ghts of the Shires had ol late been

chofen by outragious and exceriive Numbers of People, and of fmall Subilance ; for the future, the faid Knights fliail be elected in every County, by Peo-
ple dwelling and refident in the fame Counties, whereof every one fhall have Land or Tenement, to the Value ot forty Shillings by the Year at the
leaft, above all Charges ; and that they which fhall be fu cholen, mail be dwelling and refident within the fame Counties. 6latu:e S Hen. VI. cap. e. 7,



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 232 of 360)