M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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amifs briefly to mention.
:; W ,/ Levois, Cardinal of Bar, and Marquifs of Pont-a-Mouf-

v'c'lt"': f m -> be ' n o the lafl Ma ' e ° f thC H ° Ufe ° f Ba '' thC Chi '"

^on reiet. ^^ ^ Violante his Sifter, Queen of Arragon, were to be
his Heirs. Among thefe Children, Violante of Arragon
had married Lewis II, King of Sicily, and Duke of Anjou,
and by him had three Sons, Lewis, Rene, and Charles.
Of thefe Princes, the Cardinal Duke of Bar chofe Rene'
for his Heir, and married him to IJahella, third Daughter
of Charles Duke of Lorrain, who had no IfTue-Male. It
is faid, IJabella's two elder Sifters had renounced the Suc-
cclTion of the Duke their Father. Rene being Duke of
Bar, by the Death of the Cardinal his Uncle, would like-
wife have taken poffelTion of Lorrain, upon the deceafe of
the Duke his Father-in-law ; but Anthony Earl of Vaude-
mont, Son of Frederic, younger Brother of Duke Charles,
difputed the Succeflion with him. This occafioned a War
between thefe two Princes, wherein King Charles fupport-
ed Rene his Brother-in-law, and the Duke of Burgundy,
the Earl of Vaudemont, On the 2d of July, this Year,
the two Competitors fought at Bulegnsville a bloody Battle,
where Rene was vanquifhed, taken Prifoner, and carried
to Dijon. There were twelve hundred French (lain in
this Action. ThisLofs, no doubt, helped to hinder King
Charles from continuing his Progrefs.
sin Attempt The Affair concerning the See of IVincheJler, of which
%j,"%jt* lb .the Duke of Glocejler would have deprived the Cardinal,
"iiijhop of was rather fufpended, than determined in 1429, by an
Winchiftu. Order of Council to the Prelate, to forbear, for that time,
officiating as Bifhop on St. George's Day. The Duke,
willing to take Advantage of the Cardinal's Abfence, who
was with the King at Paris, caufed, about the end of this
Year, the Affair to be again brought upon the Board.
Afl. Pub. On the 6th of November, the King's Attorney General
p +9 ~ appearing before the Council, required, that the Cardinal
ihould be deprived of his See; affirming, that by the
Laws of the Land, the fame Perfon could not be Cardi-

nal and Bifhop in England. He iupported his AiTertion 1431.
with the Examples of Simon Longham, and Robert Kihuarby,
formerly Archbifhops of Canterbury, who, upon their being
made Cardinals, religned the Archbiftioprick. When he
had done fpeaking, the Duke of Glocejler, addreffing him-
felf to the Bifhop oiWorceJler, required him to fay, upon
his Oath of Allegiance to the King, whether it was not
true, that the Cardinal had obtained of the Pope, an ex-
emption from the Jurifdieiion of the Archbifhop of Can-
terbury, for himfelf, for the City, and for the whole Dio-
cefe, of IVincheJler. His Aim was to fhew, how incon-
venient it was, to fuffer a Cardinal to hold a Bifhoprick in
England. The Bifhop of IVorce/lcr replied, after fome
Intreaty, that the Bilhop of Lichfield being at Rome, had
iued for, and obtained this Exemption for the Cardinal,
who had reimburfed all the Charges ; and that he had this
from that Prelate's own Mouth. This Affair having been
long debated, bv reafon of the two Parties in the Council,
it was at length refolved, that, before any Decifion, the
Cardinal fhoulu be heard, and the Judges confulted. Thus
it was not yet poffible for the Duke of Glocejler to compals
his Ends.

Whilft Henry was in France, Pope Eugenius II, SuccelTor^'"'"'' r "
of Martin V, fent thither the Cardinal of Santa Cruz, p C acc.
to try to perfuade the two Kings to a Peace. This Legate Monftrelet.
prevailed with them at laft, to fend their AmbafTadors to
Auxerre, but this Congrefs was fruitlefs. They did not
fo much as enter into a Conference, becaufe, if we may
believe the French Authors , the AmbalTadors of England
refuied to acknowledge King Charles's for AmbalTadors of
France. The 3 1 ft of .March, the next Year, was how-
ever appointed for their Meeting ; but it was in vain, fince
there was no place appointed for holding the Congrefs.
The Court ot England had named, for Henipotentiaries, * fll I '" fc-
the Bilhop of Rochejier, and fome others ( 1 ). cjV" ere?

Hen ry returned into England the beginning of the Year 1432.
1432 (2), being full ten Years of Age. As his Journey Henry
into Fiance produced no great EffccT, his return made ii6 r f m T' "
Alteration in his Affairs. They were ftill managed by " san
the Duke of Bedford in France, and by the Duke of Glo-
cejler in England. The Government of two Kingdoms ! { ! K ""' c .f
was no light Burden for thefe Princes, at a time when BedforVi*
the King's Affairs were manifeftly going to decay. The France.
Duke of Bedford was obliged to be always on his
Guard, to refill Enemies, now grown very formidable.
But this was nothing, in companion of the Trouble,
occafioned by his perpetual diftruft of his own Friends,
or thofe who pretended to be well-affedted to him. The
Duke of Burgundy's ambiguous Proceedings, juftly made
him uneafy. The Duke of Bretagne was no furer Friend.
In fhort, fince the decline of the Affairs of the Englijh %
the Towns which feemed to fide with them, were faith-
ful, only in proportion to the Strength of their Garrifons.
The Regent, by fad Experience, had been convinced of
this Truth. Paris herfelf, the Metropolis, on which, as
I may fay, all depended, was not fo well difpofed, as
that her Fidelity could be relied on ; or at leaft her At-
tachment to the Intereft of England wholly depended on
the Duke of Burgundy's. Add to this, the inconfiderable
Aids of Men and Money, received by the Duke ot Bed-
ford from England, at a time when thev were moft want-
ed. To complete his Misfortune, the Regent found him-
felf almoft alone, burthened with the Weight of the pub-
lick Affairs, as well Military as Civil ; thole who had af-
fifted him in the beginning of his Regency, being for the
moft part either dead, or Prifoners in the Hands of the
Enemy. In this Perplexity, he refolved to propofe to ^'{jj"** ^
King Charles, the Exchange of Talbot for Xaintrailles, xjintraUta,
and his Offer was accepted. As he durft not leave Pa) is, Act. Pub.
and the War was carrying on in feveral Parts of the x " P* 5°7»
Kingdom, he could not be without fuch a General as ' ~" :
Talbot ; though to procure him, he was forced to give his
Equal to the Enemy (3).

If the Affairs of the Englijl) were upon an ill foot in c '-"''" : ;f '

France, they were upon no better Terms in England. 'rJ'i^J'Jf

Subfidies were granted by the Parliament with great re- tbt Dale if

luclance, for continuing fo deftrucYive a War, which be- d°«*™

gan to be tirelome, fince it profpered not as formerly. ca'd-im!.

On the other hand, the Quarrel between the Duke of

Glocejler and the Cardinal ftill continued, with greater

Bitternefs than ever, and began to turn to the Duke's dif-

advantage. In the laft Year's Parliament (.1), the Cardi- ~''' Cj ' ■■

nal had found means to gain the Commons to his In- ( ; ry J ri „,,,,

tereft, and give his Adverlary a grievous Mortification, bis Emmy.

The Houfe, willing to fhew him Marks of their Favour, ** Pub -
* ° ' X. p. 516,

(1) Sir Jsbn FaJMJfe, ire. Rjtmr's Fad. Tom. X. p. 530.
A-id cjmc to London, Feb. 21. Fabian.

I. .id Talbot was not related ti'.l the beginning of the Year 1433. Sec Rymcr's Fctd. Tom X. p. ^36.
1 I'., ihc i.iil Year's Parliament, Rap.n moll mean the lail Parliament j mrnely, that held in 1430, ot rattier :tu: in 14J9 j for k dois nit s-ppear
here v ai one in 143 1.


Bdbk XII.

15. H E n R V VI


1-4.-, 2. prcfcnrc-d a Petition to tbc King ( 1 ), praying him., In con -
fideration of the Cardinal^ great Services to the State, to
give him a full Pardon tor whatever he had done, con-
trary to the Laws, particularly with regard to the Statute
of PrtSmunire. This was a mighty Advantage for the
Cardinal, fince the Commons Petition being granted, he
was skreened from all Profecution. However, the Duke
p. 517. of Glocejter did not defift. He pretended, that, not-
withflanding the Pardon, he had fufficient Evidence to
prove the Cardinal guilty of High-Treafon, a Crime which
could not be fuppoled to be included in the Letters of Par-
C tt'o'i don. The Cardinal, who was then in Flanders upon the
■Abndg. King's Affairs, fpeedily repaired to London, without asking
leave, and thereby gave his Enemy a Pretence to feize his
Baggage (2). The next day after his Arrival, he went
to the Houfe of Lords, and (aid, he was come to clear
himfelf of the Crimes, pretended to be laid to his Charge,
and vindicate his Innocence, againft whoever Ihould offer
to be his Accufer. The Duke of Glocejhr not thinking
proper to fupport what he had advanced, the Prelate was
anfwered, that as none appeared to accufc him, he was
acknowledged for a loyal Subject. He thanked the Houfe
for this Declaration, and denied it might be drawn up in
Aa. Pub. Form, which was granted. Then he complained, that
X. p. 5 l8 > at his arrival at Sandwich, his Baggage was feized, and
59'- 593- p t . tlt i onc j tnc Reffitution. He maintained, that the
Seizure was made without Caufc, and offered to lend the
King fix thoufand Pounds, for fix Years ; on condition,
that if, in that time, the Seizure appeared to be lawful,
the Money lent fhould be forfeited to the King's Ufe. He
offered moreover to lend him the like Sum, and to defer
the Demand of the thirteen thoufand Marks, due to him
on another account, provided the payment of the whole
(hould be afligned out of the next Subfidy granted to the
King. His Aim was, to fliew his regard for the King's
and the People's Wants. His Offers were accepted, and
the Seizure reftored. Thus the Duke oi" Ghcejler, inftead
of hui ting his Enemy, had the Mortification, to fee him
receive the Applaufes of both Houfes. Mean while, this
Difcord produced very ill Effects. As the Duke of Glo-
eejler had Friends and Adherents in the Council, the op-
polition generally between the two Parties, could not but
be very prejudicial to the King's Affairs. Whilft the Duke
and the Cardinal thought only of their own private Con-
cerns, the War in France was neglected, though it was
more neccflary than ever, to fupport it with the greateft
trMUr.tt »f If England had known how to improve her Advantages,
K '"i fhe had a very favorable opportunity to repair fome of her

Lofles. King Charles languifhed in the Arms of Agnes
Sorrel his Miftrefs, and left to the Care of his Miniffers
and Generals, his moil important Affairs. Nothing af-
fected him but his Pleafures. It was with extreme reluc-
tance, that he bellowed a few Moments upon the War,
and the Affairs of State. $0 impatient was he to return
to his Pleafures, interrupted by thefe troublefome Cares,
that he only fought to intruft with others, whatever might
Trouble* in embanafs him. La Trimouille, his Favorite, was gene-
Hs Coin. ra lly accufed of foothine him in this Supinenefs. But it
was perceived by Perlons of Penetration, that the King
began to grow weary of him, and was uneai'y under a
Yoke he had impofed upon himfelf. The Conftable,
though abfent, was foon informed of it. His Spies at
Court were too watchful, for fo important a thing to be
long concealed from him. As he was of a proud and vio-
lent Spirit, he could not bear, without Indignation, to be
furpafled by La Trimouille; and had formed a Defign to
ferve him, as he had done Louvet, De Giac, and Bcaulieu.
When he knew, the King no longer looked uponZtf Tri-
mouille with the fame Eye as before, he immediately re-
folved to fet Hand to the Work. But as in ruining La
Trimouille, he did not find himfelf fo far in the King's
Favor, that he could hope for his Place, he projected to
introduce Charles of Anjou, the Queen's Brother, into this
Poft. Strange Project, haughtily to attempt to take from
a Prince one Favorite, and give him another againft his
Li Tri- Will, or at leaft without confulting him ! As foon as the
JjJjUS " Conftable had made all his Cabals at Court, and matters
Moiiftrelet. were r 'P e f°r Execution, La Trimouille was feized in his
Bed, in the King's own Houfe, who was then at Chimin

Monit relet.

find carried to Prifoil at Montr -/for. Charles was enraged 1432.
at the News, and would immediately have taken Ven-
geance, but when he law all the Princes of the Blood, and
the great Men at Court, declare againft La Trimouille, he
durft not venture to proceed. He remembred, with dread,
the Confederacy formed againft him, when he would have
fcrccned Louvet, and was afraid of the like. Jielidcs, his
difguft for the Favorite, who was only fo in Name, being
added to that political Real'on, he abandoned him without
much Concern. Charles of Anjou came to comfort him, •"'' Chute
and fucceeded fo well, that, according to the Conftable'
Project, he became the Favorite, and La Trimouille wa

It is eafy to judge, that a Prince of Charles's Character,
who had an Avcrlion fo] War, would not have been very
formidable to the Duke of Bedford, if the Supplies from
England had been fufficient, to enable him to make fome
confulerable Attempt. But he had not for foine time been
able to bring an Army into the Field, without difgarniiPi-
ing his Towns, and expofing them cither to be furprized,
or tempted to follow the Example of thofc, that had vo-
luntarily furrendered to King Charles.

About the end of lalt Year, Foucaut had conquered Lagni^"} " i " 1
upon him, a Place often taken and retaken, and which thepreldi.
Neighbourhood of Paris rendered extremely important. A M. nftrclrt.
little after, the Regent unfuccefsf'ully attempted to retake it. J' chirti '
In the beginning of this Year, the Marflial de I'Iflc-Adam,
and the Earl oi Arundel { 3) attacked it in vain, being forced,
by a vigorous Sally from the Town, to abandon their En-
terprize. At laft in the Begining of Auguft, the Duke of ^ F " # ' '\
Bedford belieged it himfelf with an Army of fix thoufand '"„.'.
Men. But, on the 10th of the fame Month, the Haftard •'•-•' "•
of Orleans, in fpite of the Duke's Precautions and Vigi- Hl ' u
lance, introduced aConvoy (4), and then parted the Mam:.
'Fhe Duke, fearing by this March, that he held fome In-
telligence in Paris, fuddenly raifed the Siege, to prevent
his Defigns. Thus Lagni was befieged three times in vain,
within the Space of feven or eight Months.

On the other hand, a fmall Body of French, drawn out 77 french
of the Garrifons near the Loire, furprized Montargis. But'^'J.
as the Caftle made a vigorous Defence, fhe French not be- and quit it
ing able either to force it, or keep the Town, were obliged •" '
to retire. In Normandy twelve hundred Englijh inverted ^
la Hire in Louviers, and after 3 three Months Blockade,
conftrained the Place to capitulate.

Thefe were Events of little Importance. But, on the "■-'"' / "'
1 3th of November, there happened one of much greater Con- B " dt ,;,'j.
fequence, namely, the Death of Ann of Burgundy, DuchcfsM.ndrckt.
of Bedford ( 5 ). This Lofs was not peculiar to the Duke her HM -
Spoufe, but common to all the Englijh, fince it broke the
Bond of Union between the Dukes of Bedford and Bur-
gundy, and by the Coldnefs which fucceeded, proved very
fatal to England.

The Council of Baftl had been afiembled fince the M%*°£jf.
Year, but England had fent no AmbafTadors. About theBafil.
end of this Year, the Pope and Council, who were dif- Aft. re-
puting concerning Pre-eminence, fending, each a-part, Le- *' P 'A*/'
gates to the King, the Archbifhop of fork, the Bifhop of __1 y^,'
Rochefter, the Earl of Huntington (6), and feveral others,
were appointed to go to the Council.

In the Beginning of the Year 1433, there was a dange- «433<
rous Infurrection in Normandy, which would have been no I"/""™' '-'■
lefs fatal to the Englijh, than the raifing of the Siege of^',,,'^
Orleans, if by their Diligence they had not timely pre- Monfircief.
vented Part of the Mifchief, which might have enfued. J- Chartier,
Sixty thoufand Peafants of that Province having taken
Arms, divided themfelves into two Bodies, one whereof
confifting of forty thoufand Men, marched into Vexin,
and the other towards Caen. Had Charles'?. Army been
near enough to fupport them, he would doubtlefs have
conquered all Normandy. The Rebels foon became. ..Ma-
ilers of Caen, Harfteur, Dieppe, and Liilebonne. Probably
they would have made a much greater Progrefs, if the
Earl of Arundel (7) had not, with the utmoft Expedition,
marched againft thofe that were aflembled in Vexin. As
thefe Men had no eminent Leader, they fuffered thom-
felves to be furprized in the Night, and eafily yielded him
a Victory, more advantagious to his Mailer than glorious
for him. Thofe of Caen, though not fo numerous, would
have given him more Trouble, becaufe the Marlhal of

(1) During the SertVn of the Parliamenl which met this Year on Maj 11, at JVtJImirpr ; and continued the Subfidy of Woo];, and Tunnaae and Poun-
dage for one Vest : It .life granted half a Tenth, and halt" a Fifteenth ; but releafed the Six-pence in the Pound let uptn foreign Merchants. Cc.r./i'. Airidgi
p. 601, 602. In this Parliament, on %./>' 17, the renowned Sir John Ccrnivj/I was creattd Baron of Fambepe. Ibid. p. 6C4. Rjmcr'S FtrJ. 1 •m- X.
p. 524.

^t.) The Duke of Glucfler only feized, at Sandlticb, fome of the King's Jewels, which wero mortgaged to the Cardinal, ard which he intended to carry
over ; whereupon the Cardinal came hack in great hafie and fuiy, for the Recovery of them. But an Order was made, that betqri the) v. :e r ftored to him,
lie ihould pay the King fix thoufand Pounds more for them, and lend him ten thoufand Marks j which was according!)' done. Cvtlto > slliid^. p. C03.
Ryrr.ir\ Fad. Tor.:. X. p. 517, 51S, 519. See an account of .-.11 thefe Jewels, p. 593, Cafe

(3) Jobn Fitx Alan.

;+) But not without a great Slaughter on both Sides. Mmjlreht, fol. 82.

< ■) He buried her at the Celeflinfi in Parn, within the Chapel of Orleans, where a noble Tomb of black
thereon, is Hill to be fcen.

;6) jJi iii'j- 1.

i^) Ar.d the Lord IViUaug,


Her Epitaph lays, (he died Nvuanbei the 14th, 1432. Uugdtik'i Barti. Vol- II. r
'.vith fix thoufand Archers, Hall, fol, 124.

M . with her Effigies, as s Price's, jkeed
c-'-j;. -'. 0.'-.-. p. 313.




Vol. I.

H33' Rlcux was at theic Ilea J. But terrified at the News of the
Defeat of their Companions, they retired file after file to
their Homes. The Maifhal feeing himfelf thus deferted,
took with him fome of the molt couragious, and threw him-
felf into Dieppe. Mean while, Arundel, taking Advantage
of their Conlternation, found means to recover Caen and
Lillcbonne. But Dieppe and Hurfleur, places of very great
Importance, remained in the hands of the French.
Tb Duh This fame Year, another Event helped todifconcert the
' ■" , Affairs of the Englijh. The Duke of Bedford being a Wi-

marries Ja- , . . , , . ,-, ,. r J T i r / \

quelina of dower, married in March, jaquehna or Luxemburg!] ( i J,

Luxemburg Daughter of Peter of Luxemburg)} (z), Earl of St. Pol.
Tit D.d,- 6/ The Duke of Burgundy was extremely offended, that this
offi'Sedat ..Marriage was made without his Knowledge. He thought
Monitnl.r. the Duke of Bedford fhoukl have fhewn him more refpect,
fince, befides the Conlideration of the many Ties by which'
they were united, he married the Daughter of one of his
Vaffals. The Duke of Bedford, who was very prudent
and circumfpeft, had doubtlefs his reafons for battening
his Marriage, without imparting it to the Duke of Bur-
gundy. However, as it greatly concerned him not to anger
that Prince, he paid him fome Compliments by the Car-
dinal of Wlncbejler , who even procured an Interview at
St. Omcr, where the two Princes met in April. But an
unhappy Difpute about Precedency hindered their Recon-
ciliation, and caufed them to part extremely incenfed with
each other. Thefe two Princes had frequently met with-
out any Conteft upon that account. But the Duke of Bur-
gundy was obliged to ftart fome Difpute now, for a Cloak
to the Steps he intended to make. He owned Henry for
King of France, and the Duke of Bedford for Regent,
and Uncle of the reigning King, how therefore could he
pretend to take place of him ?
Tit Duh of During this Year, nothing of Moment paffed, with regard
taktVl mi t0 tne War. Charles feemed to have wholly relinquifhed
Flacafrom all Care of his Affairs, the better to relifh the Pleafures of
iu 'rt'T''' J j0ve anc ' Eafe. The Duke of Bedford was weak, and
HAl. C ' as he received no farther Supplies from England, thought
more of keeping what he had, than of making new Con-
cjuelfs. Mean while, though the Duke of Burgundy pur-
pofed to make a feparate Peace with Charles, he believed it
would be the more advantagious, if he could do it with
full hands. To that end, he became Mafter of St. Va-
lery, which Gaucour had taken by Surprize. The Town
of Ham, defended by the Baftard of Orleans and Xain-
trailles, with Laon and Provins, were alfo taken by him.
On the other hand, the Earl of Arundel, belieging Silley-
le-Guillaume in Maine, the Conftable Richcmont obliged him
to raife the Siege, but the French were fcarce gone when
the Earl returned and took the Town (3).
Tie Dub of Mean time, the Council of England were more intent,
to medial a bpjw t0 procure a Peace, than to recover what the King
had loft in France. The Duke of Orleans, ftill a Prifoner
At\. Pub. at Lcndcu, had made the firft Overtures, and offered to
556. u fe his utmoft Endeavours, to finifh an Affair, on which

depended his Freedom. To compafs his ends, he had pro-
pofed to bring to Calais, or any other place the Council
mould name, the Queen Dowager of Sicily., Charles of
Anjou her Son, the Duke of Bretagne, with the Earls of
Richemont and St. Giles his Brothers, the Duke of Alen-
fcin , the Earls of Armagnac, Foix, Perdriac, Clermont,
and the Archbifhop of Rheims, to treat with the Ambaffa-
dors of England. He defired likewife PermifTion to be at
the Congrefs, to promote , to the utmoft of his Power, the
Conclufion of a Peace. As his Aim was, to engage the
Court of England to enter into Negotiation, he demon-
ftrated, that the Englijh would reap great Advantages,
whether this Treaty broke off, or fucceeded. Thefe are
the two Articles lie propofed to the Council concerning

H oj,rs. J. I n ca f e a Peace was concluded between Henry and

1 ' >"■ 5 > 6 ' the Dauphin, (for fo he called King Charles) he promifed

to do Homage to Henry whenever required, and never to

'own any other King of France, than him, or his lawful


II. He promifed the fame tiling for all his Valfals, for
the Duke of Alenfon, for the Earls of Armagnac, Perdri-
ac, Angoulcme, and the Dukes of Milan and Savoy.

In another Article, he fuppofed the Dauphin would be
contented with an honorable and confiderable Appennage,
which was the very thing the Englijh aimed at in this

But, as a Peace might happen not to be concluded, in r 4 3 ; .
that cafe, the Duke engaged to acknowledge Henry for
fole and true King of France. He promiled moreover to
deliver to him Blois, Orleans, and all his demean Towns,
with Rochellc, Mont St. Michel, Limoges, Bourges, Chinon,
Poielnrs, "Tournay, Beziers, Saintes, and Leches, or what
other Places he pleafed inftead of thefe, except Rochelle and
Mont St. Michel, which were not to be changed.

That if the King fhould grant him any Demefns in
England, he would own him, as King of England, for his
Liege-Lord, and as fuch, fwear Fealty to him.

That he would do his utmoft, to put the King in poflef-
fion of the Countries and Cities of France, which did not
yet acknowledge him, and would ferve him at his own

That in cafe the Treaty did not fucceed, he promifed
to return a Prifoner to England, -till all the Articles were
performed on his part, on condition he mould afterwards
be releafed without Ranfom (4).

Thefe Articles, which had been before concerted be- il.y are
tween the King's Commiffioners and the Duke, being ap- "jf'f"*'.
proved by the Council, the Duke figned and fealed them, x . _ l 6l>
and fwore to obferve them. Then Paffports were pre-
pared (5) for the Queen Dowager of Sicily, and the reft
mentioned in the firft Article, that they might repair to
Calais in Oilober. The Council appointed alfo Plenipoten-
tiaries, to treat with the French,

When the Engagements here entered into by the Duke Reafau •xi.y
of Orleans are confidered, they are a clear Evidence °forteuis«Jw
his joining with the Court of France, to impofe upon the not fnartly.

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