M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

The history of England : written in French (Volume 1) online

. (page 240 of 360)
Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 240 of 360)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

■rbeDuleofd"- J ohn Duke of .Wr/rf ( 1 ), arrived five Days after,
s..n 1 t with a Reinforcement of five thoufand Men (2).
'" Had lie came fooncr, the Dauphin would not perhaps have
performed thi&Enterprize with fo much Honour. As the
Duke found 'the Blockade raifed, he could do nothing
more than ravage Part of the Enemies Country (3),
after retaking fome Caifles in Normandy,
ihc Earl of After the Dauphin's Departure, Charles, at laft, quitted
Am „■•:' Guienne, and came to Tours, where he diverted himlelf
' ' . after the Fatigues of the War. But his Pleafures were
C . n -■■'■ fomewhat difturbed, by the News of the Earl of Armag-
V. Daniel nac taking Aims, and feizing that Part of the Earldom
of Coiuinge, of which, he had been lately difpoffeffed.
The voluptuous Life Charles led at Tours, was fo allu-
ring, that he could not refolve to interrupt his Fleafures
fo foon. He waited till the Dauphin's return, and, as he
had gallantly behaved in the Affair of Dieppe, fent him,
immediately after his Arrival, to chaftife the Earl of
The Dm- Armagnac. Upon the Dauphin's Approach, the Earl faw
pbinouts himfclf defertcd by all his Friends, and unfupported by
^ the ingiijh, though the King was affianced to his Daugh-
Hall. ' ter. So, the Dauphin with cafe became mafter of Ro-
vergnc, and of all, in general, that belonged to the. Earl,
who had nothing left, but the little Town of Lijle en
Jourdain, about twelve Miles from Touloufe. The
Main I'm Dauphin held it long befieged in vain. At length, de-
Prifoi'o ty fpairing of putting an honorable end to the Siege, he art-
' ""■'' fullv drew the Earl to a Conference, upon the .promife of
a fafe Conduct, and when he had him in his Power,
fent him to the King his Father, who made no fcruple
to detain him (4.). Two Years after, he reftored him
his Territories, at the Requeft of the Kings of Cajlile,
and Navarre, who interceeded in his Behalt.

The Earl of Armagnac's Misfortune, caufed the King
and Council of England, to grow cold with refpedt to the
Marriage, of which, there was no further Talk. It was
not fcrupled, to put that Affront upon an unfortunate
Prince, who was unable to be revenged (5).

Since the Duke of Burgundy's feparate Truce with Hen-
ry, the French were not fo eager to continue the War.
King' «rt The truth is, they had no lefs need of Repofe than the
EngVJh. France was utterly ruined, by this fatal War,

tomlefs Gulf, from whence it never returned. In a 1444.
word, the King was no Warrior, and his Council con-
fided, for the moft Part, of Eccleiiaiticks, introduced by
the Cardinal of H'inchejler, to ftrengthen his Party.
The Council was very fenfible, the Continuance of the
War would, by no means, recommend them to the Peo-
ple. As the War had, for fome time, been difadvantagi-
ous to England, it was natural to throw the Blame, upon
thofe that fat at the Helm, rather than upon the King,
who only approved of what was fuggefted by his Mini-
fters. The Duke of Glocejler alone was of Opinion,
that frefh Efforts fhould be made, to take the Advantage
of King Charles's Weaknefs, and of the late Truce with
the Duke of Burgundy. But this Prince was no longer
in Vogue, nor were his Counfels regarded.

Thefe Confiderations, which were very weighty on * " agreed
both Sides, prevailed at length with the two Kings, to Zl]"' Truce
hearken to the Inftances of the Duke of Burgundy, who at Tours,
preffed them to confent to a Truce, in order more calm- Moaftrelefc
Iy to endeavour a Peace. It was agreed, the Negotiation A ^ \,*j
fhould he at Tours, where King Charles refided, though xi. p. 4.9,
by that, the Englijh feemed to be going to beg it. At &c -
any other time, the bare propofal of treating at Tours,
would have been fufficient for a Rupture ; but Henry's
Council were not fo nice. They were for having a
Truce at any rate, and nothing appeared difhonorable
to attain that end. We fhall even fee prefently, that al-
moft eve-ry thing was fettled in private, before the Am-
bafladors fet out for Tours. This Truce, which feemed
to be founded on the publick Good, was properly de-
figned only for the Support of the Minifters, who had
nothing lefs in View, than the Kingdom's Advantage.
Henry underftood nothing of it, but fuffered himfelf to
be guided, according to Cuftom, by his Counfellors, who
made him believe, they had his Intereft at Heart, when
in reality they were working only for themfelves.

William de la Pole Earl of Suffolk, was appointed head <Tb L^J ° f
of this Embaffy (6). The Earl had more Reafons than f ,l e £„\.
one to defire this Office, as will be feen prefently. baffy.
Mean while, as he was not ignorant how ticklilh a Step Hr " a ' ca "-

__._" . _, j ]_' 1_LI. .- L_ Dj.AI • "OUjly

which hr.d Lifted thirty Years, without Interruption, and

ft us of a
face. '

Du r.Ilet. by the inteftine Troubles, raifed feveral Years before
the breach of the Truce, by the Quarrel between the
Houfes of Orleans and Burgundy. The Princes and great
Men, were difheartened at the Fatigues and Loffes, they
fo long fuifained. The Country and Towns were be-
come defolate ; France, thougli generally well peopled,
could no longer find Soldiers. Beiides, the Duke of Or-
leans, who had promifed to ufe his utmoft Endeavours
to procure a Peace, being willing to keep his word,
never ceafed to follicite King Charles upon that head.
The Duke of Burgundy preffed him likewife on his Part,
and the whole Kingdom in general, ardently wifhed to
fee a CefTation of fo many Calamities. In England, a
Peace was no lefs earneftly defired. All the Money
levied there, was fwallowed up in France, as in a bot-

he was going to make, and how liable to be ftridtly in- the Matter.
quired into, he prefented to the King s Petition, which, February,
probably, had been concerted with the principal Members ^ Pub '
of the Council. He fhowed in this Petition, a great
Scruple with regard to his Inftru£tions, pretending they
were beyond his Capacity, though, it is likely, he was
himfelf the Author. Then, he modeftly begged to be
eafed of the burthen of the Negotiation ; or at leaft, if
the King did not think proper to grant him that Favour,
he would be pleafed to fecure him againft all Imputation.
Whereupon the King, by the Advice of his Council,
caufed to be drawn an authentick Order, to execute ful-
ly, whatever was contained in his Inftrucf ions. As, pro-
bablv, this Order was to be fhown, only in cafe of ne-
ceffity, and after the Execution, the King faid in it, that
the Inftrucfions concerned not only the general Good of
the Kingdom, but alfo his own Perfon and Marriage.
A clear Evidence, that the Marriage, fpoken of p-refently,
was already refolved.

The Ambafladors of England being come to Tours, A Truce it
entered immediately into Negotiation with King Charles's c "" ,ui 'd <"
Commiffioners, concerning a Peace. But after fome mu- ji, p r . 5 ', Q
tual and fruitlefs Propofals , they were content with a &c.
Truce, which was figned the 28th of May, It was to Du TllleI *
commence the 7th of July (7) this Year, and end the
firft of April 1446.

At the fame time, the Truce between England and ^- Pub '
Scotland, was prolonged at Edinburgh for feven Years, to ' p- s "
begin the iff of May 1447, which was the Day, the
former was to expire.

The Affair of the Truce with France being ended, the Suffolk^™.
Earl of Suffolk propofed, or caufed to be propofed, the M" a
King's Marriage with Margaret of Anjou, Daughter of iel ^ r " ge .
Rene of Anjou, who bore the Title of King of Sicily, King and
after the Death of Lewis III, his elder Brother. The Ma 5?»et of
Englijh tax the Earl of Suffolk, with making this Pro- MoiXelet.
pofal of himfelf, without any Authority ; but we have Hall.
feen the contrary above. Not but that, probably, he Stow -
was the firft Contriver, but he had taken the precaution
to procure the King's Approbation. He was willing xo H " M '~
keep in his prefent Poft, and nothing was more proper ' : '"" ■*" "'
to fupport him, than this Marriage. He knew, Henry

fi Rafin fay!, he had lately fucceeded his Brother Henry, whereas John had been Earl of Scmerftt ever <incc his Brother Benry"t Death. 7 Hen. 5.
f;bn was made Duke of Semerftt, 11 Hen. VI, about this time. See Note, p. 535.

(2) Six thcufand, lays Monftrtlct, tol. 194.

(3) -".'.j.a, part of Brctagm, &c. Ibid.

(4 I del pretence, that he was come to the Dauphin without a Safe-conduit- P. Daniel, Tom. VI. p. 193-

(c) This Vear, on Dicar.b. 1, died the renowned sir Jcbn Cornwall Baron of Fanbcfe, and Loid of M-.lhroi ; mi was buried in a Chapel, fi nod
by himfelf in the Church-yard r( the Friars- Preachers near Ludgare, London. Dut^dale's Baron. Vol- II. p. 213.

(6 Together vv.th Dr. Moltynt, Keeper of the Privy-Seal; Robert Lord Root, Sir Thomas Hon, Rnbard Andrew the K-no's Secretary, and Jcbn
TFen i, Efq; Rymer') Fad. Tom. II. p. 6c. The Frencb AmbafTidors were, Charles Duke of Orleans, Le-wil dt IS zrbcls Erul ot VcsdSm, Peter at
Brett', Steward if it u, and Uartranl Bcauriau Lord of Preagnye. Hall, fol. 144.

(7) It was to commence at Land, 'June l j and at Sea, July 1. Sec Rymer't Fa-d. Tom. XX. p. 64.


Book XII.

15. PI E N R Y VI.



was himfelf incapable of governing ; and confequently, it
could not be, but that his Minifters would be liable to
Envy, and bear the blame of whatever was not agreeable
to the People. In this belief, he fancied, the belt way to
fupport himfelf, was to give the King a Wife, and at
the fame time, the Kingdom a Governefs. To that end,
it was neceflary, the Princefs who was to mount the
Throne, mould be of an underftanding, proper to fupply
the defect of the King her Spoufe, and of a Refolution,
to protect the Miniftry. It was neceflary moreover,
that Hie mould be of a Rank not to difparage the King,
but withal, mould have no ground naturally to afpire to
fuch a Marriage ; that being entirely indebted for it to the
Managers, fhe might be always ready to fupport them.
The Earl of Suffolk's aim was likewife to be ftridtly
united with the Queen, in order to compleat the ruin of
the Duke of Glocejler, who was a perpetual Obftacle to
the defigns of the Miniftry. All thefe requisites were
found in Margaret of Anjou, Daughter of Rent King of
Sicily, and Niece of the Queen of France. She was a
Princefs of a lively, daring Spirit, of great Penetration,
uncommon Refolution, and not to be frighted by oppo-
fition or difficulties. On the other hand, the Marriage
propofed by the Earl of Suffolk was fo advantagious, that
fhe could not have expefted it, without the Concurrence
of feveral Circumftances in her favour. I do not fpeak
of her Birth, which certainly was illuftrious enough to
give her a pretenfion to this Honour. But fhe was fo
deftitute of the Goods of Fortune, that her Parents could
not give her any Dowry. To fupply this defect, the En-
glijh Minifters extolled her noble Qualities, which, they
faid, were more valuable than all the Money in the world.
But they chiefly infinuated to the People, that this Prin-
cefs being Niece to the Queen of France, and to King
Charles's Favorite, would be very inftrumental in pro-
curing a Peace. This was plainly mowing how much
He engages this Peace was wanted. Accordingly, the Court of France,
'utZ'lZ who had P erfea Intelligence of what palled in England,
King of made their advantage of it, by ingaging the Earl of Suffolk
to promife, in the King's Name, to deliver Mans, and
the whole Province of Maine, to the King of Sicily ; on
condition, he fhould prefent them to Charles of Anjou
his Brother. Thus, inftead of receiving Margaret's
Dower, Henry purchafed her with the reftitution of one
of the ftrongeft Places in France, or rather, with the whole
Province of Maine.

The Terms being thus fettled, the Earl of Suffolk re-
turned to England, to propofe them to the King, and caufe
them to be approved. This was no difficult thing, fince
the principal Counfellors were in the Secret, and had al-
TbeDukt of ready given their confent. The Duke of Glocejler, who
had never heard of it before, ftrongly oppofed it, for two
Reafons which feemed unanfwerable. The firft w is, that
the King being already engaged to the Earl of Armagnac's
Daughter, it would be very difhonourable to violate his
Faith, without alledging v tne leaft excufe. The fecond
was of no lefs force, namely, that Maine, being as it were
the Bulwark of Normandy, could not be abandoned, with-
out putting Normandy in manifeft, danger, as foon as the
Truce fhould expire. But thefe reafons were not regard-
ed. So, by the advice of the Council, the Kins; impow-
ered the Earl of Suffolk, to efpoufe the Princefs Margaret
in his Name.

For Joy the Marriage was concluded, the King created
the Earl, his AmbafTador, Marquifs of Suffolk, and upon
"John Holland Earl of Huntington, conferred the Title of
Duke of Exeter ( 1 ). At the fame time he created Hum-
phrey Earl of Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, and Henry
de Beauchamp, Son of the late Earl of Warwick, Duke of
Warwick (2).

The Kii;




He returns
to England

eppofes tbe

Divert new


ing's Manizge was (btemnized by Pro-.y at 144.4.
Tours, in the Prefcnce of King Charles and' h's ,yhoIe '"">' «ir"«
Court (3), in a fplendid manner, little fuitable to the pre- ■'";
fent Circumftances of the two Kings, and the Indigence tI -
of the new Queen. N> v tr r.bcr.

Though the Nuptials were celebrated in November, the H ""'
Qiieen came not into England till the May following (4), j'/j ,.-,
and on the 30th of the fame Month, wis folemnly crown- «■
ed. She was no fooner with the King, but perceiving his
weaknefs, fhe ruled him with an abfolute Sway. By that " ow ' wrf "
means the Marquifs of Sifflk, the Cardinal of IVincheJler,
and the Archbifhop of fork, had the Tame Credit as before
the King's Marriage. They flood in need of the Queen,
as flic did of them, fince fhe had yet no other Creatures,
but what they had procured her. For this reafon, a very A League
flridt Union was formed between the Queen and the Mi- "::"":/"*«
nifters, which could not but end in the ruin of the Duke oJ*Jj£
of Glocejler, whom they all looked upon as their common

The Trire being. made only in order to a Peace, this Tbt Tnuh
whole year was fpent in feveral Negotiations, concerning P nlm t e i "'
the time and place of a new Congrefs. It was thought "J^ftt,
likewife, that an Interview of the two Kings might pro- tm Kissp.
mote the Conclufion of a Peace So the Minifters of both Ad ' Hub -
Courts agreed, that the two Monarchs fhould meet forr.e- *',' ?' j
where in France ; and for that purpofe, Henry fhould re- "3. "7,
pair to Calais, in order to be near the Place to be chofen ,21 ' M 6 '
for the Interview. But feveral difficulties occurring about j>. 97.''
the choice of the Place, the Truce was prolonged till No- MooSUdet.
vernier the 1 ft, 1446.

Henry Chicheley, who held the See of Canterbury thirty J ohn Sl3 f-
years (5), died this year, and was fuccceded by John Staf- *?{ An ,'
ford, Bifhop of Bath and IVells. ,'■'"' £, y<

The Duke of York having no farther Bufinefs in Fra,.:e, 1 4 46.'
came into England, where he was very civilly received ^''tJut-f
and thanked by the Court, for his Services to the State, l-^ g
The King, willing to fliew his Gratitude, granted him a 'fFnnx
Patent to be Regent of France, another five years. We- ,lr f-^'
mall fee hereafter, his Enemies would not fuiFer him tpajj.**""
enjoy that Dignity fo long.

The Parliament which met the beginning of the year •* Xtijldf
'44 6 > granted the King a confiderable Subfidy, for a y\-P""' i fi r
gorous Profecution of the war in France, as foon as the Cotton""
Truce was expired (6). But this pietended deilgn of con- Abndg.
tinuing the war, was only a decoy to draw Money from
the Parliament. Inftead of Preparations for War, Negoti-
ations for the Interview of the two Kings, and for a Con-
grefs of Ambafladors to conclude a Peace, were zealoufly
continued. Mean while the Truce was farther prolonged Truce it
to April the ift, 1447. This fhews, the Council intended t r '> '"&<*•
not to carry on the war, though the Parliament was t a ' Pub •
called on that pretence. We (hall fee prefentlv, the Truce iL%',° $ '
was again prolonged, and interrupted only by an unex- '49-155.
pedted Accident, contrary to the Intention of the Enelilh Mjnftrcict -
Miniftry (7).

The Parliament might eafily have perceived the De- Ti ' Fjr/ "-
vices made ule of to procure Subfidies, if they had not lit Mai -
voluntarily fhut their own Eyes. This was one of thofe F'fi. c f
Parliaments that are managed, as it is but too often the l"£ k
cafe, by the Intrigues of the Court. This plainly appear- Cotton's
ed, in a Refolution to return the Marquifs of Suffolk pub- Ab ' i<) £'
hck Thanks, for his great Service to the Kingdom, in
negotiating the King's Marriage (X). Mean time, the ad-
vantages accruing to the King or State, from an Alliance
with the Family of the moft mortal Fnemy to both, had
not hitherto been perceived. Neither was the Parliament
contented with this. They addrefled the King, proving Hall,
him to reward the Marquifs ; and even granted a Sub-
fidy (9) on purpofe to fatisty him for the Fxpences of his

(1) The King granted him and his Heirs-male, a Place and Seat in Parliament, and in the Great Councils, next to the Duke of Tptrk. Rymer't Feed.
Tom. 11. p. 49.

(») He alfo granted him in Reverfion, from the death of Humphrey Duke of Glocejler, the Ifles of Jtrjey, Guernfty, Serh, Erm, and Aurer.ey ; as aJfo the
Manor and Hundred of Bujtol ; and what is more, he was crowned King of the Ifle of Wight, by King Henry's own hand. In confideratio:) of his Fa-
ther's great defcent, the King granted him place in Parliament, and all other Meetings, next the Duke of Norfolk, and before Humphrey de Stafford Duke
of Buckingham j which cccaliuning great Animofities between them, by a fpecial Act made in Parliament, it was eftabliftied, that they iliould have Prece-
dency by Turns yearly, the Duke of Warwick to begin the firft year: But his death, Ihortly after, put an end to this miner. Dugdaic't Baron. Vol. I.
p. 248. Stows Ann. p. 3S4.

(3) In the pretence of the King and Queen of France, of the Dukes of Orleant and Brctagne, of feven Earls, twelve Baron.-, twenty Biihops.befides Knight-
and Gentlemen innumerable. Hall, fol. 148. Monflrelet, Vol. III. fol. I, 2.

(4) Hall fays, flie landed at Portjmtutb in April. The Marriage Solemnity was performed at Southwick in Hampfhire, on April 22 ; af:e: which the
came to London, and was crowned, fol. 148. Stow't Ann. p. 384.

(5) He was Archbiihop but twenty -nine years, and died April it. 1443. His SuccelTbr John Stafford was a Eaftard, as were, in the next Century,
Tonjlal, Gardiner, 2nd Bonner. The faid Archbiihop Chicheley founded All-Sauls College in Oxjird ; as alio Bernard College, now incorporated into St. Jebts .
in the fame Univerfity. StoivsAnn. p. 3S3.

(6) This Parliament met slffe/lminjler, on Ftb. 25. 1445, and was at feveral times prorogued to Jan. 24, 1446. It granted the King a Tenth and a
half, and a Fifteenth and a half, except five thoufand Pounds allowed to poor wafted Towns. They alio granted Tunnage and Poundage as before on De-
nizens, but double on Aliens : And gave a Subfidy of thirty lour Shillings and Four pence on Denizens, ar.d fifty three Shillings en Aliens, for every Sack.
of Wool, lor four years. Cotton s Abridg. p. 629, 630. In this Parliament it was enacled, That to prevent upprelTun, and exactions, no Man insula be
Sheriff' or Under-sheriff, above one year, upon pain of forfeiting two hundred Pounds. Statutes.

(7) All\> this year, on Augufl 1 7, a twelve years Truce was concluded between England and Flanders. Rymcr's fad. Tom. II.. p. 131,140.

(8) On June 2, in the firft Scllion of this Parliament, he openly, eloquently, and boldly declared, what pain and diligence he haJ tak^n -n France, a<
well in concluding the Truce, as in making the Marriage between his Sovereign Lord the King, and the Lady Margaret, Trie like Speech he m de the
next day in the Houfe of Commons j whereupon it was voted, that his labour and oiligence fbould be recoided in the Roi s of this Parliament, not on.y
for the Honour of him and his Family, but alio lor his acquittal and dikharge. Hall, fol. 149,

(9) A whole Fifteenth. Hall, fol. 14S.

No 29. Vol. I, 7 E The



r ,1 i-

,.■ I tit

Duke cf



'Ibe H I S T RY of EN GLAND.

Vol. I.

The Queen, the Cardinal of TFincbeJhr, the Marquifs
of Suffolk, and the reft of that Party, finding themfelves
fufficiently eftablifhed, and having nothing to fear from a
Parliament fo much at their devotion, began to contrive
the ruin of the Duke of Glocejler, who was ever formida-
ble to them. The People, for the moft part, were in his

lowed to keep any of his Domefticks. To give a plau-
fible colour to this fevere ufage, Care was taken to pub-
lifh, that he was accufed of confpiring to kill the King,
in order to feize the Crown ; and with an armed Force,
to deliver his Duchefs out of Kenelworth Caflle, where file
was imprifoned. The firft of thefe Accufations found no


intereft. Befides, as hitherto he was prefumptive Heir of Credit at all with the People. On the contrary, there:
the Crown, they had reafon to fear, in cafe he fhould one was prefentiy a Commotion in the City in his favour, but


day mount the Throne, he would call them to an ac
count. Their firft ftep was to remove him from the
Council To give fome colour to this Injuftice, Perfons
were fuborned to accufe him of divers Crimes, the prin-
cipal whereof was, that being Protector of the Realm, he
had put feveral to death by his own Authority (i), and
aggravated the Condemnation of many others. Upon thefe
Accufations, about which a great noife was made, he was
fummoned before the Council. But he cleared himfelf

which was foon appeafed. As the People thought linn in-
nocent, they imagined he would clear himfelf from thefe,
as he had from the former Charges. But he was allowed
neither time nor opportunity to make his Defence. On ;•, u found
the morrow, he was found dead in his bed, without any dmdtnbu

the People


figns of Violence on his Body. However,
were convinced he was murdered. Some fay, he was
fmothered between two Feather-beds ; and others, that he
underwent the fame fate with Edward II. To remove His Bnij
with fuch Evidence, from all that was laid to his Charge, thefe Sufpicions, his Body was fhewn to both Houfes of "epfcdn
that the Council, though entirely compofed of his Ene- Parliament (4), and expofed, for fome days, to publick "'""'
mies, thouo-ht not fit to profecute him thereon. It is not View. But a Man mult have been very bold, to charge
in England as in other Countries, where the Lives of the with this Murder, thofe that were confidered a.; the Au-
Subjects depend in fome meafure on the Will of the So- thors. Thefe were no lefs than the Managers of the Af-
vereign, who appoints fuch Commiffioners as he pleafes, fairs of the Kingdom, who, in facrificing the firft Prince
to profecute thofe he has a mind to deftroy. To take of the Blood to their Malice and Vengeance, plainly fhewed,
away the Duke of Gioccjler's Life in a legal manner, he what Enemies of an inferior rank were to expedt.
muft have been tried by his Peers. But his Enemies were Mean while, to make good, in fome meafure, the Im- u " D " m '
well aware, how great foever their Credit might be, the peachment againft the deceafed, feveral of his DdiAefticicsV^™/*
Body of the .Nobility was not fo corrupted, as to hope to were apprehended, and accufed of being in the Plot to kill Ui^b frea-
caule the firft Prince of the Blood to be condemned, upon the King. Whereupon they were all fentenced to die,/"-
forged Crimes. Mean while, this Proceeding fo moved by Judges appointed by virtue of the King's CommiiTion, X |.' P i 7 °g.
the Londoners, that nothing was heard, but Piaifes of the of whom the Marquifs of Suffolk was chief. But, though Ibe King
Duke of Glocejler, and Curfes againft thofe who governed the Crime for which they were condemned was tiie moi\t ard '"" tb ' m
in the King's Name. Thefe Murmurs, which were plain heinous, the King pardoned them all without excep-

Indications of the People's Affedion for the Duke, con- tion

This A<5t of Grace was founded upon the con-

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 240 of 360)