M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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fhow fome regard for the Court, for fear of ruining his the R.nfhncfs, to demand of the Duke of Savoy hU Daugh-

Aflairs by hafty Refolutions. In this Belief he anfwered, ter Violante in Marriage; and the Duke complied with hi.

he had never intended to forfake his Allegiance to the Requeft, without either vouchfafing to acquaint the Kin

metier i'/mt King, but only to remove from his Pcrfon evil Counfel- with the Matter. Provoked at this P , Charter

hut to tit ] orSj of whom the Duke of Somerfet was the chief; and if put himfelf at the head of thirty thoufand Men,

the King would put him into fafe Cuftody, till he fhould marched towards Lyons, bent upon chart i fin -> Im Son, and

in Parliament anfwer to what was objected againft him, he punifhing the Duke of Savoy's PrefurtJption. But the R

was ready to difmifs his Troops. He did not ex peel:, his volution which happened at the fame time in G"; enn

demand would be granted, fince the King and Queen were caufed him to take other Meafufes.

folely guided by the Counfels of Him , who was molt: con- The Gafcons, who had been for three bun,.', d Yeai '

cerned to have it rejected. He hoped thereby to throw all the without interruption, under the Dominion of the Kings ol : ' ',

Blame on the Court, and demonftrate to the People, that England, had fubmitted to King Charles, onh bi caufe they K •

the Miniftry did not fcruple to cxpofe the Kingdom to a were neglected by the Engli/h. As foon as the French r "f hr ^

Civil War, for the fake of a Man odious to the Nation. Army had quitted Guienne, the Lords of the Country in '

„ But for once he was the dupe of his own Policy. The concert with the Inhabitants of Bourdcaux, relolved to' re-

'«"• King took him at his word, promifed to fend his Enemy turn to their antient Sovereigns (6). For that pufpolc T-.(

to the Tower, and even ordered him to be immediately they deputed the Lords of Condole and /' Efparre toco,'

arretted. The Duke of York was furprized at this Condc- trive the means at London. The Troubles raifed bv the t C ' ' '

fcenfion. He would have been very glad to recede from his Duke of Tori; had for fome time hindered the Court from

Engagement. But as he could not do it without laying him- attending to this Affair. But when they were ippeafed

felt" too open, he thought he fhould run fome risk, rather the Queen and Council, after mature deliberation judged

than hazard the Lofs of the People's Good-Wdl, on that nothing lhould be neglected to accornplifh the F'nter-

He difmifci which he built all his Expectations;. So, without Hcfita- prize. The Succefs, they expected, mi^ht redeem their

tit Troops, t ; orl) ne disbanded his Troops (3J and came to Court, not Credit, and gain them an Intcrcft with the People whicli

Vnd'acctfis vouchfafing even to take any Precaution for his Safety, they wanted to fupport tbemfelves againft their Enemies.

tbeDuhcf When he was in the King's Prefence, he accufed the Talbot, the valiant Earl of Shrewsbury^ who was returner) tattot/«rf



Hi is take,

at ins tVo\



" : I cfl -



^b'Pdd Duke of Somerfet with great Warmth, and endeavoured to from a Voyage into Italy, .was chofen for this Expeditic.

appears 'and perfwade the King, that he was a Traitor, and had facrificed Though he was fourfcore Years old, he readily accepted ail wonflrel

aeeitfa bim. the Interett of the Kingdom to his Ambition and Avarice. Employment, which gave him Opportunity once more Hall.

fcondi. Upon thefe Words, the Duke of Somerfet, who was con- before his Death, to do his King and Country a confiderablc Aa " p " h '

cfealed behind the Hangings, fuddenly ftept forth to anfwer Service. As Diligence was abfolutely neceflary, he embarked ni p ' 3 ' 3 '

him, and accufed him of confpiring him tci dethrone the what Troops were ready, confifting of fever, hundred Men

King; The Duke of York feeing his Enemy before him, and at Arms (7}, upon a promife that the reft defio-ned for

in the King's Apartment, whom he thought in fafe Cuf- him fhould quickly follow. He failed the 1 8th of ojfo-

tody, found he was amufed, and perceived his Danger, her, and on the 21ft landed near Eourdeaux. Next Day He i,Utintt

Nevertheless, without fhowing any Concern, he modeft- he appeared before the Citv, and as every thin? was pre- B,ur: " ;: -

jfy complained of the King's Breach of Promife, by the pared to receive him, he' was introduced at a Gate of Hjt^'^

Suggeftions of the Duke of Somerfet, on whom he caft which the Citizens had the Guard. The French Gam'fbn

Tie Duke of the Bafehefs of this Fraud. Immediately after, the King who had not heard of his Arrival, furprized at this unex-

JrTien'd'edf' difmifled the Duke of York, and ordered him to be appre- pected Accident, would have retired at another Gate but

hended as foon as he was out of bis Prefence (4). were almoft all taken.

If the Duke of York's Enemies had dared to gratify their The promifed Reinforcement being arrived from Enp- H retain



Seafns
which hin-
dered the
Court from
putting him
to Death.
Hall.
ful. 164.



Refentment, he would never have freed himfelf from the land a few Days after (8), the Earl of Shrewsbury took-'



Snare he bad imprudently fallen into. But the Pofture of
Affairs, and the Difpofitiori of the People, affording juft
Occafion of Fear, they durft not proceed againft him.
Two other reafons helped likewife to fave him. It was
rumoured at Court, that the young Earl of Afarch his
Son, attended by all the Friends of his Family, was ad-
vancing with a ftrong Body of Troops to deliver his Fa



I vera'

pla.



'4 53-



tie it fet at

Liberty.



He takes an
Oath so the
King ;
Hollingih.
Stew.



and retires
to Wig-
tnore.
Hall.



the Field at the head of feven thoufand Men. With this GuiL.
little Army he reconquered fome of the Towns of Qui- Moufhdet.
enne, among others Eronfac and Ctiftitleri; as rapid.'}- as they
were loft. If Winter had not prevented him from pur
fuing his Conquefts, he would have made himfelf Matter
of all Guienne.

Charles, who was then at Lyons, hearing this ill News
ther. So, for fear the Duke's Army, which was lately did not think proper to perfift in the Execution of the
disbanded, fhould join his Son's Troops, the Court was defign be had formed. The Affair of Guienne teemed to
obliged to take a more gentle Courfe. On the other hand, him of greater Importance. So, fuddenly altering his
the Gafcons had fent Deputies to the King, to offer to re- refolution, he permitted the Dauphin to marry the
duce Guienne to his Obedience, if he Would feiid them Sup- Princefs of Savoy, and gave one of his Daughters to the
plies. At fuch a Juncture it was believed, as the Duke of young Prince of Piedmont, At the fame time he rcfolv-
York's Blood could not be fpilt without involving the King- ed to fend all his Troops into Guienne the next Sprin».
in a Civil War, there would be a Neceffity of detaining Mean while, he difpatched before a Body of ten thou- Ch'aile. -
the Troops intended for Guienne, and thereby a favorable fand Men, under the Command of Cha'banes and the <'" '
Opportunity loft of recovering that Province. Thefe Earl of PMitvre, Thefe two Generals being arrived in q """
Confiderations indue :d the Queen and Duke of Somerfet Saintongc, beficged Chalais and Cajlillon, whilft the Earl CalHtfcn fc-
to give the Duk of York his Liberty, though their own, of Clermont followed them, with the reft of the Army dc-^ '■■" ''
the King's, and the whole Houfe of Lancafler's Interett, figncd for Guienne. Chabancs was taken up with the ^ 'j hu! - : "'
required he fhould be facrificed to their Safety. Perhaps Siege of Chalais till June, after which, he joined Pen-
all the Calamities, England afterwards indured, might by iievre before Cajlillon, which ftill made a vigorous De-
that means have been prevented. However, as the Queen fence. The Dread infpired by the Earl of Shrewsbury's
and Minifters were willing, as far as in them lay, to fe- Valour and Experience, made them ufe the Precaution fel-
cure themfclves againft his Defigns, they obliged him to dom practifed in thofe Days, of rhakiho- Lines and defen-
ding the Avenues of their Camp with Palifadoes.

The Earl of Shrewsbury was at Bourdcaux with fix Tallot goes
or feven thoufand Men, in fufpence, what courfe he ' 2 " d »"«*•



take an Oath to the King, whereby he fwore to remain
his faithful Subject till Death, and never to take Arms
againft him. This done, the Duke of York retired to his



(1) A Mile from Dart ford in Kent. Halt, fo!. 163.

(I) The Bifh, ps of Winchejicr and Ely, with the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick. Ibid. S:«w's Ann. p. 393.

(3) On March 1, and came to the King's Ttnt. Ibid.

(4) And, loon after, the King ad'imbled a Great Council at tfflminfter, to hear the Accufations of the two Dukes one a.>.unft another. In this
Council, the Duke of Somerfet, who f, refaw what for.n came to pals, exhorted the Lords and others there preltnt, to caufe the Duke of Tort U
Force or otherwife, to contcls his Offence; that, teing attainted of Treafon, he mieht be executed, and his Children put under arrell as E-i-inie's ,1
the Kingdom. Halt, fol. 163. (5) 1„ Hereforilhire.

(6 1 Induced thereunto by heavy Taxes and Imp fitions laid on them by the French ; and becaufe they were more hardly ufed than thev were «„
to be by their former Millers the E,glijh. Monftrelet, fol. 55.

(7) Between four and live thoufand Men. Idem fol. 4.1.

(8) It conliftcd of four thoufand Men j among which were the Lord Cameis, the Ballard of Somerfet, John Lord Ta'h; Vil'co-jnt Lifie (he W
IMolyns, the Lord Haryngton, Sir JJ.n Hazard, Sir j okr. Mont gantry, Sit John Vernon, & c . Ibid. Baft; fol. l6y



tktm,
Monftrelet.

Ha::.



No. 29. Vol. I»



7 G



Qw.l-J



5^



Tie H1ST0RT of ENGLAND, Vol. I.



1453. fhould take with regard to the Siege. He was defirous
to relieve the Place, but was afraid of meeting many dif-
ficulties as well by reafon of the Intrenchments of the
French as of the Superiority of their Number. On the
other hand, knowing the Earl of Clermont was advan-
cing with all fpeed, he confidered, it mult be done, be-
fore the Arrival of thefe frefh Troops, after which, it
would be too late, fince he would have all the Forces of
France to oppofe. In fine, having taken this laft Refo-
lution, he left Bourdeaux with all his Army, and approach-
ing the French Camp, attacked them with the fame Vi-
gour, the Englijl) had fhown at the Battle of Jzincourt,
and on feveral other Occafions. He foon defeated four
thoufand Men, commanded by Chabanes without the In-
trenchments, dro\e them into the Camp, and, in fpite of
the Befiegers Canon, which fwept away his Men by
whole Files, forced their Lines, and entered with the fly-
ing Troops. Thus the Englijh relate it. But the French
only fay, the Lines were like to be forced, when the
Englijh'v/ere attacked in the Rear by a Body of French
Horfe. This cooled their Ardor, and obliged their Ge-
neral to difcontinue the Attack of the Lines, and face
thofe that preffed him behind. This Motion gave the
French an opportunity to draw all their Troops out of the
Camp. So, the Earl of Shrewsbury, who had not above
five thoufand Men left, was reduced to the Neceffity of
r.- m dt- making two Fronts, and withstanding ten thoufand. At
fiatedand i en gth, t he Englijh finding themfelves overpowered by
MMftrekt. Number?, began to give ground. At the fame time,
Hill. the Earl of Shrewsbury was wounded in the Thigh with

a Mufquet-Ball, and his Horfe killed under him. In
this Condition, not being able, by reafon of his Wound,
to remount, he bid Sir John Talbot (1) his Son to retire,
and fave himfelf for another Occafion, where he might
be flill ferviceable to his Country. But Talbot rather than
bafely fly, chofe to die by the Earl his Father, who alfo,
prefently after, refigned his laft Breath. The Englijh loft
two thoufand Men, but their moft confiderable lofs was
their General (z).
Rrd . After this Defeat, Cajlillon Surrendered the 1 6th of
tb'warik July (3). A few Days after, the Earl of Clermont be-
France, i n g arrived, and the King come to the Camp, the Ar-
™Jj i' my was divided into four Bodies, which befieged at
Guienne. once Cadillac, Libourne, Fronjac, and Bourdeaux. Fron-
Monrtrelet. J~ ac Z nd Libourne refilled only a few Days ; but the Caftle
of Cadillac maintained a Siege of two Months. After
the taking of that Place, the whole Army joined before
Bourdeaux, which capitulated the 17th of Oclober, and
the Garrifon hid liberty to return into England. Thus,
of fo many Conquefts made by the Englijh in France,
fince Edward III, there remained only Calais and Guif-
nes ; poor remains of fo many Provinces, feveral where-
of, had belonged to their Kings by Hereditary Right, and
the reft were acquired by fo many Victories, and at the
Expence of fo much Blood !
Hrnrv f.Uls Whilft the French were thus Successfully carrying on
fck. ' ' the War in Guienne, Henry was feized at London (4), with
ah. Pub. a ] ona; an j dangerous Sicknefs, which often gave occa-
Mtribof ' h° n t0 believe he would never recover. At the fame time,
Edward, rl<i the Queen was delivered, on the 23d of Oclober (5), of
X" , jfjjSo». a Pi i nee chriftened Edward. This Prince was inauSpi-
Stow". cioufly bun, fince it was at the very time, the Englijh

loft all their Pofleflions in France. His Birth gave rife
tbeiiueent to feveral Reports, injurious to the Queen's Honour.
Dijadvan- There were lbme fo hardy as to fay publickly, he was
'■'£'• not the King's Son. Others maintained, he was Suppofi-

titious, becaufe the Queen had never before been with
Child, though married nine Years. In fine, fome there
were, who, without queftioning the Queen's Honour or
Honefty, took occafion from this Prince's Birth to hope
well for the future. Their Reafon was , becaufe the
Queen, having a Son, would be more firmly attached to
the Intereft of England, thereby plainly intimating,
what they thought of her former Conduct.

Cardinal Kemp, tr.inflated from the See of York to

E unhier that of Canterbury, dying in December this Year, Thomas

I p Bourchier, Brother of the Earl of EJJex (6), was elected

li™"' U ' Archbilhop. He was a Prelate of eminent Merit, and

was after waids made Chancellor, and then honored with

the Dignity of Cardinal.



bury.
StuW.



The War in France, which had lafted thirty-eight 14;*.
Years, being ended, the remaining Events of this R.eien, n ' c ™''
confift only of the Quarrels between the Houfcs of r j"
Lancajler and York ; the fiift of which, had for Device, England.
a Red, and the other a White, Rofe. Thefe Devices are Ha "-
famous for the vaft Torrents of Englijh Blocd, fhed upon tow '
their Account. The Troubles railed by the Duke of
York, feemed entirely SupprcSfed, fince his Reconciliation
with the King ; but they were quickly renewed with fo
much more Fury, as the Englijl) were no longer diverted
by a foreign War. I am going to give as brief an Ac-
count as poflible, of the Events occafioned by the Duke
of York's Pretentions, which ended at length, in the Ruin
of the King, and the whole Houfe of Lancajler.

The Duke of York had renewed his Oath to the Kino- ; The ni?bn
but it was only to free himfelf from the danger, his Im- c f lhr H ' U S"
prudence had thrown him into. He was no Ids refolved LancafterT
to maintain his Pretentions, and take the advantage of
the King's Incapacity, and the People's Difaffedtion for
the Queen and her Minifters. To confider only the
Laws and Cuftoms of the Realm, his Title was indis-
putable. He was defcended from the third Son (7) of
Edward III, whereas, Henry came only from the fourth
Son (8) of the fame Prince. It is true, it was by a
Daughter, but there was no fuch thing in England as the
Salic Law, to exclude him upon that account. On the
contrary, in the Reign of Richard II, Roger Earl of
M?rch, his Grandfather by the Mother's Side, was de-
clared by the Parliament, Prefumptive Heir of the Crown,
in cafe Richard died without IfTue. And even fince the
Houfe of Lancajler was on the Throne, the Parliament,
as was related in the Reign of Henry IV, had confirmed
by a folemn Act, the Right of the Daughters and their
Defendants. And yet, Henry VI, was no Ufurper. It DijBcukia
was now above fifty Years, fince the Houfe of Lancajler 'ftbcDutt
had held the Crown, by the Authority of the Parlia- £ Yo *'*
ment, who fettled it on the Family of Henry IV. So,
the Duke of York could pretend to the Crown, only on
Suppofition, that the Parliament had not power to alter
the Succeffion. For this ReaSon, he could not openly
difcover his Intention, without diredtly attacking the
Privileges of the Parliament, of which the EngliJh'Nati-
on has ever been jealous. Befides, he flood in need of the
Parliament to fucceed in his defign. But how could he
gain the Parliament to his Side, if he offered to queftion
the Validity of their A£tb ? On the other hand, he was
to break through a fifty years PofTeffion, confirmed by the
unanimous Confent of the People, and become flill more
authentick by the glorious Advantages, procured the Na-
tion by the late King Henry V.

Thefe Obftacles were fuffkient to divert the Duke of #,-, Advan.
York from his Enterprize, if, on the other hand, the pre- 'ages.
fent Conjunctures had not encouraged him to purfue it.
Henry was a Prince unable of himfelf, to oppofe the Duke's
Efforts againft him. Though he was not hated by the
People, he was little efteemed. He was looked upon
but as the Shadow of a King, who only lent his Name
to the Queen and his Minifters. Neverthelefi, the Sole
Name oS King, would have been capable to keep the
People in Subjection to thoSe that were at the Helm, had
they not made an ill uSe oS their Power, as is too com-
monly done by thofe, who are in the like Station. But
the Authority uSurped by the Queen, and the Duke of
Somerfet, was not the only Caufe of the Difcontent of the
Englijh. When they confidered, that all the Conquefts of
Henry V, and Guienne it felf, which had been for three
hundred Years, under the Dominion of England, were
loft in a few Years, they could not forbear calling the
Blame upon thoSe, that governed in the King's Name.
Normandy had been taken Srom England, in two Cam-
pains only, under the Duke of Somerfet's Regency, whilft
he was actually on the Spot to defend it. He was ac-
cufed likewife, of having been too hafty in Surrendering
Caen. On the other hand, it was confidered, that du-
ring the Regency of the Duke of Glocejhr, the Affairs of
France were kept upon a tolerable Foot ; and yet, the
Queen to gratify her Pafllon, had difpatched that Prince
out of the Way, in a bafe and violent Manner, and
thereby, been the Occafion of all the fubfequent Loffes.
So, the King was looked upon as a Prince, (incapable of



ilj He was eU-ft S-n by Marmara, the Earl's fecond Wife, Daughter of Richard Bcaucbarr.f, Earl of Warwick, and creued Vifccuit VI .- by
Htn-y VI. The Earl's eldclt Son, by Maud, hi'; nrit Wile, was alio called John, who lucceeded him in his Honcurs. Dugdale's Baron. Vol. I.

■ ! i ■ ' ■

(1) He was buried at rVbitcburcb in Sbnpjbire, where a noble Monument is erefted for him in the South-wall of the Chancel. In his Epitaph
ho ; (Wed, Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord lalhot, Lord Fumiiial, Lord Vcrdm, Lord Strange of Blackmore, and Marfl1.1l of France. lb:d. p. 330. ;/_//,
f..l. 166.

,3 Monftnltl fiys, the Battle wherein the Lord Talbot fell, was fought July 17, fol. 57. But his Epitaph fays it was the 7th. See Dugdale,
p. 330.

(4 He was taken ill at Clarendon in Wiltjkire, where he lay lick a confiderable time, and tbtn was removed to Lond.n. Srcza, p. 397. Hall,
t .1. 167,

(;) According to Hall, and other Hiftorians^ it was on the 13th. fol. 166. Stow, &c.

It irjp Bourchier, Son of William, by Annt Daughter of Thomas ot W'oidfiock, ( lixth Son of Edward III ) was not created Earl of Epx till
J:i>i: 30, 1 Eiho. IV. He was made Vllccunt ill 25 Henry VI. Dugdale 1 Baron, Vol. II p. 129. See ab.ve, p. 536, Note (1); and read
tilere tbiuy iultead of ten.

i7) /.(..•-; Duke of Clerenit. (S) John Duke of La'.cajitr.

retr ievins



Book XII.



15. H E N R Y VI.



579



1453. retrieving the Honour of the Nation, and reftoring the liamcnt was farther prorogued to the 15th of March, 1453.

• Affairs of the Kingdom to a flourifhing State ; the Queen to give the Duke of York and his Friends time to concert

as too well affected to France, and grafting at the whole Meafures with the Members. Two Days before the meet- ,

Authority in England ; and the Duke of Somerfet as a ing of the Parliament, the Council impowered the Duke TkeVuit'

greedy Minifter, who fought only to enrich himfelf at the of York to hold it in the King's Name. In the betin- '/Yoikh

Expence of the Publick. It was farther, and loudly com- ning of the Seffion, the Commons fent to the Houfe of ™£ Pr °'

plained, that to preferve his Authority, the Duke filled the Lords an Accufation againft the Duke of Somerfet, for Aft. Pub.

higheft Pofls with his Creatures, without any Regard to fuffering Normandy to be loft, during his Regency, and Xl P.34 6 -

their Merit and Parts. This laft Article made a deep by his Fault. April the zd, the Great-Seal was give',; to Ab.w"' 1

Imprcffion on the Minds of the People. They could not, the Earl of Salisbury. Next day, the Parliament appoin-

without Indignation, fee the Council filled with vicious ted the Duke of York, Protestor of the Realm, Deftndei

Perfons, and all the Places of the Kingdom poffeffed by of the Church, and firfl Counfellor of the King ; with this

Men of no Principles. This gave occafion to fufpect, Limitation, till the young Prince Edwutd the Kind's Son

that the Queen's and Miniftry's Aim, was to hinder Re- was of Age, to exercife that high Office. Hence it ap-

ligion, Honour, Virtue, Love of one's Country, from in- pears, firft, that it was believed, the King's Indifpcjition

ilucing thofe, that were in the publick Ports, to oppofe would laft as long as he lived, and that it affected his

the Abufes and Diforders, fpread over the Kingdom. Underfianding more than his Body. In the next place

This Difpofition of the People gave the Duke of York by referving this Office for a Child of fix Months, who

fo great Advantages, that he thought, he fhould improve was to exercife it when of Age, the Parliament fhowed

them, not by acting directly for himfelf, but under co- their Intention to preferve entire, the Rights of the Houfe

lour of procuring the Good of the People, in obliging of Lanca/ler, though the Duke of York was declared Pro-

the King to make ufe of other Minders. He knew, if tector. Genetaliy, on thefe occafions, there is too much

he could remove his Enemies from the Council, and in- or too little done, and from thence, fpring Civil Wars.

troduce his Creatxires, it would not be difficult to purfue If the Parliament had openly declared againft the Houfe

the Execution of his Defigns. of Lancafler, very likely, at fuch a Juncture, it would

The Ejrlof An undertaking of this Nature could not be accom- have found but few Friends. On the other hand, if in-

Silisbury plifhed, without the Affiftance of Friends ; and therefore, ftead of placing the Duke of York fo near the Throne,

"."".', he ingaged feveral Lords in his Plot, fome under colour care had been taken to check his Ambition, which was

Fnenj, r,f of turning out the Duke of Somerfet, who was generally but too manifeft, doubtlefs, he would have loft many of

the Duh of hated and envied ; others, by difcovering to them his his Adherents, and perhaps, the Civil War, which laid

Xi"u' moft fecret Ptirpofcs. Among thefe laft, the two Nevih, wafte the Kingdom, been avoided. But it is very hard

Father and Son, were the Principal. The Father, who for a Parliament at fuch Junctures to act with Freedom,

bore the Title of Eail of Salisbury, was eminent for his and according to Reafon and Equity
Virtues and confummate Prudence. The Earl of War-
wick his Son, was univerfally cfteemed for his Valour, and
adored by the People for his ingaging Behaviour (1). He
knew how to carry himfelf fo well, that he feemed to
have folely in View, the Welfare and Glory of the Na-
tion (2). Hitherto, he had affected, between the two

Parties, a Neutrality, which by rendering him agreeable to fair Was fuffered to lye dormant, and feemingly unregar

the People, had taken from the Minifters, not only all ded, all the reft of the Year. Probably, the Evidences

pretence of deftroying him, but even all occafion of fuf- againft him appeared infufficient.



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