M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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a pretended regard to the Duke, lhe was only condemned ttttilZ-
to do publick Penance (12) in St. Paul's Church, and toprifoned for
be imprifoned for Life (1 3). This was a terrible Mortifi- L '-"- n
cation to the firft Prince of the Blood, who had been Pro- x' p. let.
tector of the Realm, and always Shown an ardent Zeal Stow.
for the King's Intereft and Honour. But his Enemies
were fo powerful, that he was forced to be filent, for fear
of giving them occafion to fall directly upon his Peribn.

Charles had fcarce taken any Rcpofe, after the Siege of m^, ,
Pontoife, before he faw himfelf extremely embarafied. All age -

the Princes of his Houfe were in a frefh League againft CL
him, with the Duke of Orleans at their Head. This Prince M ' b , '. / .'
was highly offended at the King's cold Reception, after a

ft) With Sir Thomas Kyriell, Deputy-Governor of Calais; Sir Robert Root, Stephen Wilton, and William Spreter, Doftors of Law ; and R.bert
"< - ongbam, Treafursr of Calais. Rymer's Feed. Tom. ro. p. S2-.

i) Sir William Ci/ambtrtain was Governor of this Town. Mtnflrcltt, fo\. 1S1.
(3) Ab-ut tfe m ddle ot May, lays M-^flrtlet. ibid.

{+) Ht had about lour thoul'a.nd Men with him. Idem. foi. 183. *

(5; In which were, John de Vert, Earl of Oxford; Htr.ry Lord Bourdier,

Uo di-ilie, &c. Hti.iv, p. 378.

(6) About the middle oi July. Menflre/it, fpl. 1S4.

(8) Twelve Days alter his Departure from th-'nee. Movjirettt, fo!. 18 e.

Earl of Eu j Sir 'James of Crmtr.d, the Lird CUr.ttr., Sir Ritbari
(7) And the Town. Idim. fo]. 1S5.

191 Above five hundred of the Englijh wete (lain, and four hundred taken Prifiuers j whereas not above forty of the Trench were killed. Idem.
fa\. sib.

(10) Margery C-jrdemjtn of Eye, who was burnt in Strnthfield, cm Oclvb. 27. Thin-at Soutb-vctt, and Sir John Hume Prierts, were 3ccufed likewiie
of being concerned with the Duche s. B:lingbr'jkc was hanged and quai: r:d. riall, fj. 146.

(iij SI.e was examined hy Henry Ci:,helty Archbilhrp oi Canterbury, John Kemp Archt.:ih;p of York, I.cn-y Beaujort Biihop of Wmchijier, William
jJJ\-ith B fnnp of Salisbury, and ethers, in St. Stephen's Chapel at Weftminjlcr. Stitu's .inn. p. 3S1.

t » 2.) On ih:ee Uveral Days. Idem. p. 382.

(131 Tier Judge:
Callh , under lite

:s were the Eailv oi Huntingt-n, Stafford, Suffolk, and Northumberland, with Ome other L:rd«. She was kept Priloner in Cbeller
Cultudy of Sir Tbmas Stanley. St-.iu's jinn. p. 3'Sl. And atteiwards removed to Kcnclivorth. Rymer's Feed. Tom. 11. p. a.:.

No 29. V 1. I



5 66


Vol. I.


Tartar lc-
hUld by
"ih; Engliih

twenty five Years Captivity fullered for the Intereft of
trance, and even during which he had done him very
fignal Services. Probably, this League would have entirely
ruined the King's Affairs, if, by a fortunate Advice, he
had not gained the Head by confiderable Favours. The
Duke of Orleans's Defection breaking all the Confederates
Meafures, they were forced to throw themfelves upon the
King's Mercy. Thus ended the League, and thus end ge-
nerally all Leagues of Subjects againft their Sovereigns,
when the Sovereigns find means to content the Leaders.
The Rebellion of the Princes was not the only thing
that made King Charles uneafy. His Honour as well as
Intereft called upon him to relieve Tartas, a Town of
jf. Chartlcr. Guienne befieged by the Englijh. This Place belonged to
Hjli- the Houfe of Albret, which had long been ferviceable to

France by their Diverfions in Guienne. It therefore greatly
concerned the King to fuccour this Houfe, which was in dan-
ger of lofing their moft confiderable Place. Otherwife it was
to be feared, all the Lords of Guienne of his Party, would
leave him and turn to the King of England, Mean time,
the League of the Princes having hindered him, from
thinking fooner of relieving Tartas, he began not his
March to Guienne till November. The Town ftill defend-
ed itfelf, and it was even January before the Garrifon ca-
pitulated, upon a Condition which afforded the King more
than fufficicnt time to prepare for their Relief. The Ca-
pitulation ran, that the Town fhould be delivered to the
Lords Cognac and Saint Par, for the Englijh, if on the
24th of June next, there appeared not a French Army
ftrong enough to give Battle. But if it was relieved on
the Day prefixed, it fhould be reftored to the Lord d' Al-

Charles having all the leifure necelTary to prepare, fpent
the Winter in Poiclr.u, where he affembled a confiderable
Army, confifting of four hundred Lances, eight thoufand
Crofs-Bow-Mcn, and as many Archers. All the Lords
Monibdct. of the Kingdom repairing to him, he counted one hun-
dred and fixty Banners in his Army(i). Mean time
England made no effort to defend Guienne, or give the
Enemy a Diverfion elfewhere. The Council, fince it
was no longer influenced by the Duke of Glocejler, feemed
to be grown inconfiderate and thoughtlefs.

With the Forces affembled by Charles in Poiclou, he
humbled fome tyrannical Lords of that Country, and from
thence came to Limoges, where he made fome Stay. After
that, he palled fome time at Montauban. There he loft
the brave La Hire or Vignolcs, one of his beft Generals.
The Relief of Tartas was not the fole Motive of his
Journey. There was another, which touched him more

Tbc town
t j jurrer.der,
rf nopre-
tieved tnjix

14 + 2.
Charles ad-
cancel to-

Death of
La Hi*.

Mon (1 relet.
T. Danic/.

nac and Cominge to be fummoned before the Parliament of iir.
that City. The two Earls made their Appearance, not
daring to refift a Prince fo well armed, who was able to
compel them. Befides, fince the Earl of Armagnac'% An-
ceftors had voluntarily owned the Kings of trance for
their Sovereigns, there was no room to decline the Juris-
diction of their Parliaments. He was forced therefore to Comir-;'
bring the old captive Countefs, now fourfcore Years ot'djuJgcdu
Age, to Touloufe, where the Parliament decreed the Settle- ' ' K '" s '
ment upon the King to be good and valid. Purfuant to
this Decree, the King took poffeflion of the Earldom of
Cominge. But for the fake of Gajlon Earl of Fcix, who
had fucceeded his Father John in 1437, he was pleafed to
confent, that Matthew his Uncle fhould enjoy his Part of
the Earldom during Life. The Earl of Armognac
was treated more rigoroufly. The King not only difpof-
feffed him of the Part he had ufurped, but ftripped him
of the Privilege of the Regale (2) in his Territories, and
forbid him to ftile himfelf, John by the Grace of God,
Earl of Armagnac, as he, and his Anceftors before him,
had done.

The Earl of Armagnac did not think he deferved fuch jl c Earl of
Ufage, after all the Services his Houfe had done the Kings Armagnac
of trance. If, to efpoufe their Interefts, his Anceftors had 'L£$j*
caft off the Dominion of the Kings of England, he would not
have been liable to appear before the Parliament of Tou-
loufe, nor have loft the Privileges, which the Kings of
England, Dukes of Guienne, had never difputed with his
Predeceflbrs. So, he was extremely concerned to fee the
Zeal of his Anceftors for the Intereft of France, become
the occafion of his Oppreflion. He burned with Dcfire
to free himfelf from this Yoke and be revenged : But as
he was fenfible, his Forces alone were not capable to pro-
cure him that Satisfaction, he refolved to caft himfelf into
the Arms of the King of England. Shortly after, he fent
to defire his Protection, with an Offer of one of his Daufttcr ro
Daughters in Marriage. The Propofal being confidered Henry
in the Council, it was judged, that in the prsfent Pofture £f
of the King's Affairs in France, the Alliance propofed by
the Earl of Armagnac could not but be very advantagious.
So, without Lofs of time, Ambaffadors (3) were difpatch- His of,
ed to the Earl of Armagnac, to fettle the Marriage-Arti- a "<pud.
cles, and affiance one of his Daughters, in the King's "

Mean while, Charles appearing before Tartas, on the Charles r. -
Z4th of June, and no Fnemy offering to give him Battle, ''«"'
the Place was reftored to the Lord d' Albret, according to Jjjffi *' J ,
the Capitulation. The Preparations of the French were places in .
not unknown in England, and vet no meafures were taken Guienne.

He offers h :i


f. 6.


nearly, and that was, to become Maftcr of the Earldom of for the Defence of Guienne, which was going to he invaded. H ™ L


Cominge, which he had claimed by virtue of a Settlement
in his favour. As this Affair has fome relation to thofe
of England, it will be neceffary to fhow the Ground of
his Pretenfions.
Charies'i Margaret, Heirefs of Cominge, had two Daughters by her

Claim to the firft Husband John III, Earl of Armagnac, who died in
Earldom of jjrji ; and the two Daughters died likewife foon after.
P. Dankl. The Countefs was married afterwards to John d' Armagnac
Earl of Fezenfaquet. But by an Outrage unheard of in
France, fhe divorced her fecond Husband, who died with
Grief in 1 404. Then fhe efpoufed Matthew de Graitley
Brother of John Earl of Foix, and by him had a Daugh-
ter, but of fo weak a Conftitution, that Mattheiu her
Father was afraid, the Death of the Mother and Daughter
would deprive him of the Earldom of Cominge, of which
he was in poffeflion. For this reafon, he preffed his Coun-
tefs, who was much older than himfelf, to make a Will,
and fettle it upon him after their Daughter. But the
Countefs refufed it. Margaret's Obftinacy occafioned fuch
a Quarrel between her and her Husband, that he refolved
to difpoffefs her, with the help of the Earl of Armagnac,
who was very ready to join in the Project, on condition of
going fhares with him. Whereupon the Earl of Armagnac
attacked, vanquifhed, took the Countefs Prifoner, and
with her Husband's Confent confined her in a Caftle,
where fhe remained twenty two Years. This rigorous
Ufage ferved only to exafperate the old Countefs the more.
At laft in 1435 ^ e found means in her Confinement to
make a Will, where fhe nominated her Daughter Jane
for her Heir, and after her fettled the Earldom upon King
Charles VII. Jane dying fome time after, Charles heard of
this Settlement, and as the Countefs was ftill living, form-
ed a Dcfign to free her from Imprifonmcnt, and caufe her to
confirm her Will. After he had made fome ftay at Montau-
ban, he came to Touloufe, and ordered the Earls of Armag-

':ht F.arh
of Armag-
nac arid
cited If,
the Pari,*
mint of


Charles taking advantage of this Negligence, became Mafter
of St. Sever (4). Then he laid Siege to Acs, one of the
ftrongeft Places in thofe parts, which held out feven
Weeks (5). La Reole was carried by Storm, and Mar-
mande fell likewife into the hands of the French. During the
Winter following, which was exceeding fharp, A/4 and
St. Sever opened their Gates to the Englijh, but the Earl
of Foix retook St. Sever. Charles pafled the whole Win-
ter at Touloufe.

Whilft thefe things were tranfadting at one end of the Talbot
Kingdom, the Englijlj were thinking of making a Diver- ">*de Earl
fion at the other. They fhould have thought of it fooner, "/^"'^I
in order to hinder Charles's March into Guienne. By that the Baftj,d
means, they would have infallibly preferved the Places ?/" Orleans
lately loft. But however, Orders being given to raife five ^ no f
thoufand Men in England, the Command was conferred on Hail.
Talbot, whom the King had now created Earl of Shrews-
bury (6). Talbot landing in Normandy, foon made the Exploits of
Ballard of Orleans quit the Field, who had likewife a new ,he Earl of
Title, being made Earl of Dunois. He prefently befieged ,„ N or , n ^' I J'.
the Caftle of Conches, and to make a Diverfion, the dy.
French General inverted Galardon. Talbot having taken Hal1,
the Caftle in a few Days, the Earl of Dunois did not think
fit to expect his Enemy, who was marching directly to
give him Battle. Then, the Earl of Shrewsbury advanced He tloct-
towards Dieppe, a Place of great Importance, which the "*' Dieppe.
French ftill held in Normandy. He made fuch hafte, that MooJtKta,'
EJlouteville, who was marching with the utmoft Diligence, Hall.
to throw in a Supply of Troops, could not arrive in time.
When he was before the Place, he formed the Siege, tho'
with an Army little proportionable to fuch an Undertaking,
and efpecially in November. Indeed, he did not expect to
be Mafter of the Town during the Winter, and without
more Forces. But his Delign was to take the Fort of
Charles- Mefnil, fituated on Mount Polet, which defended

'i, Monjhttet favs, h- fet out with about fourfcore thoufand Horfc, and a great quantity of Provifions: But carried only fixtcen thoufand Horfe be-
fore Tartas, tor tear he ihould be (rrcightn-d tor want of Pruvifwns ful. 191.

I lie Right uhirh the Kings of France have of difpofing of Benefices, during the Vacancy of an Epifcopal See.
i3 S'r Kit;-: Root, It-imis Brkyngton, the King's Secretar), and Edward Hull, Elq; Rytr.er's Feed. To-n. 11. p. 7.

4 A; the taking a which, above ci^ht hundred Englijo were (lain. Monftnlct, ful. 192. Sir Thomas Rampjin w.s taken Prifoner. Hid. Halt,
lei. 1+;.

(5) Five Weeks, lay; M'.nflrclct. ihid.

v':. H;s Patent of Creation bears date March 20, 14421 Dugdalt'i Baron. Vol. I. p. JiJ-


Book XII.



the PaiTage to Dieppe. After that he hoped to prefs it fo

clofely, that it fhould he forced to furrendcr. Having thus

England,/^ u ^ m j^ M ca f ures ,h e attacked and carried the Fort,


and goet :

dinal's Creature;, and the Duke of Gkcejler's Enemies. 1442.
So, under colour of being unwilling to meddle with the w-hib.
Prerogative Royal, the Pardon granted to the Cardinal, X1 p- *°*
in 1437, was urged. The Duke of Gloce/hr, perceiv-
ing there was no poflibility of caufing his Enemy to 1«?


aeaijit the

which he ordered to be made larger and ftronger. Then
mounting his Batteries, left the Management of the Siege,

or rather Blockade, to his Baltard Son, and returned into condemned, dropped the Profecution,"and the Km"

England (1), to follicite a Supply (2). the Cardinal a frefh Pardon.
Outttf As Matters then ftood at Court, it was no very pro- Certainly the Duke of Glocefler was in a fad Situati- <n, t o«itSf

per Seafon for the. Earl of Shrewsbury to obtain the Sue- on. Befides his Vexation, to fee thofe who were at the Glocefei


Cardinal of cours he defued, at leaft fo foon as was nccefTary. The Helm, fleering a Courfe, directly contrary to that mark- ''f', z "'
Windietter. Duke of Glocejlcr perceiving the King's Affairs daily de- ed out by the glorious Henry V, his Brother, he per- J '' J '
HAi ' clined, brought at this very time before the Council, an ceived there was a fettled Defi^n to mortifv him on all

Article! of
fol. 143,


Accufation of High-Treafon, againlf the Cardinal of
IVinchejler. Probably, his Enmity to that Prelate made
him think, he was the fole Occaiion of all the Misfor-
tunes, befallen the Engli/h. It may be, he only defigned
to clear himfelf to the Publick, by accufing his Enemy.
And indeed, fo well acquainted, as he doubtlefs was, with
the Members of the Council, he could not flatter himfelf,

Defign to mortify him on all
Occafions. The King his Nephew, who was fo much li,
obliged to him, futt'ered himfelf to be mifled by the Ar- d .■
tifices of his Enemies ; not having penetration enough to f a
difcern thofe, who had only their own Intereft in View.
He was made to confider his Uncle as a fecret Enemy,
that would rejoice at his Deftruclion, becaufe he was his
next Heir. What is more, they infpired him with flrong

with the leaft hopes of fucceeding in an Affair of that Sufpicions of him, by reprefenting him as a Counfellor"

Nature. However this be, the Charge confiftcd of whofe Intereft it was to ingage him in wrong Courfe'

fourteen Articles, the Subftance whereof, was as follows : in order to render him contemptible and odious to his

Subjects, and thereby, pave his own way to the Crowe
I. That the Bifhop of IVmchcJlcr had taken upon him It is no wonder, a young Prince of fo mean a Genius
the Dignity of Cardinal, contrary to the late King's as Henry, fhould be blinded by fuch Infinuations. He hat
Orders, and in derogation to the Metropolitan Church of none about his Perfon to undeceive him, and for '
Canterbury. time, had feen only his Uncles's Enemies. The Ce-
ll. That, by the Statute of Provifors, having forfeited dinal was ever watchful not to fuffer any Perfon at
the Bifhoprick of IVincheJler, he had procured thePope's or in the Council, but what was devoted to him ; and this

Bull to fecure it, contrary to the Laws of the Realm,
and particularly to the Statute of Praemunire.

III. That jointly with John Kemp Archbifhop of Tori,
he had affumed the Government of the King's Perfon,
without being authorized.

IV. That he had defrauded the King of his Jewels.
This Article was grounded upon the Cardinal's lending

the King Money upon Pawn (3J.

V. That being Chancellor of the Kingdom, he had
fcalcd an Order for the Releafe of the King of Scotland,
and another to forgive that Prince part of his Ranfom,
on condition of marrying his Niece.

VI. That he had defrauded the King of his Revenues,
by applying to his own Ufe, the Cuftoms of Wools at
the Port of Southampton.

Probably, the Cardinal Jloppcd by that Means the Mo-
ney, he had lent the King,

he made his chief Bufinefs. He it was, that had intro-
duced to Court, the Earl of Suffolk (4), for whom, thu
King had conceived fo ftrong an Affeition, that he faw
nothing but with his Eyes, and did nothing but by hi?
Advice. As the new Favorite wholly owed his fortune
to the Cardinal, he miffed no opportunity to infmtiate to
his Mafter, that of all his Subjects, the Cardinal was rm.'r
fafely to be trufted. By this' means, he daily funk the
Duke of Gloce/hr' 's Credit, whofe Counfels were alvv;,< ,
directly contrary to thofe of his Enemy. John Kemp
Archbifhop of Tori and Cardinal (5), was alfo a Coun-
fellor entirely devoted to the Cardinal of JVincheJler, and
his Inftrument to confirm the King in his Sufpicions of
the Duke of Glocefler. Thus thefe three Minifters, being
ftridly united together, fo ordered it, that the King daily
gave his Uncle fome frefh Mortification. On the other
hand, the haughty and impatient Temper of the Duke
of Glocejler, not fuffering him to bear Indignities, without

complaining and threatening the Authors, he promoted
VII. That he had the Confidence to fummon People his own downfal, by the continual Faults his impatience
before him, in derogation of the Prerogatives of the Crown, caufed him to commit,
and the Authority Royal. In September this Year, the Duchefs of York was de- *'"* tf

He did this probably, as Legate : But he could not do it livered of a Prince, whom we fhall fee hereafter mount Elw " d >'

according to Law, without the King's Licence. the Throne by the Name of Edward IV (6). vlifof"

John V, Duke of Bretagne, dying the 28th of Augufl Vurk.

VIII. That he had procured from Rome, an Exempti- Francis his eldeft Son, fucceeded him in the Sovereignty
on for hisDiocefe, from paying Tenths to the King ; and of that Duchy (7).

thereby, given a pernicious Example- to the reft of the The Year 1443, began with a private Negotiation be- , u -

Bifhops. tween the King and the Duke of Burgundy. °The Duke 7«« i»-

IX. That he had been inftrumental in reconciling the finding the Affairs of the two Kings to be in fuch a wav "***" En »"
Duke of Burgundy, to King Charles and the Duke of as not likely to be decided, either by War or Peace' Bm "nt-
Orleans, to the great prejudice of England. thought it advifeable to fecure himfelf, by a feparate M^Sbefct.

X. That being the King's AmbafTador and Plenipoten- Truce with England. He was not pleafed with Kine ^ Pub-
tiary to treat of a Peace, he had font the Archbifhop of Charles upon feveral Accounts, too tedious to be related? X1 ' P ' '*'
York to the King, to perfuade him to quit the Title of On the contrary, he had reafon to fear, Charles was re-
King of France, to the Difhonour of the King, and his conciled to him only out of Policy ; and in cafe his Af-

illuftrious Anceftors.

XI. That the Duke of Orleans's Releafe, had been
procured by his, and the Duke of York's Intrigues, con-
trary to the cxprefs Order of the late King.

XII. That being Chancellor, he had himfelf purchaf-
ed Crown-Lands, inftead of preventing fuch Alienations,
according to the Duty of his Office.

XIII. That by commiffioning fuch Officers only in
the Army, as were his Creatures, he had been the Caufe
of all the LofTes fuftained in France.

XIV. That he had fold Captains Commiflions, and

fairs fhould once be reftored, might refume his old En-
mity againft him. For this caufe chiefly, he judged it
againft his Intereft, to aflift him any longer to finifh a
War, the profperous IfTue whereof might render him too
powerful. Thefe Confiderations induced him to give his
Duchefs full Power, to conclude with the King of Eng-
land a general Truce, for all their refpeclive Dominions.
The former concerned only the Trade between Eng-
land, and the Low-Countries ; but thisj figned the 23d
of April, included Burgundy, and all the Duke's Territo-

The Cardi-
nal is ac-

ries in general. It was to laft till one of the Parties
thereby, introduced into the King's Service, fuch as were fhould put an end to it ; in which Cafe, the other was
incapable of doing their Duty. to have three Months notice.

The Blockade of Dieppe was ftill continued, in ex- Charles
Thefe Accufations were read in Council. But the pe£tation of Supplies from England, to prefs the Town-'"''"''
Council, for fome time, had confiftcd only of the Car- more vigoroufly. Charles perceiving, it would be in cr reat %."„""


(1) To Roan, fays Hall, fol. 141 j and Stmt, p. 382.

(») At the fame time Robtrt Lord rVil/ougbiy, and Edmund Beaufort, created about thk time Earl of Dcrfct, entered the Country about Amiens
with a large Army, and committed great Deviations ; as Richard Duke of Tori, and Join Beaufort Earl of Sonrfit. did in Arm and Maine'.
Hall, fo|. 141. '

(3) Lending him four thoufand Pounds, upon Jewels piaifcd at twenty two thoufand Marks, which he kert; as the Article at lenc'h hath : l
See Hall, foL 142.

(4) William de la Pole.

1440, to take upon him u.at Dignity ;

(<) Promoted 10 the Caidinallhip by Eu-miui IV, in 1431. Rafin. King Henry gnnt'd h'm a Licence
whereby it fecms that he was then out newly promoted thereto. See Rymer's Fued. Tom. 10. p. 75S.

(6) Xandfcrd lays, he was born on April i Q . 1441, at Roan. Genial, p. 403.

(7) This Year a Parliament me: at Weflminjlcr on January v$, in which, among other things, it was crafted. That no Cultomers or Searcher
ftail havo a Ship of his own, me Merchandize, keep a Wh.rt, or Inn, or te a Faflor : And that, in ordu to avoid the many Frauds which would
na-uraUy cn:ae tr»»m ciierHS. See StatHttl,



5 68


Vol. 1.

i met


14 + 3. danger, if not relieved before the Arrival of the Englijh
Troop?, refolvcd at Lift to fend the Dauphin his Son,
who preffed him to commit this Expedition to his care.
It was however with unwillingnefs, that he granted him
this Favor. He was not only afraid to truft out of his
Sight tiiis young Prince, who had feveral Times given
Proofs of a turbulent Spirit, but moreover, did not care
to afford him opportunities of acquiring Glory. Thefe
Confiderations, however, gave place to the Neceffity of
relieving: Dieppe, which was reduced to Extremity, by an
eitrht Months Blockade. The Dauphin departed from
Giiienne, with four thoufand Horfe, and marched towards
i^vajJfrniWji. When he came within Sight of Dieppe, he
tbe Blockade eaiily f;;w, the Fort of Charles- Me/nil, where the Eng-
of ir-ppe. ij^ j ]a j fortified themfelves, was impregnable on the Side
PDwiir Ilext tlie Country ; and therefore, without hefitation, re-
folved to enter the Town, and, in fpite of the Enghjh,
executed his Dcfign. Hardly was he entered, when
without giving them time to come to themfelves, he fal-
lied out "with ail his Tioops, and {formed the Fort on
the Side next the Town. He was thrice repulfed, but,
the fourth time, carried it Sword in Hand. The Enghjh
finding they were unable to continue the Blockade, after
the luis of. their Fort, raifed it, and retired in good Or-

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 239 of 360)