M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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By Letters under the Great Seal, the King granted him
a general pardon for all offences whatever, from the be-
ginning of the World to the 26th of June 1437 (')•
By this means he difarmed his Enemy of all pretence to
attack him.

■43 s -

Plague and
¥ amine in

difficult than the firft. The fame thing happened to
Henry V, when he inverted this Place. Mean time,
the Conftable having taken the Governor Prifoncr in the
aftault (11), cut off his Head, becaufe he was a French-
man. This is what King Charles's Generals had not yet

The year 1438, abounded with few remarkable Events, ventured to practice, by reafon of the great number of
A terrible Famine, which raged at the fame time in France Prifoners in the hands of the Englijh. But as foon as they
landW an(J £"|^""A and was followed by a Plague, prevented the found themfelves ftrongeft, they overlooked that confide


Generals, on both fides, from forming any great pro- ration, being no longer apprehenfive of Reprifak


The Siege of the Market of Aleaux growing dailv more Talbot
difficult, the Conftable drew round his Camp Line's with ';""" '*
redoubts to prevent all relief, and the King came him- m,
felf to the Army, to animate the Troops by his pre-
fence. Mean while, Talbot, who did not doubt, that the
befieged would make a long refiftance, was now prepar-
ed to relieve them. How difficult foever this undertaking
appeared, he failed not to attempt it. The obftacles
which he forefaw, ferved only to animate him the more.

jcets. Attempts there were however, fome of which
were unfuccefsful, and others inconfiderable. I fhall
therefore take notice of the mod remarkable only. Su-
rhnhe, Governor, of Montargis for the Englijh, finding
him felf furrounded with the Enemy's Towns, and re-
ceiving nO affiftance from England , furrendered that
Place to the French, for ten thoufand Salutes of Gold (2).
In the prefent pofture of the affairs of the Englijh,
Montargis was of little importance, fince they could not

poflibly carry the War from that quarter. Shortly after, With a good Body of chofen Troops, he boldly advan-

Edmund Earl of Mortdgne (3), Brother of the Earl of ced towards the Befiegers Lines, and aflaulting and ta-
Somerfet, leading fome Troops from England (4), and • king one of the Redoubts, which obftrucled his Paffage,

joining Talbot, they made fome inconfiderable Conquefts entered the Place with a Convoy. On the morrow, he

in Normandy. fallied out, whilft the Befiegers were ftill difmayed at the

Ihc Dutc of The difgrace received by the Duke of Burgundy before Action of the foregoing day, and went to prepare for a

Burgundy Calais, grieving him extremely, he wanted to repair it frefh Effort. But the Conftable imaged at receiving fuch iutHtPlaa

™h*"a,«~n,pt ty takin g tnat Place - Kut > as it was difficult to accom- a difgrace from a handful of Men, preffed the Place fo vi- " '»*«».

tipn Calais, p'ifh t}lis defign by a Siege in form, he took another goroufly, that the Garrifon were forced to capitulate, bc-

Mcnftrelet. method. He had been told, that by digging through a fore the Succours could be ready.

certain Bank, the Town would be infallibly overflow- The Siege of Avranche, undertaken by the Conftable H' ""/>• tit

ed ; and that lying within diftance^ with a good Body of after that of Meaux, did not prove fo fuccefiful. After ?'*" °f

Troops, it would be eafy to enter the Place, amidft the being three Weeks before that Place, Talbot, with the H»u, '

Aft. Pub. Confirmation of the Garrifon and Inhabitants. The pro- Troops prepared for the relief of Meaux, attacked and

X. p. 6S6. ject was put in execution ; but the Sea being lower than forced the Lines of the Befiegers, and fupplied the Town

Hi mi/fei hu t |, e Town, all the Water ran out. The Duke being with Provifions.

difappointed, refolved to attempt the Siege of Guifnes ; After this Exploit, Talbot finding the French were dif- < "" / t,f„ga

but the Earl of Huntington (5), who came very feafonably mayed, and their Troops fo weakened, that they could m"^,'".'

from England with a fupply of Troops, conftraihed him not withftand him, appeared before Harfleur. As his Stow,''

to retire. The troubles in Flanders, which were foon af- Army was not ftrong enough to form a Siege, he chofe

ter rekindled, found him fo much employment for fome to block up the Town. To that end, he fo intrenched

years, that he had no leifure to form any new defigns a- himfelf in an advantagious Poft, that an Armv of fifty

gainft the Englijh.

thoufand Men was not capable of forcing him. Mean

Truce re-
reived luitb
Aft. Pub.
X. p. 6-9,
fc34, 6SS.

The Dauphin's Marriage raifed fuch a Jealoufy in the time, the Earl of Somerfet kept the Place blocked up by
Englijh, that, after feveral infults on both fides, England Sea. The Earl of En, lately arrived from England, where

and Scotland came at length to an open Rupture. Mean
while, the Minority of James II, and the favorable dif-
pofition of the Queen-Mother to the Englijh her Coun-
try-men, procured a nine years Truce, from the ift of
May this year,

he had been long a Prifoner, approached to attack the In-
trenchments of the Englijh ; but perceiving it impracti-
cable, chofe to retire, after a faint attempt, wherein Gau-
cour was made Prifoner. At length, after a four months
Blockade, Talbot became matter of this important Place,
•n, Duh of 7°^ n anc * Thomas Beaufort, Brothers of the Earl of So- the firft Conqueft of Henry V. After that, he cleared Hal '«
SomcrfetV mcrfet, having been long Prifoners in France (6), it had Normandy of the Garrifons, which the French ftill kept S,ov> '
Bnbcr ex. been often attempted, to exchange them for others of the in feveral Caftles : So that nothing remained to them in
'tllYa/iej F'' encl, i Dut tncre was always fome obftacle in the way. that Province, but the Town of Dieppe only.
E J. By the agreement in 1430, with the Duke of Bourbon, The Duke of Burgundy was concerned, that the a£ Dlffofitien

Monftrelet. that Prince had engaged, to procure their releafe without fairs of the Englijh began to be reftored, and dreaded the $ 'i?! fl
Ranfom ; but as that agreement was never executed, they confequences. King Charles waged War very carelefslv, dy.
1 remained Prifoners. I do not know what became and could hardly be prevailed with to head his Army.

of Thomas, who bore the Title of Earl of Perth, it may
Aft. Pub. De ne died during his Captivity. But this year, John was
X. p. 664, exchanged for the Earl of Eu of the Houfe of Artois,
63o, 697. w j 10 h;iJ been Prifoner in England^ ever fince the Bat-
tle of Jzincourt. He afterwards became Duke of Somer-
fet, upon the death of Henry his elder Brother. There

Befides, France was fo ruined, that he could draw but
few Succours from the Provinces he polfelTed. On the
other hand, the War in Flanders, which wholly employed
the Duke of Burgundy, afforded no hopes of any great
affiftance from thence. If the Engli/h had then exerted
themfelves, probably, they would have recovered a ereat

was alfo a fourth Brother named Edmund who fucceeded deal of ground. But, out of blindnefs, or inability, "they

them, and of whom, I fhall have much to fay in the
fequel of this Reign (7).

The Famine and Plague ceafing in England and France,
both Sides took Arms again. In A/arch 1439, the Con-
ftable Richemont putting himfelf at the head of a nume-
muut btjitgn rous Army (8), laid Siege to Aleaux, one of the ftrongeft

Meaux. and


The Cmjla
i>te Riche-

made but faint efforts^ contenting themfelves with fend-
ing from time to time inconfiderable Supplies, which could
not enable them to recover what they had loft. Thus
on both Sides, it was ealily feen, that the War would he
eternal, if it was to laft till one of the two Kings had
lofti one after another, the Places he poiTeiTcd. Tht3

takes it by



(1) He alfo difchargrd him from the payment of Tenths, and all other Sums granted by the Clergy; and gave him a yearly Pcnlion of fori* Pound-,
Kyirur'i Fad. Tom. X. p. 68 1.

(z) A piece of Miney worth about twenty five Pence Tmirtnit, See the Coin Note at the end of Henry V.

(3) See above, p. 1,58. Note (5).

(41 Four hundred Archers, ard three hundred Spears- Halt, fol. 136. He favs, the? were led by Henry. Son of Edmuid Earl of Mcta^ne. So fays allb
Samifmt, P . 298. * '

(C) With John Moiu^ray t>ulce of Norfolk. gymer'i Faed. Tom. X. p 685,

\fi) Ever lince the b-ittleot Bauge', where Clarence was killed.

(7 I The Reader may correft the miitakes in this Paragraph, by Note (S), p. 535, where he will find John was not Brother of, but himfelf. Earl of
Soverf.e, and ha.i been lo ever fince the dea'h of Henry, his elder Brother, 6 Henry V. Edmund was not fourth but third Son.

(8) Four thoufand Men at Arms. Monflrelel, fol, 162. {9) Monjlrclet calls him, le Bajiard de Ibian, fol. 161.

(10 It conliited of about five hundred Men ; the commanding Officers were, Sir William Chamberlain, Sir Join Riff.'ay, cVc. Ibid.

\i 1) It was de Tbian, who was thus fetved, at the taking of the Town, and rot of the Market. See Mc-.firtltt, ibid.

No. XXIX. Vol. I.





the H I S TO R T of E N G L A N D.

Vol. I.

They btgn
to talk of
Du Tillet.
Ail Pub.
X. p. 683,
*c. 707,

confideration fo affected the Duke of Burgundy, that he
refolved, either to procure a Peace, if poffiole, between
the two Kings, or fecure himfelf by a Neutrality. Such
a defi-m was to be managed with great prudence and
caution, for fear both Parties fhould agree to his preju-
dice, 01 the Englijh grow more referved, if they knew Ins

Intention. .

Whilft the Duke of Burgundy was pofTefied with thele
thoughts, the Pope exhorted the two Kings, by the
Cardinal of Santa Crux, to put a flop to the effufion of
Chriftian Blood fined in their Quarrel. At the fame time,
he writ to the Duke of Bretagne, defiring him to be Me-
diator of Peace. The Duke fending to both Kings,
found them equally inclined to enter into Treaty, and the
Duke of Burgundy received the propofal with Joy. The
Duke of Orleans took this opportunity, to offer his Me-
diation to the King of England, jointly with the Duke of
Bretagnc ; and to that end, renewed his inftances for leave
to confer with the Duke at Calais. This was granted
him, though the Duke of Glacejler oppofed it with all his
power, becaufe he plainly faw, that Prince could not be
an impartial Mediator. But for fome time part, the Duke
of Glocefter had loft his intereft in the Council, where
it was even affected, upon all occafions, to proceed con-
trary to his opinion. Befides, the Counfellors were fo
defirous of Peace, that they forgot, or were willing to for-
get, that the falfe ftep taken in fending Ambafladors to
Arras, was entirely owing to the vain hopes given the
Duke of OrLans. So , the captive Prince was looked
upon as a dilinterefted Mediator, though it was eafy to per-
ceive, he was entirely bialfed in favour of King Charles.
The Duke of Burgundy law, with pleafure, the preparati-
ons for a Conference, which would either end in a Peace
between the two Kings, or afford him a pretence, to
conclude a feparate Truce with England. The _ two
Courts being thus difpofed, Commiffioners were appointed
on both fides ( 1 ), to fettle the preliminary Articles of the
Congrefs. Thefe Commiffioners being met, judged, that
in order to fucceed in a negotiation of Peace, a Truce was
abfolutely neceflary. Whereupon Henry impowered his
to confent to it, but fome obftacles occurred, which hin-
dered the conclufion. What has been faid concerning a
Peace, was tranfacted in the foregoing year 143S. But
I thought fit to deier fpeaking of it till now, that I
might not interrupt the recital of what relates to this
Tbe fiace of I n the month of January, 1439, Ifabella of Portugal,
C pnfud. "'" Duchefs of Burgundy, and the Cardinal of Winchejler,
P^is". conferred together between Calais and Graveling. The
be Duke c/ re r u i t f tn eir Conference was, that the two Kings
mould appoint a proper Place to treat of a Peace, with
the mediation of the Dukes of Bretagne and Orleans,
and fhould fend their Plenipotentiaries thither. Purfuant
to this agreement, the very Place where the Duchefs and
Cardinal weie, was chofen, and Ambafladors were no-
minated on both fides (2). They were all chofen out of
the Princes and greateft Lords of the two Kingdoms.
But, before we proceed to the fuccefs of this Congrefs,
it will not be amifs to fee how the Council of England
(toed difpofed, with regard to a Peace. , Now this evi-
dently appears in the Ambafladors inftructions, extant in
the Colleclion of the Publick Ails. Hence we fhall be able
to judge, which of the two Parties is to be blamed for
breaking off the Conference, and rectify feveral miftakes
of the Hiftorians.

Aa. Pub.

X- p- 683,
7°9. 7'3-

Breugue and
lb. p. 710
7*8, 730.


75 6 . 7 6 3>



!-ve>i to the


AM. Pub
X. p. 7*4

I. In the fuft place, the Ambafladors were ordered to
.. demand, that the King's adverfary fhould leave him in

*jjWor». peaceable pofleffion of the whole Realm of France. They
were to fupport this demand with feveral reafons mention-
ed in the inftructions, but too long to be inferted here.
Befides, the Reader knows very well, on what the preten-
fionsof the Kings of England weie founded.

II. If the French fhould expoftulate againft this demand,
and think it unreafonable, the Ambafladors, after a pre-
vious Proteftation, were to offer Charles the Provinces
beyond the Loire, which were of the King's Demefn,
but on condition of Homage.

III. If the Adverfaries refufed this offer, the Cardinal
Of Winchejler, as a Clergyman, was to inlarge on the
confiderations proper to perfwade the two Nations to
Peace. Thefe confiderations being many and long, I
fhall only relate the fubftance of the three principal. The
firft was, that the War undertaken for the Title of King
of France, claimed by each of the two Kings, had de-
ftroyed more Men than were, at that prefent, in both

Kingdoms. The fecond was, that the two Princes ought 1439.
ferioufly to confider, that God made not the People for
the Sovereign, but the Sovereign for the People ; that b,
to govern them with Juftice and Peace, to the end the
Subjects may be the better able to ferve him. The third
was, that France had not always been governed by one
fingle Monarch, but, before and after Charlemain, there
were often two, fometimes three, nay, four Kings at the
fame time.

IV. This laft confideration was in order to proceed, in
the fourth place, to another offer, which the Ambafladors
had power to propofe ; namely, that Henry would refign
to Charles all the Provinces beyond the Loire in full Sove-
reignty. He exprefsly referved however Guier.ne, Poiclou,
and whatever was poffefTed by his Ancestors in France,
before the Crown of England devolved to them.

V. If this was rejected, the Ambafladors had Power, to
offer from the King their Mafter, that he would be fatis-
fied with what his Anceftors enjoyed in France by right

of Inheritance, provided Calais, Guifnes, and the adjacent . -

Marches were added ; the whole in full Sovereignty, with-
out any dependance upon the Crown of France, or anv
Perfon whatever but God alone.

VI. If the French infilled, that Normandy fhould be re-
ftored to Charles, in the ftate it was in before the Con-
quelt thereof by Henry V, that is, notwithilanding the
Grants of feveral Lordlhips to private Perfons, as vic-11 by
the late as the prefent King, lather than break oft' the
Conference this Article might be allowed.

VII. If Charles were brought to be fistisfied with this
offer, provided Henry would quit the Title of King of
France, in that cafe, the Inftructions furnifhed the Pleni-
potentiaries with many reafons and arguments to be al-
iedged againft that condition. But In fliort, they had
Orders to leave this matter to the Cardinal of Jl'inchejlcr,
to whom the King had made known his Pleafure.

It is manifeft the Council had refolved to fubmit to this,
if the Peace could not otherwife be made. For if Henry
had abfolutely refufed to quit the Title of King of France,
there was no fecret to be kept, and the Inftructions would
have contained an exprefs Order to reject the Propofal.

The Vlllth Article was concerning the King's Mar-
riage wirii one of Charles's Daughters.

IX. If the French rejected all thefe offers, and made
any Propofals on their part, the Ambafladors, without ac-
cepting or refufing them, were to reply, that they had no
inftructions to treat of a Peace upon thofe Grounds, but
would fignify them to their Mafter.

X. Mean while, they were to propofe, by the Duchefs
of Burgundy or the Duke of Orleans, a fifty years Truce,
with a free Communication between the two Nations.
They had likewife power to reduce the Truce to forty,
thirty, or twenty years ; and rather than fail, they might
limit it from three years to eight, provided it was with-
out Communication.

XI. In cafe the Truce was accepted, they were to re-
prefent, that for the better obfervance thereof, it would
be proper to make an Exchange of fome Places. To
that end, they were ordered to offer Meaux, Crcil,
St. Germain in Laye, which were in the hands of the Eng-
UJIi when thefe Inftructions were drawn, for Dieppe, le
.Mont St. Michel, and Harjieur, which Talbot had not yet

XII. Laftly, the King willing to facilitate the Exchange
of thele Places, agieed to releafe the Duke of Orleans, lor
a Ranfom of a hundred thoufand Marks, and to abate filty
thoufand, on account of the propofed Exchange.

Thefe Inftructions were drawn May the 21ft, 1439.
If we had likewife thofe of Charles's Plenipotentiaries,
perhaps we fhould find, the two Kings were not at fo great
a diftance from one another, as it feemed in the Confe-
rence. But as, on thefe occafions, the chief care of ihe
managers is to be upon their guard, for fear their fecret
Inftructions fhould be dilcovercd, it often happens, that the
Negotiation is broke off", before there is occafion to fhow
all their Conceffions ; fo apprehenlive are they of gi\ ing
their Adverfaries any advantage. This was really the cafe
in the prefent Treaty. The Englijli did not think proper, Monflrelet.
to go beyond the fecond Article of their Inftructions, name- HaU -
ly, that Charles fhould have the Provinces beyond the
Loire, on condition of Homage to Henry. They expect-
ed, the French would give them room by their offers to
make fome further advances. For the fame reafon, the
French kept to the Propofals made at the Congrefs of Arras,
to wit, that their Mailer remaining fole King of France,

(1) The Enrlifi Commiffioficrs were, the Abbot of Fcjcamp, Tlomas Lord Scalei, Sir Job* Popbam, Sir Andrew Ogart, Set Richai d llartyngton, Ralph
Raffitey, and John Raynell. Rymer' j Feed. Tom. X. p. 683. And thele were appointed afterwards. John Aichb.lhjp or Tori, Nicbclat Byllejion, Stffbca.
Wilf.n, ana milium Spevcr, Doctors of Law ; Robert Whtyr.gham, Trealurer of Calai, ; and Job* Raymuell. Ibid. p. 713.

(z) The Enrh/b Ambaffadors were, John Archbilhop ot lort, J-,bn Mowbray Duke of Norfolk, the Billnps of Ltfieux, Norwick, and St. Da-Md'i ;
Humphrey Earl ot Buckingham, Hereford, Stafford, A'crtbampr.,n, and Pcrcbe ; Jobn dt Vtre Ea.l ol Oxford, Bcnrj Lord Bairebler, the Abb .t o Fejl .« >,
ffeberLori Hmgerfird, Nicbtlai Bitbjlon Dean of Sarum, Sir John Slourton, Sir John Suticn, Sir John Pcpbam, Ribcrt Wouyngbam, -lions: htkjnj'i,
William Erard, ottfbea Wilton, William Sfrevcr, and Jot* Bjmll, Rymcr'i Feed. Tom. X. p- 72S.


Book XII.




and bis

would refign Guienne and Normandy to Henry, on con-
dition of Homage. They laid great ftrefs upon this offer,
and on Charles's condefcenlion, in being pleafed to ftand to
what he had offered at the Congrefs of Arras, though he
had fince made great Conquefts, and was become mafter of
TbcCanfe- j t was a ] m oft impoffible, for a Peace to be concluded on
„£, the Terms propofed on both Sides. Each Prince offered

Hall. to refign only what was out of his power, and by vir-

tue of this pretended Cellion, expected the other mould
divert himfelfof what he actually poffelfed. This was pro-
perly, to defire to gain witli the dafh of a Pen, what
they could not hope to obtain, without many fuccefslu!
Sieges and Battles. So, after the Ambaffadors of the two
Kings had long tried to difcover, how far their Adver'a-
ries Instructions allowed them to advance, they parted
without coming to any conclufion. Each was defirous to
wait, till room was given to make more reafonable Pro-

The Dukes of Burgundy and Orleans were the only
gainers by this Congrefs. The firft deltred, at any rate,
to eafe his Subjects in Flanders, Brabant, Holland, Zealand,
who were great fufferers by the Interruption of their Com-
merce with England. To this end, he employed his Du-
chefs, who being a near relation of Henry, was not fuf-
petfted by the EngllJJj. Under colour of doing the Office
of a Mediatrix between the two Kings, the had frequent
Conferences with the Cardinal of Winchejier, and negotia-
ted a trading Truce between England and the Low-
Afl. Tub. Countries. This appears in feveral Papers of the Collec-
X. p 7131 tion of the Publick Ails. And indeed, this Truce was con-
730. 73&- eluded prefently alter (1).

7 ^°' ao ^ ut ^ e ^ u ' ce of Orleans reaped the moft benefit from

Tbi rotifer the late Congrefs, fince it procured him his Liberty, after
0/ Henry a twenty-five years Captivity It has been frequently ob-
ferved, that there were two Parties in the Court of Eng-
land, namely, the Duke of Glocejler's and the Cardinal of
IVincheJler's ; and that the latter gradually prevailed, fince
the King began to take notice of his affairs. 1 his Prince,
now nineteen years old, had a very mean genius, and but
little like his Father's. He eafily fuffered himfelf to be
governed by thofe about h ; m. Inftead of having the Pre-
fumption very common to young Princes, he was ever dif-
truftful of himfelf, and chofe rather to iollow the Counfels
of others, than his own. With this weaknefs, he had
Principles of Honour, Virtu^» and Religion, which indeed
made him wifh, he could always ail jultly, but often fer-
ved for foundation and pretence to his Counfellors, to
draw him into many Injuftices. As he wanted penetra-
tion, he was deceived with appearances. Of this his Mi-
nifters knew how to take advantage, allured as they were
of his incapacity to difcern their felf-imerefted Counfels.
During his youth, he had contracted a habit of blindly
following the fuggeftions of the Duke of Glocejler his Un-
cle, who governed in his Name. But when he was of a
more advanced Age, the Cardinal of IVinchcJler and his
Party infinuated to him , that his Uncle intended to
keep him always in Guardianfhip, and had deligns def-
tru&ive of his quiet. Thefe difcourfes frequently repeat-
ed, produced at length the effedt the Duke's Enemies ex-
pected. By degrees, the King had fuch an averlion for his
Uncle, that he would no longer regard him. It was made
a fort of rule to mortify him upon all occafions. His mo-
ving any thing in Council was fufficient to have it ftrong-
ly oppofed, and the King genemlly countenanced the con-
trary Party to the Duke, out of fear of giving him room
to execute the pretended defign of keeping him in Subjec-
tion. Such for fome time had been the difpofition of
the Kins; and Court.
•/be Duh of The Duke of Glocjler had always oppofed the Duke of
Glocefter >i Orleans's releafe. The late King his Brother's Will,
"hafim, the was to n ' m an ' m ''°table Law. Belides, he was perfwaded,
Uuh'of Or- the giving Orleam his Liberty, would only increafe the
leans, number of the Enemies of England. But his oppofition

was of no great weight ; it rather ferved to induce his
Enemies to favour the Duke of Orleans, had there been
no other reafon. We have feen what this Prince offered
before the Congrefs of Arras. The Duke of Bedford,
and the Council, had accepted his offers, which feemed
very advantagious, becaufe their aim had not yet been dif-
covered. After the Treaty of Arras, he perceived it was
no proper time to (bllicite his Liberty. But when he
faw that they begun to talk of a Peace, he renewed his
Tnftances, and offered to Decome joint Med.ator with the

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