M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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vinced his Enemies, there was no Medium between his fideration of Good-Friday, and the Affmr.pthn of the Virgin,

with the like pious and religious Motives. This gives
occaiion to prefume, thefe People were bribed to confels-
themfelves guilty, upon affurance of their Pardon. How-
ever this be, there was no enquiry made after the fudden
death of the Duke of Glocejler. Nay, it was pretended,
he was notorioufiy guilty of the Crime, for which his

His Ruin and their Ruin. Accordingly, without further Conhdera-

ditcrmmtd. t [ otTj t h e y r efolved to difpatch him out of the way. The
Queen, who was of a bold and enterprizing Genius, was
the Perfon that firft encouraged this Refolution. At leaft,
the Hiftorians infinuate as much, if they have not ex-
prefsly faid it. And indeed, the Miniftry would never have

ventured upon fuch an Action, without having her at their Domefticks were condemned, though they had never

head. been confronted with him. But as thefe Domefticks were

h was not poftible, as was obferved, to put this Prince not thofe whom lie moft trufted, nor even fome of uhe

1 1*/"," to death, by the ufual courfe of Juftice ; and it would principal, it could not be thought, that he would have

m'nt iT'lZ have been very dangerous to murder him openly. His been fo imprudent, as to make them his Inftruments, or
<• Enemies were bent to deftroy him, but would conceal the communicate to them fuch a defign, if he had really con-
hand that fhould give the blow. To execute their defign ceived it.

with all poffible Secrecy, they devifed a Means, counten- The Outrage exercifed upon a Prince of this Character, Hatred of

anced, if not contrived, by the Queen. This was, to ac- fo univerfally beloved and efteemed by the People, drew '*' P "P 1 '

cufe him of fome Crime, in order to have a pretence to upon the Queen and the Minifters an almoft univerfal ha- ZZ"i' Ind

imprifon him, and then their Plot might, with great pri- tred, which time could never efface. The Queen efpeci- minify.

vacy and eafe, be accomplifhed. For this purpofe, jt was ally was publickly charged with the murder, and the refperfl

rumoured, that a very important Affair required the fpeedy due to her was not capable of bridling People's Tongues,

meeting of a Parliament. Accordingly, one was called for This however is the very Queen, whom the French load

the February following (2). In the mean time, the Queen with exceflive Commendations, probably becaufe fhe was

and Miniftry affe&ed to load the Duke of Ghccjler with of the Royal Family of France. It is true, they very

Honours and CareiTes, not to infpire him with Confidence, (lightly pafs over the Duke of Gloccfter'% death, without




but with Sufpicions. They would have been glad at his
abfenting himfelf, or taking fome other Courfe, that would
have given them an Advantage againft him. To that end,
they endeavoured, by fecret Emiffaiies, to terrify him, in
warning him to take care of himfelf, and hinting a defign
to accufe him before the Parliament of fundry Crimes and

The Duhe it


Aft Pob.
XL p- i 7 S-

endeavouring to juftify her. As for the King, very likely,
he was not confulted in this infamous Action. But whe-
ther he did not fo much as fufpeet the Authors of the
murder, or had not the Courage to punifh them, he can
in fome meafuie be excufed only on account of his natural
weaknefs. I cannot leave this Subject, without remark-
Mildemeanors ; and that every thing was prepared for his ing, how fhort-fighted human Policy is. The Queen and „ ..
Condemnation ; that St. Edmunds-bury was purpofely cho- the reft of the Duke of Gioccjler's Enemies thought, his f j. j CI%
fen for holding the Parliament, as a Place more proper for death had fecured them from all oppofition. But by
this defign than London, where he was fupported by the the juft Judgment of God, the Duke's death was the
People. All this was only to induce him to withdraw, very caufe of the ruin of the King, Queen, and all that
and thereby give himfelf fome appearance of truth to the were concerned. The Duke of York thereby faw himfelf

at liberty to affert his Claim to the Crown, a Claim
which occafioned Torrents of EngUJli Blood to be fheJ,
and of which doubtlefs he would never have thought, if
there had been fuch a Competitor as the Duke of Glo-
cejler (6).

When this Tragedy was acting in England, the Nego- „, „.
nations for a Peace were carrying on in trance. .But as prolonged.

Calumnies, wherewith it was intended to blacken him.
But as he knew his own Innocence, he would not, by ab-
fenting himfelf, give occafion to the World, to believe him
guilty. However, he could not, after all, avoid falling
into his Enemies Snares.

1 he firft day of the Seffion, the Duke was apprehend-
ed (3), and put into clofe Confinement, without being al-

(1) That he hid caufed Men adjndgrd rodie, to be put to othet Execution thin the Law of the Land had ordered or afligncd. Hstt, fol. iei.

(l) It was fumm»ned tirlt to meet at Cambridge, but afterwards ordered to be at St. Eamur.dibury j where it accordingly met on February 10. Ccltcn'i
Abridg p. 637-. -g 1 + .

(X) r 'Y 'J ot " t-i'd Vifcount Beaumont, then High-Conftable, Humphrey Stafford Duke of BuMrgbam, tec. Hall, fol. 151.

(4) As though he had died of the Palfy or an lmp..fr.hume. Ibid. Stem's Ann. p- 3S6.

(c.) Of thirty two that were attached, five were drawn to lybum, hanged, let down alive, ftrpt naked, marked with a Knife to be quartered, and then
a Pad n was fhewn for their Lives. Ibid. Rymer's Feed. Tom. II. p. 178.

(6) His E"dy was carried to St. Albans, where a noble Monument, afterwards erefted to his Memory, (fill remains in the Conven'ual Church. The
Vau't wherein his Body was deponted, and the exaft Place of which was, it fecms, then unknown, was dilcovered in the late Queen Anne's Reign. He
wa< called, The Good Duke of Glocejler. Having had his Education in Ballot College, he became a great proficient in Learning, and was a great favourer
of 1-arned Men. He laid the firfi foundation of the famous Library at Oxford, fince known by ihe name of Bodtnan, from Sir 'Ibtmos Bodley, \y wh m
it was wonderfully ircrra'ed. Sir 'liomas Moor gives an inftanee of this Duke's Sagacity. The King coming one time in progrefs to St. Albans, a Beggar,
born blind, as he faid, recovered h'slight at the Shrine of St. Atbjn. The M'racle being n )iled about, the Duke bemg there with the King, defired to fee
h m : The Beggar being brought, ne asked him whether he was horn blind ? He anfwered, Yes truly. And can yen now lee, fays the Duke .' Yes, 1 thank
Cod, and St. yilbin, replies the Beggar. Tell me then, fays the Duke, of what colour is my Gown ? The B-ggar readily told fiim tile Colour. And
whal colour, f'ys the Duke, is fuch a one's Gown ? The Beggar likewile told him ; and lb of frveral others. You counterfeit Knave, fays the Duke, how
came you that were born blind, and could not lee AH now, fo luddenly to know the dift'trence of Colours ? And thereupon,, infleid of an Aim', ordered him
to be let in the Stocks.

Act. Pub.
XI. p. »jl,



Book XII.




-The Truce



tf Win-
, hefter.


'< oe fVpA


great difficulties occurred concerning the projected Inter-
view of the two Kings, the Truce was further prolong-
ed to "January the iff, 1448.

Mean time, the Duchefs of Burgundy, by virtue of the
power received from the Duke her Husband, prolonged
joj'hnnland the Truce with England till 1459, on condition that,
alongid. which of the two Princes fhould delire to break it, fhould
give the other twelve months notice. After that, a new
Treaty was made, AJay the 4th, whereby both Parties a-
greed, that the Truce fhould not be broke within the
iirir four Years.
.tDcathtf The Cardinal of Winchejler, one of the principal Au-
Cardmui lno rs of the Duke of Gloce/ler's death, enjoyed but one
month the fatisfa&ion of his Enemy's Fall ( 1 ). He was
a Prelate much more proper tor the World than the
Church. Accordingly, lie remained, to his laft breath,
attached to the former. He is faid to die in a fort of a
Paffion, that his Riches were not capable of exempting him
from the common Fate of all Mankind, and to fee him-
felf thereby upon a level with the moft miferable.

Mean while, the People perceiving, the time defigned
for procuring a Peace was fpent in vain, loudly murmured
tgnimfi Suf- againft the Marquifs of Suffolk. It was openly faid, he
had betrayed the King and the State ; that his Treaty
with the French tended only to a Truce deftrutflive to
England, as it afforded the Enemy time to fortify himfelf ;
that he had ingaged to deliver Afaine to the French, in or-
der to marry the King to a Princefs, who had given fen-
iible proofs of the Calamities the Englljl) were to expecft
under her Government. Thefe murmurs were fo publick,
that the Marquifs could not help taking notice of them ;
and in order to lilence them, requefted the King to hear
his defence, that he might fatisfy him of his Innocence.
Whereupon the King fet him a day to clear himfelf, and
heard him in his own Apartment, in the prefence of feveral
Eords, none of whom were there with a defign to refute
him. He related all he had done in France, and could
bi$ defence eafily juftify himfelf, lince he had taken care, before his
before the d e p ar ture, to be fortified with the King's Orders. Having
gi'wthian finifhed his Speech, the King declared himfelf fatisfied,
authentic*. an d gave him Letters Patents under the Great Seal, ac-
djjebarge. c , u j tt j n g him from all imputation of Mifdemeanor, and
Xi. p. 171. forbidding all Perfons, on pain of his difpleafure, to accufe
or fpeak ill of him. But this was not capable of putting a
flop to the People's murmurs. It was not doubted that the
King would be fatisfied, but this was not thought a fufficient
reafon to fatisfy the Nation. Notwithftanding the Mar-
quifs's pretended defence, he was looked upon with horror,
as he was believed to be the principal Author of the Duke
of Glocejler's murder. Befides the King's Marriage, pro-
cured by his means, was confidered as one of the greateft
calamities that could befall England. This was the gene-
ral opinion of Town and Country : But the Court, where
the Queen would fufter none but her Creatures, flood
otherwife affected. The Minilters had likewife for Ad-
herents, throughout the Kingdom, fuel) as found their ac-
count in their attachment to the Court, that is, whoever
held any Poft or Office under the Miniftry. Thefe em-
ployed their authority and endeavours, to flifle the com-
plaints and murmurs of the People, who could not bear
to fee the Adminiftration of the publick affairs in the
hands of a Foreigner. Indeed, the King, incapable of
holding the Reins of the Government himfelf, only lent
his name to the Queen, who made ufe of it as fhe pleaf-
ed. For his part, he minded nothing but his Devotions,
wherein the Queen took care to make him fpend his
whole time, as in the only thing he was fit for, in order
to divert him entirely from the Government. Some have
made a Saint of this Prince. But he may be faid to be one
of thofe Saints, more commendable for the vices they have
not, than for the virtues they poffefs, and to whom a great
weaknefs of mind is inltead of Merit and Worth.
TbcPcoplc'i It was impoffible for the Queen, and the Marquifs of
difpojitton Suffolk, to govern the Kingdom alone, without railing
mtb regard ; ea l ou fy. It was not cuftomary to fee the Queens take
atota{uttn. u p 0n them the Government. Accordingly, this was per-
ceived with uneafinefs to ufurp an arbitrary power in the
King's name, who had 11a farther concern in the affairs,
than to hgn, without examination, the Orders that were
brought him. The Queen's haughty carriage, her Parti-
ality in difpofing of Places, and above all, the Duke of

He maktt



Gloc,Jler\ Murder, had drawn upon her the hatred of tJie 1 m
Nation to fuch a degree, that fhe was every where talked
of with very little rclpecl Her intimate Union with the
Marquifs ol Suffolk, gave her Enemies a fiefh occalion to
fpread reports not much to her Honour. The Marquif
was no more beloved than the Queen. It was he that
had brought her into England, and, to accomplifh the
Marriage, lacrificed the intereftj of the Kingdom. But
the King's name was fo reverenced, that belidcs thofe
who were by interclt attached to the Court, many others
were of the fame Party from a motive of Da{y. It was
therefore no eafy matter, to Wrcfl from the Queen and
the Favorite the Authority they enjoyed.

1 lie difpofltion of molt People with regard to the 'ii ■■, '•-,..,
Queen and the Miniftere, infpircd the Duke of York with' "'' ! '
hopes, he fhould one day he able to aflert his Title to the ""''•',' /„/,
Crown. He wa-, by his Mother, the only Heir of thc'trh^nsf
Houfe of Mortimer or March, defctnded from Lionel,
third Son of Edward 111, and elder IJiuther of John of
Gaunt Duke of Lancujhr, whole Poftcrity was in pofl'tl-
lion of the Throne. But probably, he would never have
formed fuch a defign, if the Duke of Ghccjlcr had been
alive, or the People not dlfafiaSted to the Queen and tj e
Miniftry. Mean while, as it would have Uen very d.
gerous to difqover his intentions, before the People's in-
clinations were founded, he book care fo to proceed, thai
it fhould not be- poffible to convidt him of the leaft ftep to
that end. He contented himfelf with making ufe of lecret
Emiflaiies, who induftripufly fpread among the. People, ■:
courfes proper to turn their thoughts to his tnlc 10 the
Crown. It was whifpered about, tli.it the Houfe of Lan-
cajhr had ufurped the Throne. That indeed the Ufurpa-
tion had been tolerable, whilft the Kings of that Houfe
were Princes of diliinguifhed worth, and had acted for the '
welfare and honour of the Nation; that even, during
the Non-age of the piefent King, there had been hopes
of his treading in the fteps of his Anctftors, and his being
a worthy Follower of the King his Father ; but that fince
he became of Age, nothing glorious was to be expected
from him : That therefoie the Engljn could have no rea-
fon to fupport any longer the Usurpation of the Ciown,
for the fake of a Queen, who, being fprung from the
Blood of their moft mortal Enemy, ruled the Kingdom
with an arbitrary Power : That, in viewing the Pofteritv
of Edward III, it was evident, the Houfe of March had
been unjuilly deprived of the Crown : That the Duke of
York being the fole Heir of that Houfe, and defeended
from Edward III. by his paternal Anceflors, ought to have
his due right. In fine, that his noble .Qualities, his, known
Virtue, and his iignal Services to the Nation, very drong-
ly fupported the juft Title given him by his Birth. Thefe
difcourfes, artfully fpread among the People, began to gaul
the Duke of York a Party. But he appeared not him-
felf : All was done in private by his Fiiends.

Mean while, the Queen, the Favorite, and all the v/-
Houfe of Lancajlcr, failed not to take notice, of what was '"',,"/ ~ r
divulged concerning the pretentions of the Duke of Tori. YorkW
He might indeed keep himfelf concealed from others, but *<,"■'«,. ■/
it was not eafy to deceive fuch quick-fighted Perfon?, who F ™ n "'
were fo greatly concerned in the affair. As they did -not ,/,, Dutetf
queftion, that all thefe Difcourfes were divulged with his Somerjet.
approbation, they believed it requifite to leflen his credit, Hal1-
by giving him fome mortification. Jcbn Duke of Somer-
Jct dying during thefe Tranfadtions (2), Edmund his Bro-
ther (3), who fucceeded him, feemed a very proper Per-
fon to oppofe to the Duke of York. So, without any
pretence, the Queen and the Marquifs of Suffolk caufed the
King to remove the Duke of York from the" Regency of
France, before his term was expired, and conferred it on
the new Duke of SomerJct. This lait was of an exceeding
haughty temper, and as his Brother had been ingaged m
great Contefts with the Duke of York, he behaved to hi;:i
upon this occafion, fo as to make him his implacable Ene-
my. On the other hand, the Duke of York \erv highly
relented this a"ffront : But, as it was not in his power to
be revenged, diflembled his refentment, in expectation of
a more favorable opportunitv to (hew it.

In the beginning of the year 1443, the Kin?, who 1.14S.
acted only by the Queen's fuggeftions, cu.ited the Mai- TheAUr-
quifs of Suffolk, Duke of Suffolk (4.). The Queen feemed g^"^*
to intend to brave the People, by daily (howeriiig her^favors <

(1) He died Attn I 1 1, after having been Bifhop of Lincoln feven years, and of Wmcbcjier forty three ; in all fifty, from the time of his fiifi CoTfcCT3t ; o:i.
He was alio leveral times Chancellor of England; tw.i years while Bifhnp of Lincoln, ana when of ff'irccejier, tour years at onetime, an.: Other.

Before he entered into Orders, he beeat by Alice, Daughter of Richard titz Alan Earl of Arundel, a natural Daughter cailid^an, mirneo ti Sir Eivtard
Stradlmg. He founded St. Croffci Hylpiul near jymcbcjitr ; and lies buried in lyittchejlcr Cathedral, \vhtrc a noble Monument is erected to his Mesioiy :
Which lee in SandforJ, p. 262.

(21 He died A-.ayi-j, 22 Hen. VI. 1444, leaving an only Daughter, Margaret, married to Edmund Tudor Eirl of Wicbmmi, by whom Ac h'd Betty
VII. Jobn Duke of SomerJct lies buried under a grey Marble Monument, with his V. ife Margaret Bcaucharrp, in Wmbcrn mmfier in Dcrfeejbm. .Vj-u-
ford, p. 327, 328. This year alfo, on Augujt 5, dud fobn Holland Duke of Extter, and was buried in St. Cacitr:n.' ., Dear the 'lout.- 01 L.c don.
Dugdalt't Baron. Vol. II. p. 81.

(31 Upon his Brother's dealh ( 22 Hen. VI. 1 he became Earl of Somerfet, but the Dukedom of Scrrerftt was not panted him til] 26 H.nry VI. I44.S, wh : ch.
fell into the King's hands for want of Male-ifJue ol ttt laid "John. The Earldom was granted to his Father and his Hctrs-M.le by K-ne Rrci^rJ il, a d
confirmed by Httt'j IV, Saniford, p. 331. (4} His Patent of Cie.tion bears date June ». Dmgdalt'l £a-c-. V-.j. Ii. j. .


572 ne HISTORY of ENGLAND. Vol. I.

j^iS. upon a Lord To extremely odious to the,whole Nation, ration impracticable, he infifted upon the payment of fix-
She thereby gave her own Enemies a great advantage, teen hundred thoufand Crowns to the Duke of Bretagne,
who only wanted occafions to ftir up the People againft for the damages fuftained by the taking of Fougeres. This
her. It is an error, to which thofe at the Helm are fre- Sum was fo exorbitant, that it muft not be thought (trance,
quently liable, to difregard the complaints of the People, if the Court of England refufed to pay it down. Befides^
As they are always furrounded with Flatterers, either they it was almoft impoffible, that in fo fhort a time ajuft cal-
are ignorant of what panes any where but at Court, or culation could be made of the damages done by' the Etig-
imagine that having moll of the great Men for them,
the reft of the People are to be counted as nothing : But
it often happens, they find it to their coft, that the great
Men, and Kings themfelves, have no more Power than
private Perfons, when unfupported by the People. This
is what we (hall have occafion to fee more particularly
in the courfe of the prefent Reign (i). But we muft firft
return to the affairs of France, which will yet afford us
matter for feveral years.

tftxm' deli- In the Negotiation concerning the King's Marriage, it

aired uf to was agreed, tnat tne Q\r v f Mans, and whatever the Eng

144 s -

Charles 0/

Monftrelct. jou
Ail. Pub.
XI. p. 203,

HJh held in Maine, fhould be delivered to Charles of An-

lijh. It was alfo very furprifing, that Charles fhould io
eagerly efpoufe the Duke of Bretagne's quarrel, who was
not included in the Truce as his Ally (5), but rather as
a neutral Prince who had frequently been Mediator be-
tween the^two Kings. The Ambaffadors however were ArfBllr c/
told, the King would take care to indemnify the Duke, tbtCmnj
as foon as it was known, what his lofs might amount to ; E"s' 3n >-
and if Charles would fend Ambaffadors to Louviers, the xL*!m6.
King of England would do the like, in order to fettle all
things to the common fatisfaction of the two Kings and
the Duke of Bretagnc (6).

At the Congrefs held at Louvlers upon this occafion (7), qte Confi.

rente at


P. Daniel.

, the future Queen's Uncle. But the noife this Article the Englijh reprefented, that the taking of Fougeres was «

made in England, and the Duke of Glocejler's oppofition, without Orders, and unknown to the Regent. They ex- L '

caufed the reftitution to be deferred till this year. In poftulated likewife againft the fum demanded, as far ex- Hawf" 1 ""

February, Charles of Anjou, at the head of fome Troops, ceeding what the Duke of Bretagne could juftly require,

appeared before Mans, in order to take pofleflion. The But the French plainly told them, if the Duke received

French fay, he befieged the City, and that the Duke of not the fatisfaction their Mafter demanded, he deemed the

Exeter the Governor, not daring to ftand an affatllt, Truce violated. This haughty and peremptory way of ,„»*„,*£.

furrendered by Capitulation (2). But it is certain, the negotiating on Charles's part, feemed very ftrange to the

Duke of Exeter was not then in the Place, neither was Englijh, but the French perfifting in their firft Propofiti-

there any appearance of a Siege. The reftitution was on, the conference broke up, without any effect (S).

made (3) by agreement between the two Courts, and So bent was Charles upon renewing the War, whilft Chute/ob

Henry font to Mans two Commiflioners to deliver the City the King of England was unprepared, that in cafe the <X '"J'<""
to the Prince of Anjou. As he was entering, the two
Commiflioners met him upon the Bridge, and before a

Henry' •

XI p^aoA P u blick Notary made a formal Proteftation, declaring that

renew the

Englijh fhould refolve to give the fatisfaction required,^

the King of England's fole intent in reftoring that place,
was to procure a final Peace between him and Charles his
Uncle, and only during the Truce. Moreover, he re-
ferved to himfelf the Sovereignty of the City and Province,
and, in cafe of any attempt upon the right of this Sove-

he had another pretence for a Rupture. He pretended, Monftrekt.
they had violated the Truce with Scotland, and he was "*"•
obliged to undertake the caufe of the Scots. Indeed,
there had been a conflict between the Englijh and Scots,
wherein the Engll/h had been worfted. Buchanan makes n uchaMa .
it a pitched Battle, and fays, the Englijh loft three thou-
fand Men. However, this affair does not feem to have

reignty, claimed a power to revoke the Ceflion without been of fo great confluence, fince it was prefently fup-

injuring his honour. Charles of Anjou heard the Protefta- prefTed. This year the two Nations renewed their Ad. P b.

tion without appproving it, and took poffeflion of the Truce (9), without fixing the time of its continuance. XI. P . "»,,

Place. Only it was agreed, that, which of the two Kings fhould * 36 ' 2 3 s »

After the furrender of Mans to the French, the Nego- defire to break it, he fhould give the other notice fo tf' Its'

tiations for a Peace, and the Interview of the two Kings, long beforehand. However, King James had not de- *7«" * *
199^06?' were continued : But by reafon of fome difficulties, the fired Charles to interpofe in this quarrel, and confequent-

Truce was forced to be farther prolonged to April the 1 ft ly, it is evident, Charles fought an occafion of Rup-

1449. It did not laft however fo long; an unforefeen ture.

accident put an end to it fooner ,than was expected. Whilft Charles was making his preparations, he amu-

About the middle of this year (4), Suriennezn Arra- fed the Englijh with fruitlefs Negotiations. The Court of /Jlriw

gonian, who had ferved the King of England twenty years, England's imprudence at this jundure, is very aftonifh- "7 <** CW-

and was Knight of the Garter, and Governor of Lower ing. They knew neither how to preferve the Truce "''f&m-

Normandy, fcaled, in the Night, the Town of Fougeres,

Ibt Truu
it prolonged.

Du Tillrt.

Hall. belonging to the Duke of Bretagne, and took a great

TbeDuktof booty. Whereupon, the Duke of Bretagne fent a Herald
Bretagne to t h e Duke of Samcrjet, then at Roan, and demanded the

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