M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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" t y f reftitution of the Place, with all the Plunder. The Re-
Tbe-Regtnt gent anfwered, he was extremely difpleafed with this
frmifafa- action, and would give the Duke of Bretagne all the fa-
tisfaction he could reafonably expecL
ibe Duh of Mean while, as it would require fome time to be in-
Bretagne formed more particularly of this affair, and to notify it to
complaint! to tne Court of England, the Duke of Bretagne, impatient
the King of of this delay, complained to the King of France of the
France, win [, reacrl of the Truce, wherein Bretagne was exprefsly in-

tattts .be 111 /-.;; r 1 • t- n- • J

eluded. Charles conlidenng, his affairs were in a good
fituation, and thofe of the Englijh in great diforder, as
well by reafon of the King's inability as of the People's
difcontent, took fire at this News, as if the injury had
been done to himfelf. And yet, to look back on the
Duke of Brctagne's proceedings, during the whole former
War, Charles had no great caufe to be fatisfied with that
Ibe King of Houfe. However, perceiving it to be a favorable oppor-

/blng to

nor prepare for War. If they had been willing to avoid hjL
a rupture, they fhould at leaft have reftored Fougeres to
the Duke of Bretagne, with promife of amends for all da-
mages. But they kept the Place, without ufing any ef-
fectual endeavours to appeafe that incenfed Prince. The
Council, where greater care was taken to introduce the
Queen's and the Duke of Suffolk's Creatures, than Perfons
qualified to manage the publick affairs, feemed to be feized
with a fpirit of inconfideration. To fee the Queen's in-
dolence on this occafion, one would have thought, that
being without Iflue, fhe was in a Plot with the King's
Enemies, to difpoffefs him of all he ft ill held in France.
If fhe, and her Favorites and Minifters, or even the
whole Council, had fuch a delign, they fucceeded but
too well. However that be, the faults they committed
on this occafion, are to be excufed, only by the con-
fideration of the Haughtinefs wherewith Charles acted,
who rendered an agreement impracticable. But, at the
fame time, they fhould have prepared for their de-

As foon as Charles was in condition to renew the

Varies jir-
, „ ..... ...... - .plates of

fuitfaaien J"-> and two Ambaliadors to London, to demand reparation in Beauvoijis, Cognac, and St. Maigrin in Guienne to '** Zntf&
for ,b.Duie for this infult. But at the fame time, to make this repa- be furprized, in the Duke of Bretagne's name The « TZfr

of Bretagne- * 6 «■- » j«t Kcpnjaii/ar

Monftrekt. fr -• • -■ - - Fougcn-i.



and i

tons Abndg. p. 637, 638.

(2) Monftrelct fays, the Engtifb had put oft' the reftitution of Man, for the fpace of three Months, and had, within that time, introduced fifteen hundred
Men therein : So that the Earl 01 Dunon was font with an Army of about leven thou/and Men, to reduce that City by force, fol. c.

(3) March is- Rymer's Ford. Tom. 11. p. 104.

(4) On March 24. Suriemt had with him between fix and feven hundred Men. Monftrekt, fol. 6. They not only took this Town but alfo m.*. 'r
ver.il Incurfions in Bretagne. Ibid. ' ^

(5) He feemsto have been fo, for he infilled chiefly upon that point, ( as being his AUv and ValTal ) in his complaints to the King of France See Whm.
ftreltt, fol. o, and Hall, ted. Is*. And indeed he is exprefsly mentioned in the Truce. See Rymer's Fad. Tom. it. p. 64.1

( ' TJ"V"° di ^ Yowed th l F . a ?' fi * in S> It was dune without the Confent either of the King their Mafter, or of the Duke of Somcrfa hi- lie*,,
nant. Monftrclet, fnl 7. Hall, fol. 152. . " ' ""■•' c

(7) In May. Monftreht, fo). 8.

(8) There was another Confeience in the Abbey of Bon-port, but which likewife came to nothing. Monflrelet, fol 9.
,,L «,?**?' 't 49 ;, Th^Truce was to hft from Auguft i . l+49) ,„ Seftmier 10. 14,0. See Rimer', Feed. Tom. it, p. 232.
(13) Un May 16. Monftrelct, fol. 8, ' r *

France*- tunity to renew the War, whilft the Englijh thought of War, he caufed the Caftle of Conches, and Pont de /" Arche £ h
7JrtZn, nothln S lefs ' A he , fen , t a Gentleman to the Duke of Somer- in Normandy (10), and, about the fame time, Gerberol '""


Book XII.

15. H £ N R Y VI


1449. Englijh complained in their turn of the violation of the
Truce, but were told, it was by way of Reprifals for
pougeres. Thus the War was rekindled at a juncture
very difadvantagious to the Englijh. As they were unpre-
pared, the Duke of Somerfet, Regent of France, was de-
ftitute of Forces, "when lie molt needed them. Charles
had therefore free fcope to pufh his Conquefts. This
gives occafion to believe, the furprize of Fougcres was
unknown to the Court of England. Othcrwife, it muff:
be thought, either the Minifters had loft their fenfes, in
not preparing to fupport their enterprise, or had among
them Traitors, who thereby intended to re-engage the
Englijh in War, before they were ready. Certainly ,
when it is confidered, that the Court was fo remifs to
fatisfv the Duke of Bretagnc, and fo carelefs to prepare
for War, it is hard to know what to think of fuch a
Charles a.li Charles's chief aim was to recover Normandy , and
mtt\f m'itl foT that P Lir P '" e nad prepared four Armies. A plain
/c U rWrm;fi. demonftration, he did not defire the bufmefs of Fou-
Monitrelet. geres ftiould be ended by an agreement. Since the Con


that Place, which furrendered the beginning of t fanu-
a n (4)- Though Charles might j'uftly have detained the
Earl of Shrewsbury, fince the Capitulation of Roan wa
not fully obferved by the Englij},, he was pleafed, as a
mark of his elk-em, to give him his liberty, without
ranfom. In the mean time, the Karl of Fhix, who com- ?" ''■'■'
manded in Guiennc for King Charles, took the Cattle u
of Mauleon, ftanding upon an inacceflible Roct. ThusAcI
ended the firft Campam, which proved fo fatal to the Wl

iiefides the Court of England's concern, for the ill HtkBiuh
pofture of affairs in Prance, a Rebellion railed in Ire- 1 " '
land at the fame time , gave them a frefh caufc of.''' 11 "
uneafinefs. However, the Queen and the Duke of
Suffolk reaped fome advantage by theft commotions,
as they furnifhed them with a pretence to remove the
Duke of York. This Prince beginning to be a trouble "» Ottjtt 'J
to them, he was fent into Ire/and, under colour of be- Y f" ■
ing the fitteft Perfon to fupprefi the Rebellion, but with-


al, had but few Troops allowed him for that purpofc. It
was hoped, he would either perifli in the attempt, or

grefs of Louviers, which broke up in April (1), he would forfeit his reputation. The Duke perceived their de- Re fuftt

not have had time to put fo many Forces on foot. The fign, and wifely turned againft themfelves the artifice '***«*' "

firft of thefe Armies he headed himfelf. The Earl of they ufed for his ruin. He (o managed, that, by his mild

Dunois, lately made Earl of Longucville, and Genera- a "d gentle behaviour, he won the Irijl; and reftored them

liffimo of the King's Forces under the Conftable, com- to their duty, without being obliged to ufe force. What

manded the fecond. The Duke of Alcnfon had the is more, he fo made them his friends, that from thencc-

command of the third ; and the Duke of Bretagnc, of forward they were always devoted to the fervicc of him-

the fourth, wholly confifting of his own Troops. All felf and Family, and even in the midft of his greatert mif-

the Towns of Normandy were ill-provided with Men fortunes.

and Ammunition. Moil of the Governors depending The univerfal confufion of the affairs of France , the j.- c
upon the Truce, were gone to England. So the French negligence of the Court in that refpect, the lofs of almoft Cmpiahit
Armies had only to appear before the Towns, in order to all Normandy in one Angle Campain, the conqucft where- °f ' "!'■
carry them. Several places did not ftay to be attacked, of had coft fo much blood, began, at length, openly to Duhtf
Some taking Arms, expelled the Englijh Garrifons ; others provoke the impatient temper of the Englijh, The Srnfelk and
were fold by the commanding Officers. Pont Audemer whole Kingdom rung with complaints againft the Duke '*' -•' ".'
and Chateau Galliard were the only places that made a of Suffolk. It was pubhckly faid, he had betrayed the
tolerable defence. In fhort, not to enter into a needlefs State, and that Maine, the Key of Normandy, was de-
detail of all |he Sieges, whether real or feigned, it will livered to the French, for the accomplishment of a mar-
fuffice to fay' in a word, that before the Campain was riage, advantagious to none but himfelf. He was accufed
ended, Charles was able to befiege Roan, where he had of being the principal Author of the Duke of Glocefier's
lit itniiftt ^ r ' cn< ^ s> Having allembled all his forces, making a body death, for fear that difcerning Prince fliould fee through
Roan. ot fifty thoufand Men, he ordered the Capital of Nor- his treafonabie practices. It was complained, that there
Monrtrdct. mandy to be inverted, the 8th of Oclober. He would not were but [ew Perfons of parts, and (till fewer of virtue
form a regular Siege, being well allured, the Duke of So- in the Council j that, on the contrary, the Board was
merj'et, and the Earl of Shrewsbury, who were fhut up filled with vicious Counfellors, without Principles of Ho-
there, with three thoufand Men only, would not be able nour or Religion, that no confideration mi^ht hinder
to defend themfelves againft the Inhabitants, who had pro- their being wholly devoted to the Will of the Queen, and
mifed to rife in his favor. And indeed, within a few days, her Miniftcr : That it was the fame thins, with retrard
the Earl of Dunois was going to be introduced at St. Hi- to thofe in the publick Ports, in whom, honcftv and a-
lary'% Gate, with three hundred .Men, if the Earl of bility were not fo much required, as an attachment to
Shrewsbury had not come very feafonably, and repulfed that the Miniftry. The Queen was no lefs difliked. It
Detachment. was complained, fhe ruled, with infupportable pride, a free
TbtCitixint 1 ne habitants, notwithstanding this difappointment, Nation, ufed to be governed only by Law, and which
open the perfifted in their refolution. On the 19th of Oclober, had never fuffered a defpotick Power. It was added,
Guteitotbt the whole City rifing in Arms with one confent, all the Ufurpation of fuch a Power was not to be borne,
ManftreJet. tn at tne Duke of Somerfet cculd do, was to diftribute his even in a King, much lefs in a foreign Queen. It w. •
Garrifon in fome of the moft advantagious Ports. But farther obferved, that, by degrees, flic had turned out of
the French being introduced, quickly forced all thefe Ports the Council all thofe that gave her any umbrage, in or-
fword in hand. There was only the Palace left, where der to fubftitute fuch as were at her devotion, without
the Duke of Somerfet, and the Earl of Shrewsbury were, troubling herfelf, whether they were fit for fo high an
TicDuktof with eight hundred Men. As they forefaw, they ftiould employment.

Somerfet ( 00n oe j n wa nt of provifions , the Duke defired to In this difpofition were the People, when the Parlia- ri .. p c .i, a .

fpeak with the King in order to capitulate ; which being ment met, the beginning of the year 1450(5). The'-'-""'".

upon 'Terms.

granted, he offered to retire upon honourable Terms. Court wanted an aid to enable them to reftoie the af- c '°" n

• Othcrwife, they faw themfelves obliged M " iV

Momlrelet. jj ut tne King infifted upon his furrendering at difcie-
tion, unlefs he would treat for the reft of Normandy.
As this point could not be adjufted, the Duke returned to
the Palace, and held out ten or twelve days longer.
At laft, he was forced to capitulate , on condition of

Siege and
taking of
J. I'll artier.

fairs at France

entirely to abandon them, and thereby, give their encmie?
a farther advantage againft them. The Queen foon per-
ceived, the general difcontent had feized the very Mem-
bers of Parliament She believed, it would be of great 77, n t ,,„
leaving all his Artillery, paying fifty thoufand Crowns of advantage to remove the Parliament to Leieejler, where triah ■ ■■
Gold, and delivering to the King Caudebec , Arques, (he hoped to have greater fway than at London, of whofe " jrf ;'"""'
Lillebonne, Tancarville, Montravilliers, and Harfleur (j). Inhabitants fhe was jealous. But fhe met with fo rtrong
The Earl of Shrewsbury was left in Hoftage (3) for the oppofition from the Lords, that fhe was forced to defift.
performance of this engagement, and the Englijh Garri- In all likelihood , fomething was feared like what had
fon marched out of Roan, where Charles made his entry, parted at St. Edmundsbury, with regard to the Duke cf


Upon the meeting of the Parliament (6) , the
Commons prefented to the Lords, an Indiiimcnt

on the 19th of November. The Governor of Harfleur,
not thinking fit to comply with this Capitulation , the
Earl of Longue-uille was detached by the King to befiege

(1) Or rather in May. See Monflrelet, fol. 8. (i) iMinfirtltt fay?, it was Hcrficur, fid. at.

(3) With James Butler, Son ot the Earl of Ormond, and fome other young Noblemen. They were lecured in the Caftle of Etreu.x. Hill, fol. 154.
Monftrelet, fol. 21. (4 The Governor wa- ' ir Tbvnttl Corefcn. Ibid.

(5) This Parliament met firft at Weftmtr.fer , on November 6. 1449, trom whence it was adjourned to the Black-fr;ert, Londcn, by rsaf.n ot" the
Plague's being in the tore-named place; and on December 4, it was adj urned back again r W-ftrmnfer : prorogued, on the 17th. to "J .i-.ur.ry 2;. 14ec.
and on March 30, prorogued to April = 9, at Leuef.tr. In this Parliament tne Commons gran cd ih. King an u .ufual Sbblidy, t-:x That every Per-
fon having frank Tenement by free Deed, Copy, grant of Annuity, or Office, to the cleai yea.lj va uc or twenty Shillings, fliculd p.y Six pence j and fo
from twenty Shillngs, to twenty P.-unds : From twenty Pounds, to two hui.ared Pounds ycaily, Twclve-p-nce in the Pound : From two bunded P.-unds,
to pay two Shillings tor every iwenty Sh.llings, as vvtil fcr the L ity as the Clergy, Gu-iaians of Wares, Men having Fees, and all Corp rr.tirns to

pay accordingly. Cottcn't Abridg p. 640, 641. In this Parliament it w„sena^icd. That whereas Coftomcrs, Scarchets, CT.. d'd daily wrcng-

auily diftrefs and arrcft the Snips Goods, and Mcrchaniizes o' the Merchants of this Realm J all Perfms fo aggrieved, fhojjd be 3Uthori2ed hereby to
hase a general Writ of Trefpafs againft the Author; of fuch Arre'ts, Charges, and Impulsions : wheieby rhey mifcht luc for, and rtcovcr i.t'v Pounds.
upon Cjnvic^ion. Statutes, zS tl.nry VI.

(6) On lebrujryy. Cotton 1 Abridg. p. 641.

No, 29. V O I. I.


57 +


The H I S T R T of E N G L A N D.

Vol. I.


ft the

containing the following Arti-

jtrtUhff J. Th^t the Duke of Suffolk ha J treated with the Baf-
l"t*T m "" tard ' nf Orleans, and the other French Ambaffadors, to
pcT'va.le King Charles to invade 'England; to the end, he




H f ll.

fol. i ; 7

?s a Bravado to thetp. To [hew their Re/entirenfe, '.bey
went in a Body and petitioned the Kinr, thrt the Per-
fons, who liad be;.n inftrumenral in delivering Ncrma -
dy (;) to the French, miiht be ptiniflied according to their
Demerits. The Queen was alarmed at this Petition. She
found, the Commons were bent upon the Duke of Suf-


mio-ht place his Son on the Throne, whom he intended to file's Ruin, and (hit it was not poffible to prevent it,

marYy with Margaret only Daughter of John Duke of So- without coming to an open Rupture with the Lowef-

merfet, Houfe. Wherefore, to fa*'e the Minjfter fome part of the

II. That being bribed by the French, he had releafed Punifhment which, probably, was defigned him, fhe re-

the Duke of Orleans, againft the exprefs Orders of the late folved to prevent a formal Sentence, which could not but


III. That Normandyw?.s invaded by his Means, and

IV. Th.it being AmbalTador in France, he ingaged to
furrender Maine to the French, without the confent of the
reft of the Ambaffadors, and drew the King and Council
to ratify his Engagement.

V. That he had informed the Enemies, of the Weak-
nefs of the Englijh Towns in France, and encouraged them
to a (fault them.

have been very rigorous in the prefent Juncture. A few r!ini„-
days after this Petition, the King banilhed the Duke for "V*"'.
five Years, and removed all his Creatures. The Duke tow "
himfelf looking upon this Exile as a proper means to fe-
cure him from the Fury of the People, fpecdily irnbarked
for France. But he could not efcape hi-, Deftinv. Fie He .i { -
was met in his Paffage by an Englijh Ship, called the h "' l ' lt '" h: '
Nicholas, and the Captain fearching the Duke's Veflel, FraVce'.''
and finding him there, ordered his Head to be (truck off, April,
without any farther Ceremony (6). Thus fell William de Haii "

VI. That he had betrayed the Secrets of the Council to la Pole Duke of Stiff?:}, who a few days before, was the
the Enemies of the State. greateft and moft powerful Perfon in the Kingdom. It is

VII. That he had hindered the Conclufion of a Peace, uncertain, whether he was guilty of all the Crimes the
by difcovering the Weaknefs of England (i). Commons laid to his Charge. But it cannot be denied,

VIII. That he had made his Boafts, in the hearing of th.it the difafters which, one after another, happened to the
feveral Lords, that his Credit at the French Court was no affairs of the Englijh in France, are to be afcrihed to his ill

lefs, than at the Englijh.

IX. That he had obftructed the fending of Succours to
France, that the Enemies might make the greater Pro-

X. That he had included in the Treaty of Truce
neither the King of Arragon, nor the Duke ol Brctigne,

Conduct ; if it be true, that they are not to be deemed the
Confequenc.es of a Plot, formed to deprive the King of all
his Conquefts in France.

By the Duke of Sujfo'i's death, the Duke of York faw rh Dai. „r
himfelf freed from a powerful Enemy, \vfr->, being at- Yorko/ww
tached to ihe Houje of Udncajjlir, wouid, dcubtlefs, have '„'"'." Cr3KW -
and by that affected neglect, England had loft thofe two ftrongly oppofed the Execution of his deflghs. Though Bock
Allies. this Prince was in Ireland, his Friends effectually ferved

him in England, by extolling his M°rir, and reprefenting
The Dt.ke of Suffolk anfwered thefe Accufalions, by a to the People, the King's Incapacity, and the Queen's
formal Denial of the greateft Part, and required the Male-Adminiltration. Thefe Difcourfes, joined to the en-
tire lofs of Normandy, which happened at the fame time,
made deep iTip^eiTions on the Minds of the People, and
daily increafed the number of the Duke's Adherents. He
had perfect Information of what pafi'ed. But not to ha-
zard himfelf in vain, he devifed an Expedient, which he
thought proper to found the People's Inclinations, in order
to take his meafures with more Safety. By his Inftiga- t 3c , c c ^ t
tion, Jack Cade an Irijhrran, affumed the Name of John IttfurrcOisx
Afor timer, of the Floufe cf March, executed in the begin- '* f' nt -
ning of this Reign. Under this borrowed Name he re- Aft. Pub.
paired into Kent (7), where the Duke of Tori had many XL ?. 275,
Adherents, and drew together great Numbers of Male- 23s-
contents, ufing for pretence, the neceffity of reforming
for King of France. Since that time, there had been no the Government, and eafing the People. In the prefent Vt

difpofition of the greateft Part of the Nation, with regard pnactm
to the Court, the Rebels fo increafed, that in few davs London.
Cade faw himfelf in condition to incamp on Black-Heath,
near London.

The King having notice of the approach of the Re- n e p r ef-nts
bels, fent to know the reafon of their appearing thus in ««'«"<<»•

The Defc'i

Proofs. As to the Articles which he owned, he pro-
duced the King's exprefs Orders. But that was not
fufficient to juffify him, fince his chief Crime, was the
abufe of his Credit with the King, and his impofing
Ximirhvn upon the Council. Hiftorians remark, thrt he cleared
the fa/j At. himfelf from all but the laft Article, relating to the
tick. Duke of Bretagne. Indeed, it is certain, in the firft

XI p s°q ?7 Treaty of Truce concluded at Tours, and in feveral fub-
fequent Treaties to prolong it, the Duke of Bretagne
was included only by France. This is a Myftery, not
very eafy to be unravelled. The Duke of Bedford, as
has been related, obliged the Duke of Bretagne to re-
nounce the Alliance of Charles, and acknowledge Henry

Rupture between England and Bretagne. And yet,
Charles took care to comprize the Duke of Bretagne in
the Treaty of Truce, concluded at Tours, whiift the
Englijh mentioned him not. Was it through Negligence,
Forgetfulnefs, or defignedly ? The laft is moft probable.
However, the Duke of Suffolk had in fome meafure re-

paired this Error, by including the Duke of Bretagne as Arms. Cade anfwered for all, that they had no ill defign ,!

an Ally of England, in the prolongation of the Truce
Ik. p. 154.. in 14.47, as appears in the Collection of the Public* Afts.
But that was hot fufficient, it feems, to fatiify his Ene-

The Queen perceiving that matters were like to go ill
with the Duke, ordered it fo, that the King fent him to

3 S 9 .

The Kin;
fen/t tbe
L>t>ke to tbt

give fome appearance of Satisfaction to the Commons.
The Parita- Mean while, for fear they fhould perfift in their Profecu-
""'nltt* t ' on > ^ e cau '" ed tne Parliament to be adjourned to Lei-
Lficeirer. cejler (z). Prefently after (3), the Duke came out of the
Tbt Dukt it Tower, and refumed his eld Poll at Court. The News
jT fl i- ft his releafe 'railed a Sedition in Kent, headed by a Ful-

St .jeilli ion ._ .„.. ... ._.

in Kent.

upon the King's Perfon : That their Intention was, to Hail,
petition the Parliament, that the evil Miniffers might be Sww ^ s *""•
punifhed, and the People rendered more hnppv than of late r "
years. A few days after, they prefented to the parlia-
ment two Petitions, fetting forth the Grievances of the
Nation. Among other things, they prayed, that the Duke

the Tower, not fo much with defign to puniih him, as to of Somerfet might be punilhed, as being the principal Au-
thor of the lofs of Normandy. That the King's Council
mi"ht be filled with the princes of the Blood, and other
prudent and judicious Perfons, and not with vicious and
profligate Men, of ill Piinciples and Manners, and unc^-
pable of managing the affairs of the State. Thefe Peti-
tions being co.nmunic.ited to the King, the Council con-
ler (4). But before the Rebels could make any confidera- demned them as feditious, and refeived to fupprefs the
ble attempt, the Ring-leaders were npprtnended and Rebellion bv force of Arms. Whereupon, the King :.!"- ■—•■ "v,
executed, and by that means the Sedition was ftiiled in its (trnbiTrt'g a P.ndv of fifteen thbtfTand Men, headed them ""«*"*"
Birth. himfelf,' and marched againft the Rebels. Upon his a P - *££££

The Pailii-rent being re-affemMed at Leicejle<; the proach, Cade, as if he was afraid, retired, and lay in Am- ««(n-,m
Kini and Queen appeared, attended by the Duke of bufh in a Wo-xl near Sevrnoak, not queflioning but the ?'"'."lQ'r

t Henry, imagining the Re-,,

Tbt Par.'ij

ment Jin

*Z a in.

llcCrnimmt Suffolk', as their Prime Minifter. The Commons were ex- King would follow

"Jfttfitd It



tbTokrf f eme ly offended at this Proceeding, which they confidered bels were difperfed, returned to London, being contented -'m

Su»> k"«

(1) Or rsih^r by difcoveri-s to King Cbar.'ei, the Comm:fii>irj, Authority, and IniWtions of the Ettghjh AmbaiBdors. h'aJ, fol. 157.

(2) Gn'Marcb 30, to rntet at Lfic^r, April 29.
13J After a Month's Confinement. Hall, lot. 15S.

f+ y A de'perate fellow, called 'Ibomai Tb.itxp, but nick-n.'me-i, Blue-Brant. Stvtv't Attn. p. 3*1'.

(.) It (hould be Arttcuvi Mam*, as Halt, ft 1. icS, and Stew have it, p 3S7.

(6) The -hip hel> need to the Duke if Hxrttr, then O'nftihle rf ihe T.<ixr. P.ap : n, by m.'!b!t-, mates the CapMir's nJTie tl be TCitbofat inlend nf

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 242 of 360)