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9ScD»fco/"pe£ting him. Thefe two Lords, with fome others, con- In the beginning af the Year 1455, the King finding 14?;.

York con- jiilting with the Duke ai York, concerning the Means to himfelf fomething recovered of his long Illnefs, the Au- "&>* King

iis'friad,,' accorftplifti his Project, agreed, it was not yet time to thority conferred on the Duke of York ceafed of courfe, "-." "

difcover his Intention ; that, on the contrary, he fhould fince it was wholly founded on the King's Inabilir, , By Stow.

behave very fubniiiTively to the King, in order to efface reafon of his Indifpofition, to govern the Kingdom him-

the ill Impreffions, his former Conduct might have made felf. The Duke of York's Matters were not fufficiently

The Duke of York having all the Power in his own <"JCcw-
Hands, removed the Duke of Scmerfet, who was ftill in V*°'
the Tower, from the Government of Calais, and by the Aft. Pub.
King's Letters Patent, placed himfelf in his Room. xl • P- 3 5 ■ »
Every one imagined, the Accufation againft the imprifon- 3i9-
ed Duke would be vigoroufly profecuted. But the Af-

in the People. The Franknefs wherewith he had disban-
ded his Troops, and his new Oath to the King, were
exceeding proper to inftill a Belief, that he had no ill

ripe, to enable him to difpute with the King, the Right
of refuming his Authority, though it was in effect, onlv
to replace it in the Hands of the Queen. The firft Effect The Duh of
of this Change, was the Duke of Samerfefs Relcr.fe. On So™""" "
Advice ^ ne Parliament had been fummoned to Reading, but the 5th of February the Duke of Buckingham, the Earl Aft Pub

pven ih by reafon of the King's rclapfc, it was adjourned to Wefi- of Wiltjhire (4), and two Knights (5), offering to be his XL p. 361.
Sfuimatti rninfler, for February the 14th (3). In this Interval, the Pledges, their offer was accepted, and the Govemot.r of Ha "-
maCetfir'- -Duke of York's private Friends, who pretended to be of the Tower was ordered to releafe the Prifoner. A Month Stow "

tbtir Ruin.

the Court Party, intimated to the Queen, and the Duke after, thefe Lords were difcharged from their Sureties,
of Somerfet, that in the prefent Difpofition of the People, without any Sentence intervening. As the Duke was ap

it was to be feared, the Parliament would come to very
difagreeahle Refolutions : That whilft the King was in
Health, they could act in his Name, becaufe all Orders
were fuppofed to iffue from him ; but that the Cafe was
not the fame, during his Sicknefs : That their Authority
being wholly grounded upon the King's Will, there was
reafon to fear, that the Royal Will no longer appear-
ing, the Parliament would nominate other Governours :
That therefore, it was proper to admit into the Council

prehended by Order of Council, it was fuppofed, he could
be releafed by the fame Authority. But there was much
to be faid againft this Suppofition. The Impeachment of
the Houfe of Commons fince intervening, it could not be
pretended, that the King had Power to releafe him before
he was legally acquitted. However, the Court had no
regard to this Reafon. After the King had refumed the
Government, the Duke of York, and his Party, had no
longer any Credit in the Council, where the Queen, and

the Duke of York, the two Nevils, and fome other of the the Duke of Somerfet, bore an abfolute Sway. So pr;

moft popular Lords, in order to fhow, that thofe who
governed, did not feek to ingrofs all the Power. This
Advice was built upon fuch plautible Reafons, that the
Queen and the Favorite could not help falling into the
Snare. So, the Duke of York, the two Nevih, and fome
others of their Cabal, were called to the Council before
the Parliament met. They were no fooner admitted,
but they became Superior, fo that thofe, who before ma-
naged all, had no longer any Credit.

valent was the King's bare Name to give a new Turn to

Mean while, fome of the moft prudent Lords, dread- jbt Duh cf
ing the ill Confequences of the Quarrel between the two York *ai
Dukes, endeavoured to reconcile them. It was the Interert ^"f'^"
of both to fhow, that they acted not from ambitious Arbi
Motives ; for their Aim was to gain the People. Where- A& - Pub -
fore, they both confented to chufe Arbitrators, and fub- ' r ' z 3 "
mit to their Decifion, under Penalty, for him that re-

IheDulcof The firft notable Step of thefe new Counfellors, was to fufed, of paying to the other twenty thoufand Marks,
arreft the Duke of Somerfet in the Queen's Bed-cham- But it was on condition, that the Sentence of the Ar-
ber, and fend him to the Tower. Mean while, the Par- bitrators fhould be pronounced before the zoth of June.

Jrtt tj the


(11 Hs'l fays cf rrm, That by reafon of his engaging Behaviour, and of his Liberality and goid Hotife-keep'ng, " He was ; n tech favor and
" eftirnacicn, emengeftc the ci mmori p.-, pic, that thei juaged hym able to do all thynges, and without hym, nothing to be well dotn. " fol. 167.

\%) This is he that was commonly cal.ed, :be ficut Earl of IVarwiik.

(3) Th s Parliament firft met at Raiding on i-.arcb 6. 1452 ; and en the rSth, w»s prorogued to the 2cth cf Af"', »t JPtflmiirfttr, where it
alTembled accord ngly j from whence, on July 2, it was prorogued to November 7, at Reading • and from the r ce to February II. '453, at //

minjltr : But notwithstanding, it appears that it then met at Reading, whence it was adjourned to Wejlmmjlcr for Ieb. 14 In Sfcm,

the Commons granted the King one Tenth and a half, and one Fifteenth and a half $ Tunnage and P.ur.daee durir.g Lile ; ihe Subficy of Wa !>,
-,,-.. twenty three Shillings and Four-pence fcr every Sack, of Denizens; and five Pounds of Aliens ; and fo of other Staple-ware in ] portion. They
»lfn granted the King, of every Merchant not born within the Realm, who was no Denizen, and kept Houl'e, forty Shillings fer Aitmtbt : And of
every fuch Merchant as fhall remain within the Realm but fix Weeks, twenty Shillings: And of every Merchant- Alien, being no Der.iien, fix Pounds
thirteen shillings 3nd Four-pence yearly, during the King's Life. Cotton's Abridg. p. 649, 650.

;. r , James Boteler or Butler, Son of James, the fourth Duke of Ormand in Ireland, was created Earl of Wltp::rl, 27 Hen. V , ;nd was new alfo
by h s Father's Death Duke of Orrr.md. Dugdale.

(5, Sir -ibomas de Rns, and Sir Wtllum de Fmwaren. Ryntr's Tad, Tom. II. p. 361,


5 8o



Whilft People were in Expectation of this Sentence,
-rbWuk'c of the Duke of Somerfet reprefented to the King, that he
York r,. was reBlove d f r om the Government of Calais, upon a bare
7b7a£Z- Accufation, that was never determined ; and it was not

snent of





An. Tub;

He retires
into Wales
and raifes

an Army.





juft, his Adverfary fhouid remain cloathed with his Spoils,
fince their Difference was not yet decided. Upon this
Remonllrance, the King took from the Duke of York, the
Government, he had conferred on him for feven Years.
Then under colour of obferving a perfect Neutrality be-
tween the two Rivals, he declared himfelf Governor of
Calms. In the Act, whereby the Duke of York was re-
50. p. 363. moved, ft was faid to be done, at the Duke's own Re-
queft. But the Duke taking it as a heinous Affront, with-
drew from Court, where he found his Affairs began to be
in an ill Situation.

He retired into Wales, not only to fcreen himfelf from
the Attempts of his Enemies, but with defign to levy an
Army, and have it in his Power to attack them. He
was very fenfible, the Queen and the Duke of Somerfet
being abfolute Matters of the King's Perfon, had an ad-
vantage, of which, nothing but Force could deprive them.
So, without farther Coniideration, he refolved to take
Arms. The Court's Proceedings in releafing the Duke
of Somerfet, without giving the Nation any Satisfaction,
made him imagine, he mould be ftrongly fupported, when
be came to uie that Pretence. He was not deceived in
his Expectations. In a fhort Space, he faw himfelf at the
Head of a numerous Army ( 1 ), and in condition to make
head againft the King, who had likewife prepared him-
felf, and was marching directly towards him to give him
Battle. The two Armies met near St. Albans, on a level
Ground, where nothing hindered their ingaging. The
Duke of York, to fhow, he had taken Arms folely for the
Good of the Publick, fent and offered the King to difmifs
his Troops, if the Duke of Somerfet was delivered to
Juftice, to be condemned if Guilty, or acquitted if Inno-
cent. But the Court knowing, this to be only a vain
Pretence, and that one time or other, the Quarrel mult
be decided by Arms, rejected the offer, and the Battle
was fought the 31ft of May (2).

The Earl of Warwick, who commanded the Duke of
Battle of St. York's Vanguard, expecting this Anfwer, attacked the
King's Army, whilft the Court was waiting for new
Propofals from the Male-Contents. This Attack, which
was as vigorous as fudden, put the Royal Army into fuch
a diforder, that it was not in the Duke of Simerfei's Power
to repair it. At the fame time, the Duke of York im-
proving this Advantage, advanced likewife from his Quar-
fiated, and ter, not to give the Enemies time to recover themfelves.
bomcrfet ^ e P re ff e d them fo briskly, that the Royal Army was de-
jlatn. feated in few Moments, with lofs of five thoufand Men (3),

Stow. without making any confiderable Refiftance. The Duke

of Somerfet was killed on the Spot, with the Earl of Nor-
thumberland (4), the Earl of Stafford, eldeft Son of the
Duke of Buckingham, the Lord Clifford, and feveral other
Lords and Officers of Note (5), all firmly attached to
the Houfe of Lancajler. The Duke of Buckingham re-
ceiving a Wound, retired out of the Battle (6), and by
his retreat, completed the diforder among the King's
ne Kin Mean time, the King, who was wounded in the Neck

far,, imo the with an Arrow, feeing himfelf deferted in the Rout of his
Hands of the Army, retired to a little Houfe, which was prefently in-
yorifc/Ci. veiled. The Duke of York having notice of it, ported
treat: ' bim thither with the Earl of Salisbury, and prefenting them-
witbRcfpeil. felves before him on their Knees, told him, fince the pub-
lick Enemy was dead, he faw none there but Perfons ready
to obey him in whatever he mould pleafe to command
them. The King, upon thefe Words, recovering a little
from his Fright, caufed by the Duke's Approach, intreated
him, for God's fake, to put a flop to the Slaughter, allu-
ring him, he was ready to give him all the Satisfaction he
could reafonably defire. Whereupon, the Duke ordered a

tie f,Jt


The King's

Army is de


Retreat to be founded; and die Army enioined to feed no 1455,
more Blood. Then, he conducted the King to St. Al-
bans, from whence they returned together to London (7).

Shortly after, Henry called a Parliament, which met in The Pari;*.
July (8). The King being then relapfed, the Duke of ""?"'
York was commiflioned to hold it in his Name. The Par- Abridg.'
liament, which, at fuch a Juncture, could fcarce be com- Hal1 *
pofed of any but the Duke of York's Adherents, made the Stow "
following Declaration. " That the Government had been tndem-
" ill-managed by the Queen, and the Duke of Somerfet, i""*,'** .
" who had abufed the King's Goodnefs and Confidence : j^-rfrt'j
" That the late Duke of Glocejler had been uniuftlv ac- Managt-
" cufed : That all the Alienations of the Crown-lands ^XfieVi,
" made fince the firft Year of the prefent Reign, fhouid Dull of
" be revoked : That the Duke of York, the Eatls of Salts- Yorlc -
" bury and Warwick, or any that had lifted under their
" Banners, were not guilty of Rebellion in taking Arms
" againft the King, fince it was neceflary to free his Per-
" fon from Captivity : That, on the contrary, the Blame
" was to be laid on the Duke of Somerfet and his Adhe-
" rents, who concealed from the King, the Duke of York's
" Letter, which might have prevented thefe Diforders."
Then, the Parliament petitioned the King to nominate a „, Kir ■
Protector, became of his Indifpofition, which hindered petitioned »
him from attending to the Affairs of the Publick. "This""™" 1
Petition was repeated feveral times (9), without the King's ""' ir '
returning an Anfwer. Not that he had refolved to reject
it. He was no more at Liberty to follow his own Coun-
cils, than when he was under the Guardianfhip of the
Queen, and the Duke of Somerfet. But the Duke of York
had a mind this Nomination fhouid not appear forced. At The ParV.a-
length, the Parliament being prorogued to the 1 zth of No- «o*«»f«-
vember, on the very Day, the King figned a Patent where- r °^"' '
in he faid, That having been frequently petitioned by his The King
Parliament to nominate a Protector, he appointed the ™*-" ; "
Duke of York for that important Employ, till he fhouid York /'«-
be removed by the Parliament, or the young Prince of teBer.
IVales capable of exercifing it (10). Then, after a Month's Art - 1>ul '"
Seflion, the Parliament was prorogued to the 14th of fa- „' f' 3 ''

Whilft the Duke of York thus enjoyed the Advantage i 4 c6.
he had gained upon his Enemies, thefe were not idle. The Prejefla-
Queen, who knew his defigns, was too much concerned, £'""J' < bt
as well for her own, as the King's, and her Son's fake, ymk. '
not to try to difappoint them. Henry Duke of Scmerfet ( 1 1), Hal •
Son of him (lain at St. Albans, and the Duke of Bucking-
ham, were equally defirous of revenging, the one his Son's,
the other his Father's Death. In fine, all the Princes and
Lords allied to the Houfe of Lancajler, or attached to its
Intereft , feeing the Duke of York taking large Steps to-
wards the Throne, were prepared to ufe their utmoft En-
deavours to flop his Progrefs. Mean while, the Duke of Hrs r,v M .
York lived in a Security which aftonifhed his very Ene- eirnednrfi
mies. He perceived, it would be very dangerous, openlv %?!%?''

r • /". 1-111! T - P f 1- ■ **' .<*"«'

to afpire to a Crown, which had been ]• irty-fix 1 ears in
the Houfe of Lancajler. Wherefore he chofe to wait, till
time fhouid produce a favorable opportunity to profecute his
Right. Above all things, he wanted to gain the People's
Affection, without which he was fatisfied, all his Endea-
vours would be fruitlefs. So, to demonftrate, he was not
fwayed by Paffion or Intereft, he left the King and Queen
at full Liberty. He imagined, it was not in their Power
to deprive him of the Protectorfhip, which, according to
his Patent, he was to enjoy till removed by the Parliament.
But he had to deal with an able and enterprifing Prin-
cefs, who was not difcouraged at the Obftacles me met in
her way.

The King being recovered, the Duke of York's Ene- =n t gj„
mies refolved to improve this Juncture, to divert him of rtsners.
his Dignity of Protector, which gave him fo great a
Power. It woidd have been eafy for him to forefce, the
Pretence of the King's Recovery might be ufed, as it was
once before, if he had not been blinded by the Claufe in

(1) About two thoufand Men. Among which were, Edmund Beaufort Duke of Somerfet, Humphrey Stafford Duke of Buckingham, and the Earl
of Staffed his eldeft Son, Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland, James Butler Earl of Wiltfhire and 'Ormond. John Beaufort Earl of Dorfct, Ja is r
•Ttudor Earl of Pembroke, Iboma: Lord Clifford, the Lords Sudley, Barns, Rojfe . and others. They fet out from Wcftminller, May 20 or 2.1, came to
Watfrd that Night, and the next Day to St. Albans. The King fet up his Standard in a place called Gofelmv, or Sandiford, in St. Piter's S •
In the mean time, the Duke of York lay encamped in Keye-field, having with him John Mowbray Duke ot Norfolk, Richard Nevil Earl or .
bury, Richard Earl of War-wick, W:lli.im Lord Fauconbridge, Edward Lord Cobbam, Sec. and nor above three thoufand Men. Before rhey carr; ■ to
an Engagement, Propofals tor an Accommodation palTed between the King and the Duke, but to no purnjfe. Hall, fol. 16S. Srow, p. »o8, iqq,
Hollmgfbtad, p. 12-87, «*SS. " *

(2) All Hiftorians lay, it was on the 23d. See Hall, fol. 16S. Holl:ngf,;ead, p. 128S. Bird,, p. i6«r", &e>

(3) So lays Stow, p. 400. Hill hath above eight thoufand, fol. 168. But Hollingjbead, with great probability thinks, it Ihsultt be but eight
hundred, p. 1288. There were fix hundred llain on the Duke -f fork's Side. Stow, p. 400.

(4) Henry Percy, Son of Hotfpur, by the eldeft Daughter of Edmund Mortimer Earl ot March: H; left HTue nine Sons, (of whom Henry, then
thirty thre« Years of Age, fucceeded him ) and two Daughters. Dugdale's Baron. Vol. J. p. 18 1.

(5) Of whom forty eight were buried in the Abbey of St. Albans. Stow, p. 400. Hail, fol, 16S.

(6) As did alfo Tbomas Tborp, Chief-Baron of the Exchequer. Stow, p. 400.

(7) The next Day. Ibid.

(S) July ci, at WeHminfter In this Parliament it was enafted. That whereas there were fourfcore Artomies or more, in the Counties «f Nor

folk, Suffolk, and the City of Norwich • moft of whom had no other thing 10 live upon out [heir Praiticc, and the major I art were nor. of YurTY.
knowledge ; That therefore from henceforth, there mould be but fix common Attornies in the Count)- of Norfolk, tsc lUme Number in the County •:.-
Sufflk, and two in the City of Norwich, upon pain of forleiting twenty Pout.d . Statute. 33 Hen. VJ, c. 7.

(9) On the r 3th, 15th, and 17th of November. Cotton's Abridg. p. 65S.

(10 A Salary of four thoufand Marks was allowed the Duke, for his Office of Protcflor. Ibid,

(11) He bore the Title of Earl of Mortagne in bit F.,'.htr'» L-fr-t-rae. S;r N^re p. sj;.

Eook XII.




I 1

WJI I from

fret., it.

AP - Pub.
XI. p. 373-

eiravjt from


lb p- 3?S.

Sedition at





takes tie
King into



Sir tries ti

draw the
three h'.rds
to Court.

A&. Pub.
XI. p. 401,

7K-\' are lit,
to be in-

But upon
mti 1 ' the
Queen's De-

J': "< ttty




The French
invade the

Coa/is of
Enj I n,d.
P. Daniel.

his r.itcnt. But tliis Claufe whereon he relied, was a
weetk Fence againfl the Attempts of his Enemies. The
Parliament being re-affcmbled, the King went in Perfon
and declared, that being, by God's Grace, in good Health,
and able to rcfume the Reins of the Government, he did
not think the Kingdom any longer wanted a Protector.
Then he defired the Parliament to confent, that the Duke
of Tori might be difmiffed from that Office. Whether the
Parliament thought the King's Demand reafonable, or the
Members had been gained unknown to the Duke, it was
immediately refolved, to grant the King's Requeft. The
fame Day (ij the King fent the Duke an Order to refign
the Office of Protector.

The Duke of Tori and his Party were amazxd at this
Proceeding. They cafily perceived the Combination was
too ftrong to be broken. So, making, as it is faid, a Vir-
tue of Neceffity, they feigned patiently to fubmit to the
King's and the Parliament's Orders. However, under co-
lour of having no farther Bufinefs at Court, they retired
into the Country. But the Duke of Tori, and the Ear Is
of Salisbury (2) and H'arwick, kept within diftance of each
other in York/hire.

Shortly after (3) there was a Sedition at London, occa-
fioned by a fuddtn Quarrel between two Merchants, one
an Engli/hman,- and the other an Italian (\). The Mob
rifing in favour of the Englijhman, the King impowered
the Dukes of Extler and Buciinghnm to bring the Guilty
to a Trial ; but the Populace would not fuffer them to
execute their Commiffion. The Queen fufpecting this
Tumult to be raifed by the Duke of Tori's Adherents,
and not thinking the King fafe at London, carried him to
Coventry, under colour of taking the Air. But befides
this, (he had another Motive of no lefs Importance :
And that was, to infnare at once the Duke of Tori, and
the two Earls his Friends, who were all three retired into
the North. She was informed, that though they were fe-
parated in appearance, they had, on divers Pretences, fre-
quent Conferences together, at which feveral other Lords
of their Party were prefent. As fhe could not doubt, it
was to concert Meafures againft the King, fhe believed fhe
fhould have them in her Power, if fhe could draw them to
Coventry, where they would not find the fame Protection
r as at London. To that end, fhe fent them Letters under
the King's own hand (5), requiring their Prefence at Court,
where their Advice was wanted, in an Affair of the utmott

The Duke of Tori had not yet done any thing openly,
which fhewed, that he afpired to the Crown. This was a
Secret between him and his principal Friends. It is very
true, the Court was perfuaded of it, but it was not pof-
fiblc to convict him. Hitherto he had varnifhed his Acti-
ons with the Good of the Publick, and for that very rea-
fon was formidable to the Court. But though it was not
eafy to condemn him legallv, he could not be ignorant,
there were fpeedier and more certain ways to difpatch him,
and that his Enemies were not over-fcrupulous. Befides,
though he had artfully concealed his Deiigns from the Peo-
ple, he could not think of deceiving the Queen, who was
too much concerned not to difcover them. Notwithstand-
ing thefe Confiderations, which fhould have created a Jea-
loufy in the three Lords who had received the King's Let-
ters, they refolved to go to him. They flattered them-
felves , that Henry being at length fenlible of the Mifma-
nagement of the Queen and the Miniftry, required their
Affiftance, in making fome Alterations at Court. But
whilft they were on the Road to Coventry, their private
Emillaries undeceived them, by warning them of their
Danger. This Advice cauiing them to take other mea-
fures, they thought proper to fepa rate. The Duke of Tori
withdrew to his Caftle of Wigmbre, in the Marches of
Wales ; and the Earl of Salisbury to his Seat [at Aiiddle-
harn] in Torijhire (6) ; as for the Earl of Warwick, he
went directly to Calais, of which he was made Governor
after the Battle of St. Allans. The Queen was extremely
vexed at this difappointment, but her Comfort was, fhe
had feparated the three Lords, and fo rendeied them lefs
formidable to her.

The Fears and Jealoufies of both Paities were a little


interrupted during the Year 14;;, by foreign AfTa'.-s. A3 14—.
the Englijh had formerly improved the Difienfionsin France, MomWeltfJ
to make Conquefts upon that Kingdom, Charles VII
thought he fhould not neglect the Advantages, which the
Quarrels of the Englijh Court feemed to offer him. For
that purpofe, he prepared two Fleets which were to invade
England, in two different Quarters. The firfl failing to the
Downs, plundered the Town of Sandv. ich (y). T he other
ferved [Foy] a little Town of Cornwall, in the fame man-
ner. But this was all they did worth remarking. Pro-
bably, they were too ill provided to venture upon more
important Attempts. So, it was properly but a kind of
Bravado, to infult the Engl ' : jl> in their own' Country, after
their cxpulfion out of France.

About the fame time the Scots made likewifc an Inroad 77 <v ...
Into the northern Counties, and carried away fomc Boot] .
Indeed, there was a Truce concluded in 1453, between p 4 "*^"
England and Scotland, till the 21ft of May this Year, on IctPub.
condition, that when this Term was expired, which ever xl - ?■ V-:-
of the two King's intended to renew the War, he fhould
give the other one hundred and eiqhty days notice. But
fo many outrages had been committed on both Sides, time
neithet Party thought themfelves obliged to obferve the
Treaty. The very laft Year, the two Kings had fent eadi p.
other abufive Letters, full of Haughtinefs and Contempt.
However, whether theoYsrr intended only to revenge fome n mrl .
particular Injury, or for fome other Reafon, the Truce was " ev " J *""'*
renewed from the 6th of July this Year, to that day Twelve- Sc \ l l"' ui '
month, Hs'9, and aftei wards prolonged to the 6th of
July 14.6}.

The Affairs with the foreign Enemies being ended, do- , .. g
meftick Quarrels were going to be renewed, if fome peace- The two '
ful Perfons had not ufed their Endeavours, to prevent the ftrtits ar t

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 245 of 360)