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In the Parliament 10 Hcn<-y VI. Anno 1432. it yas declared. That the laid forty Shillings per Annum muft be Free-hold.

(S) With about ten thoe.land Men. Mmfirti , fol. 47.

'c,j And fent Charles a Challen£e, from Monfereau-faut Tonne, dated Auguji 7. Idem, fol. 4S. H'-!.', fol. 103.



s



Charles



Tbe HISTORY */ ENGLAND.



552

1429. Charles heard the Duke was advancing to give him Bat-
Tbttwa tie. A few days after, the two Armies were very near
Amia arc o ^ c anotne r on a large Plain, where nothing hindered
"'^Jl'oiLr their engaging. The number of the Troops on both Sides
was much the fame, but as the King had more Horfe,
the Regent was unwilling to attack him. Befides, the
Poffure of his Affairs required that he mould not fight
without advantage ; and therefore, he ordered his Camp
Monftrelct. to be ftrongly intrenched. He hoped, the impetuous Hu-
Hall. mour of the French, would caufe them to commit the

Sluw- fame Fault as at Verneuil, and on many other Occafions ;

and they would endeavour to force his Intrenchments, in
which cafe, he promifed himfelf certain Victory. But for
once, he was deceived in his Expectation. Charles, grown
wife by fo many former Inffances, was content with facing
him (1), and trying to draw him out of his Lines, without
venturing an attack, the Succefs whereof appeared very
, doubtful. At laff, finding the Englijh kept their Station,

wi'ffetf he left his, in order to purfue his Conquefts, knowing
fighting. that moff of the Towns were ready to receive him. The
„, al Regent followed him clofe ; but as he would run no ha-
vTwm zard, without an apparent Advantage, he had the Mor-

furrtnJrr to tification to fee him enter Senlis, Ecauvais, Compiegne,
Monflrtkt. Cr " ! > Pont Sl Maxence, Lagny, Bray, Gournay, Me-
Hall. ' lun, Sens. All thefe Places opened their Gates to the King,
being no longer awed by the Garrifons, the Regent had
been forced to draw out.
TStRcgmt On the other hand, the Conftable Richemont, who was
marcbata j n Normandy, having found means to augment his Troops
'£ Rd "jy to the number of eight thoufand, had taken Evrcux, and
nl\u™ threatned the whole Province. The Duke of Bedford,
fearing he would make greater Progrefs, flattened thither;
not being able to bear the thoughts of lofing a Coun-
try, from whence flowed in a great meafure his Sublift-
ence.
Charles Wbilft the Duke of Bedford was employed in Norman-

Kukam j^ Charles, Mailer of the Field in the Ifle of France,
v'3'i"/'^ " approached Paris, and encamped at Montmartre. He im-
Munrirekt. mediately publifhed a general Pardon for the Pariftans,
HM ' imagining, that, terrified at his Conquefts, they would

takeArms, and drive the Englijh out of the City. But the
Regent had fo ordered matters there, that not a Man
ftirred. At laft, finding he could expect nothing from
the Citizens, he attacked the Suburbs of St. Honorius ;
but his Troops were repulfed with great Lofs. Joan,
The Maid who had greatly expofed herfelf in this Affault, was wound-
iivmndid. er J a nd thrown into the Ditch. She was thought to be
dead, but being drawn out in the Night, recovered of her
Wounds.
Laeni a*d The Seafon not permitting the two Armies to keep the
s. Dennis Field any longer, Charles retired, and paffed the Winter
'aim by the z t Bourges. The Regent likewife, after driving the Con-
Bngliih. ft aD i e Qut o f Normandy, returned to Paris. During the
Winter, he carried by Scalade St. Dennis and Lagni,
which very much annoyed the Parifans.
_.. . . . , Before we clofe the Occurrences of this Year, it rauft
tliDuk, if not be forgotten to fhew, how the Duke of Burgundy ftood
Burgundy affected, fince the Revolution in the Engl/Jh Affairs.
cfMfoj„ r ' However profperous Charles might be, he was fenfible it
Monftrdet. was not fufficient, unlefs he could gain fo potent an Ene-
my as the Duke of Burgundy. The truth is, if that
Prince had thought fit to aflift the Englijh with all his
Forces, he would have, doubtlefs, prevented this Re-
volution. Nay, if after the raifing cf the Siege of Or-
leans, he had been willing to aid them in proportion to
his Power, he would flill have turned the Scale on their
Side. But he had been, for fome time, taking other
Meafures. His Policy fuggefted to him, that by too
powerfully alTifting the Englijh, he mould procure him.
i'elf troublefome Matters, as he had already experienced
in the Bufinefs of Hainan!/. And therefore, fince he was
to have a Sovereign, he chofe much rather, to fee a Prince
of his Blood on the Throne of France, than a Foreign-
er. But he carefully concealed his Sentiments, left both
Parties mould take the advantage of them againft him.
It was manifeft, that in openly fhewing his Inclination
to abandon the Englijh, he would have done himfelf great
Prejudice. King Charles would become lefs eager to agree
with him, and it may be, the Duke of Bedford would
have endeavoured to prevent him, by making a feparate
Peace with the French, exclufive of him. This was, at
leaft, what the Duke of Burgundy had reafon to fear,
confidering the Pofture of the Affairs of the Engli/h, fince
the Battle of Patay. He refolved therefore to continue



Vol. I.



to affift the Englijh (2), but fo as to give Charles fome 1425.,
hopes, his Relentment was abated. He rightly judged,
that in taking this courfe he fhould procure better Terms,
or at worft, might remain in his prefent Situation, till
what he deirred, was offered. Charles having had fome
Intimation of the Duke of Burgundy's Difpolition, dif-
patched fecret Agents to treat with him ; but the Duke
thought it not yet time to difcover himfelf. He was ap-
prehenfive, that if the Duke of Bedford fhould know it,
he would, without him, agree with King Charles ; whereas
his Intent was, to make his own Peace, at the Expence
of the Engli/h. The Sequel manifeftly fhewed this to be
his Defign. Moft certain it is, he was now determined,
though he did not think fit to begin the Negotiation fo
early. A remarkable Inftance this, of the Inftabilrty of
feemingly the ft rongeft Alliances. Sad Effect of Infince-
rity too common among Men, and from which, Princes
in particular are not free. As, notwithftanding their
Treaties, they cannot truft one another, they live in con-
tinual Fear of being deceived by their Allies. And theie-
fore, taking for granted they may be abandoned, they
endeavour to prevent, and, without fcruple, break their
Engagements, upon the Profpedt of any confiderable Ad-
vantage. Let a Man run over all Hiftories, as well An-
cient as Modern, and he will fcarce find any one confide-
rable Alliance, but what was violated by fome notorious
Deceit.

It would be difficult to defcribe the Concern, Trouble, 1430.
Complaints and Murmurings in England, upon the turn M """« r, "Z'
of Affairs in France. Some blamed the Generals for not '" ° 8 *"
difcharging their Duty. Others, perceiving no natural
Caufe of fo furprizing a Change, affirmed, it muft have
happened by the Malice of the Devil, who had made
ufe of 'Joan for his Inftrument, and boldly aliened fhe
was a Witch. In fhort, fome threw all the Blame on
the Council, and the Duke of Glocejler. They juftly
taxed them, with unfeafonably profecuting the Affair of
Hainault, when, if all the Forces of England had been
united againft France, they would have infallibly finifhed
the Cbnqueft of that Kingdom. In a word, nothing
but Complaints were heaid from all Parts, every one feek-
ing in the faults of the Miniftry, for a Caufe of this fa-
tal Revolution. Among all the Reflections caft on the Smnlfai
Government, the Council took particular notice of their !i v. " ,
reafoning, who faid, " it was a very great Error to keep Prifmen
" the French Princes, and particularly the Dukes of Or- hadn °'f ea
" leans and Bourbon, fo long Prifoners in England. That reM ^
" none could be ignorant, what great Advantages were
" reaped by the late King, from the Diffenfions of the
" French. That confequently, the Prifoners fhould have
" been fent home, where, probably, they would have re-
" newed their old Quarrels : Whereas detaining them
" captive, had procured France a Tranquillity, deftruc-
" tive to England. That at leaft, if the Dukes of Or-
" leans and Bourbon had been in France with King
" Charles, the Englijh would have had more confider-
" able Aids from the Duke of Burgundy, than what he
" had hitherto furnifhed. In fhort, it was not yet too
" late to releafe thefe two Princes, and as England was
" drained by the Continuance of fo tedious a War, their
" Ranfoms might ferve to put things upon a better
" foot." Thefe Reafons feemed very plaufible. But,
on the other hand, the late King's Orders concern-
ing the Prifoners, were to the Duke of Glocejler and
the Council, a Law which they durft not pretend to
violate (3).

There were however, as to the Duke of Bourbon in AnUki fir
particular, Reafons, which might have induced the Coun- ^'^J/ 1 "
cil to ovelook the late King's Orders. In 1421, that Bourbon.
Prince made a Treaty with Henry V, promifing to fwear Aa - Puh '
to the Peace of Troye, to pay fuch a Sum for his Ran- IvJ' 4 *
fom, and deliver two of his Sons, and his fortified Towns,
in Hoftage, till his Engagements were fully performed.
Henry V, dying before the Treaty was executed, it was
renewed with fome Alteration in 1428, and young Hen-^'y arB
ry had received, as King of France, the Duke's Homage. "1 £? '"

«-t-m 1 ■ ■ 1 r> -c execution.

I here was nothing wanting but the Ratification, which p. 438.
was deferred, only for fear the People would not approve ?• 4" 8,
of this Proceeding. In fhort, this Year 1430, all Difficul-
ties were furrnounted, and the Treaty was ratified. But
fome Obftacles occurred in the Execution, which hin-
dered the Duke from being let at Liberty. He died Hr J '"'
at laft in England, in 1433 (4), after an eighteen Years p ' 6 "*
Captivity.



(1) For two Days. Monjirila. fol. 49. Hall, 61. 1C9.

(2) The Duke if Bedford had then with him near eight hundred Men belonging to the Duke of Burgundy. Mmflnlet, fol. 48.

(3) In the beginning of this V'ear, namely, on January 12, a Parliament met at VVeftminfitr, which continued Tunnage and Poundage for two Veals,
and ordered, over and abuve the faid Tunnage, a Subfidy of like value of all Merchant-Strangers. They alio gave one Tenth and one Fifteenth, and a,
third of both; and moreover granted, that every Lay-perfon, holding by a whole Knight's Fee, ihouid pay to the King twenty Shillings, and fo according
to the Value, under or over ; and the Clergy Ihouid pay the fame, for Lands purchalcd fince the 20th of Edward I. And that all other Perfcns having
any Hereditaments, to the value of twenty Pounds over all Rcprifes, not holden as above, fhould pay unto the King twenty Shillings. Ccttnn\ Ahr-dg.

?■ S91> 59 s —In this Parliament it was enacted, That every Wey of Cheefe Ihouid contain thiity Cloves, and every Clove feven Pounds Stuii

9 /to. VI. c g. '■' " ■>-■•«— c_ „ . '„ . _ .. '.



(4) He died January 5. 1434. See Rymir's Feed. Tom. X. p. 602.



Another



Book XII.



15. HENRY VI.



553



1430.



p. +-i 3 .



Henry goes
to France,

p- +5 2 > 455
456.



p. 45b



end it

tr^icnal at
Paris.

Monftti'Ict-
Hall.

The Duke of
Rri.i.rd fr-
om the
Duke f

Burgundy to
England.
MonftreJet
Hall.



The Duke if
Burgundy* j
third Mar-
riage.

Monltrelet.
Hall.

The Regent
■makts ft/me
CottfUefts,



<The Dule of

Burgundy

teficga

Conipiegne.

The Maid
goes thither*
Monltrckt.



She nettles a

Sally, and

is taken

Prifoner.

Minftrckt.

Hal!.

V. Daniel.



Ste is deli-

titTe.l to the
Duke of
Bedford.



'11 '.'/...,.

resided.

Hall.



Another Reafon, inducing the Council to treat with the
Duke of Bourbon, was, the Hopes, his Ranfom would help
to defray the Charges of the King's Journey, who was
ready to depart for France. This means failing, there
was a neceffity of having recourfe to Borrowings, which
plainly difcovered the low Condition of the Treafury (1);
and with what difficulty fufficient Funds, for carrying on
the War, were found.

Henry departed at length, on the 24th of April, attend-
ed by great Numbers of the Nobility, and particularly
the Caidinal of JVinchcJlcr, who was appointed Chief
Counfellor of the King with a large Salary (2). This
honorable Pretence was ufed, to keep him out of the
Realm, let! in the King's Abfence, and under the Duke
of Glocejter's Regency, who was made Guardian, their
Diflcnlions might breed Difturbances. Henry being ar-
rived at Calais, made but a fhort Stay there. He pro-
ceeded immediately to Roan, where he fpent almoft all
the reft of the Year, whilft Preparations were making
at Paris for his Coronation, which could not be finifhed till
December. About the middle of the Month, he came to
the Metropolis, where he was crowned (3) on the 17th,
with all the Solemnity, the Circumftanc.es of the time
would permit.

Whilft the King was at Roan, the Duke of Bee/for el
ufed all liis endeavours to reftore his Affairs. He had fore-
fcen the Duke of Burgundy's Defigns, and, as he was fen-
fible of the Confequences, neglefted nothing to prevent
them. It coft him Champagne and la Brie, or at leaft,
the Places he ftill had in thofe Provinces, which he was
forced to deliver to him, to fecure him in the Alliance of
England. But withal, he was enabled, by this means, to
flop the Progrefs of Charles, who had carried on his Con-
quefts with a wonderful Rapidity.

Another Inducement to keep, for fome time, the Duke
of Burgundy in the Intereft of the Er.glljfi, was, his third
Marriage with Ifabclla of Portugal '(4), near Relation to
the King of England (j), and who had not the fame Af-
finity with King Charles, as Bona of Artois, his former
Wife. So, the Duke of Bedford, receiving an Aid from
the Duke of Burgundy (6), took the Field, and became
Mafter, in the Ifle of France, of feveral Places; which
though of little Confequence in themfelves, were of
great Importance, as they were incommodious to Pa-
ris (7).

Shortly after, the Duke of Burgundy himfelf entered
France, at the head of a powerful Army. He retook firft
Torfy and Soijfons, and then belieged Conipiegne. Flavy
commanded in that Place, with a numerous Garrifon, and
fix Months Provifions. Upon the firft News of this Siege,
the Maid of Orleans, and Xaintrailles, threw themfelves
into the Town, not without the Governor's fecret Indig-
nation, who eafily faw, they were come to rob him of
the Honour of the Defence.

On the 25 th of May, 'Joan made a Sally, and fought
with great Conduct and Reiblution. At length being
forced to retreat, fhe put herfelf in the Rear, and now
and then made a ftand, to ftop the Enemies, by whom
fhe was prefied. In this manner, fhe fecured all her
Men ; but, when fhe would have entered the Town,
found the Gate fhut, and the Draw-Bridge up. It is
laid, this was done by the Governor's Order, who was
glad to deftroy her, pretending he did not know fhe was
ftill without. But this Circumftance is not well prov-
ed (8). However it be, Joan finding no way to efcape
her Purfuers, furrendered herfelf Prifoner to the Baftard
of Vendome, who immediately delivered her to the Earl
of Ligny (9), the Duke of Burgundy's Geneial. The
Duke of Bedford over-joyed, that this Prey was in the
Hands of his Allies, demanded her fo earneftly of the
Earl of Ligny, that the General could not deny him.
He required, however, a Reward fuitable to the Impor-
tance of fuch a Prifoner. Some time after, the Town
was relieved by the Earl of Vendome {16), who intro-
duced Troops and Ammunition, when it was almoft re-
duced to Extremity. Whereupon, the Earl of Ligny,
Commander in Chief, feeing no more likelihood of fuc-
ceeding, raifed the Siege, and the Duke of Burgundy, who
had (laid all the while at Noyon, retired into Artois.



I pafs over in Silence numberlefs Attempts on both Sides, 1430.
and divers Skirmifhes, which contributed but little to the fi
Decifion of the general Affair, it will however be propel
to obferve, that Joan's pretended Inspiration, had made C 1
deep an Imprcffion in the Minds of the French, that Mar- '
final Bouffac and Xaintrailles, fullered themfelves to be de- H ' 1 "
ceived by an Artifice, which, doubtlefs, would not have
produced its Effect, had it not been fupportcd by this Pre-
poffeffion. A Shepherd living near Roan, came and told
the Marflial, that Heaven had revealed to him a certain
private way, by which, he would lead him into the very
City of R'Min. Bouffac, imparting the fecret to Xaintrailles,
they weie both of opinion, the opportunity fhould not be

nm.U.flo.1 C„ J - J-J .1 ' . . . .



had 7
Body'"""'' "'



neglected, bo, perfuaded as they were, that they
God himfelf for their Guide, they marched with a ^
of cholen Troops after the Shepherd, who led them into an
Ambuih, where Talbot expected them. Then Ti Jopswere '
cut in pieces, and Xaintrailles remained a Prifoner, in the
hands of the Englijh.

Thefe are the moft remarkable Events in France, during
the Year 1430, with regard to the War. We muft now
lee what palled in England.

During the Cardinal of WincheJler\ Abfence, the Duke
of Ghcejler created him Troubles, which gave him no
fmall Ur.eafinefs. The Duke told the Council, that the
Cardinal intended to leave the King, and return to his
Place in the Council, with defign to raife Troubles in the X ' F 4?I '
Kingdom; that his Intention was the more criminal, as
he meant to make ufe of the Pope's Authority, to fruc
himfelf from the Obligation to affift the King in France;
which was vifibly fubjscting the Orders ant? Regulations
of the Council, to a foreign Power. Upon thefe Com-
plaints, the Council ifiued out a Proclamation, prohibiting
all the King's Subjects, of what rank foever, on pain of
Imprifonment, to attend the Cardinal, if he left the King
without Leave.

On the 8 th of November, a Truce of one Year was T,uc .« ,vj
concluded at London with the King of Cajlile, to com- Cj i,lr >
mence May the ift, 1431. p ' 4 " ; '

About the middle of December, the Ambafiadors o\~™>dSa*\*r.i,

England figned, at Edinburgh, a five years Truce with^ 4 / 52

Scotland, to begin the fame Day, with that made with
Cajlile.

Joan having been in the Hands of the Englijh, ever 143 1.
fince the Siege of Compiegne, the Duke of Bedford had or- *** P uh * °f
dered her to be carried to Roan, where he intended to^'^W
facrifice her, to the Vengeance he believed due to ths'th Maid
Englijh Nation. There was, doubtlefs, great Policy in'£ a <f' l " r
this Refolution. All France was polleiTed with the No- Moaftrdeti
tion, that lite was Cent from God ; and the Englijh Sol-
diers imagined, that in fighting againft her, they had to
deal with the Devil. Wherever Ihe appeared, they deem-
ed the French Troops invincible. At leaft, the Terror
that had fazed their Souls, and the ftrange Alteration
thereby wrought in them, cannot be afenbed to any
other Caufe: It was therefore of the utmoft Importance
to undeceive them. The taking of Joan, had already be^
gun to produce this Effect. It was very naturally in-
ferred, that had fhe ailed by God's Command, there
was no probability of her falling into fuch a Misfortune.
But, to confirm this firft Impreffion, it was not im-
proper to infinuate to the terrified Englijh, that fhe had
done nothing, but by way of Witchcraft and Sorcery.
It may be, the Duke of Bedford was himfelf of that
Opinion, as may be concluded from his Expreflions, in
the fore-mentioned Letter to the King. However this be,
(for I do not pretend, either to blame or juftity the
Prince, that it was done out of Policy or Vengeance) he'
fo managed, that the King, by the Advice of his Coun-
cil of France, ordered Joan to be tried for a Witch. Pur-' / - is cm.
fuant to this Order, fhe was delivered over to Ecciefiaftical "• '" "
Judges (11), who, after a long Examination, condemned f.j'jf,™" '
her as a Heretick, to do Penance upon Bread and Water, wards to be
all the Days of her Life. Some time after, under colour ''"""• .
of a Relapfe into her former Errors, fhe was tried again
by the fame Judges, who delivered her over to the fecu-
lar Arm to be burnt aljve. This Sentence was executed
in the old Market-Place at Roan, the 30th of May,
.431 (,2).



(1) Orders were alio ilTued out, fur all that were worth furty Pounds per Annum, to come and take upon them the Order of Knighthood. Ryn;er\ Fa. J.
Tom. X. p. 449.

(2) Four thou land Pound; a Year. Ibid, p. 456.

(3) Dy tW Cardinal of tWinchtfler,

(4) In honour of" this Marriage, hr_ inftituted the Order of the Goldea Fleece, of which fee an account above, p. 427. Note (7) ; and in Monfinlet, fol. 54, 55.
(SI She was Daughter of J<ln I. King of Portugal, by Pbilippa, eldeft Daughter of *Jtbn of Gaunt.

(61 Fifteen hundud Men, for which he was to receive fifty thousand Salutes of Gold. Rymers Fad. Tom. X. p. 454, 455.
(7) About this time Sir *Hcmai Kiriel defeated a Body of French near Clermont* MonjlreUt, ful. 54.
(8j Monfirelet fays, ihe was pulled off her Hurfe by an Archer, fol. 58.
(?) y^" 1 de Luxemburgb.

(10) Hall fays, the Duke of Burgundy withdrew his Troops, to go and take pofTeffion of Brabant, fallen to him by the Death of the Duke ; whereupon the
Englijh, deprived of this Aiiiftance, were forced to raife the Siege, tcU 115.

(11) She was tried by the Bifhop of Bcawvai-, in whole Dioce/e fhe was taken. Monfirelet, fol. 70.

(12) She and her whole Family were ennobled in 1429 : And /he had a Coat of Arms gi\en her, which was> Azure, two Fleurs de Lys, Or, with a
Sword Argent, erect, and going through a Crown. Ibid, P, Dentil, Tom. VI. p. S3. There ate itill in France feveral Ddcindents from her Faiiii'y, which
ec» k the Sirname of Du Lis, Ibid,



No. 28. V01.I,



7 A



Thus



3D'



The HISTORY of E N G L A N D.



Vol. I.



143 j. Thus fat the i*Wwa& and £^/i/Z) agree. It cannot be

•''•'•' °- denied, that Joan performed great Exploits, and infpired
'I'"" 6 "" the French with Courage, and the EngHJb with Terror.
But the French afcribe what appears wonderful in her,
to the immediate Power of God, and the Englijh to the
Artifices of the Devil. What then fnall we believe ?
Perhaps Neither are in the right, and indeed there is a
third Opinion, which wants not plaufible Reafons. As
the Examination of thefe three Opinions would be a too
o-reat interruption of the Thread of the Hiftory, I mall
not ftay to difcufs them here. They who defire to be
more fully informed concerning this Matter, may read a
DhTertarion, inferred at the end of this Reign, where I
fliall endeavour to give this Affair all the Light it is ca-
pable of.
, h txtrmc Ndtwithftanding his Advantages, King Charles faw him-
Wtakmji f r e \{ i; tt ] e aD i e to continue the War. Moft of the Places
'kuvu* he had taken were ruined, and confequently incapable of
giving him much Affiitancc. Befides, as they had volun-
tarily furrendered, he was unwilling to prefs them, for
fear they fhould return to the Englijh. They might have
done it with the fame eafe, fince it was not in his power
to place there, Garrifons ftrong enough to keep them in
Awe. On the other hand, the Englijh, humbled by fo
many LolTes, were not better able to keep Armies in the
Field. So, during the reft of this Year, the War was
continued only by Parties, and furprizing of Places, moft
of which were but weakly guarded.
Tbt French J n this manner, the French became Matters of Char-
chmres tres -> b y means of a Cart loaden with Wine, which they
Monftrel'et. caufed to be overturned juft under the Port-cullis. On
HaU - the other hand, the Englijh took Montargis, by holding

Intelligence with a young Woman , who perfuaded a Bar-
ber, her Lover, to introduce them into the Town.
Tkt Fair of Lore, a French Captain, made an Inroad to the very
Ca™ f/m- Q^ es Q c Q aen ^ upon a Fair-Day, and carried away two
I Chattier, thoufand Perfons, with a very great Booty. After that,
he retiied to Silky, a fmall Town in Maine , where he
was befieged by the Earl of Arundel. But the Duke of
Alcnjon, fuddenly coming to his relief, obliged the Englijli
to retire.
O'ba Ex- This Year, Xaintraillcs and Gaucour, who were ravag-
t'pa 'tUs in S MrmaWj, were defeated and made Piifoners. A Party
ItonflrdeTof Englijh took alfb Villeneuve kz-fens from the French.
This is all that pafl'ed worth noting in France, between
the two Parties. But a more important Affair happened
in Lorrain, wherein King Charles and the Duke of Bur-
gundy were concerned, and which therefore it will not be



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