M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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fatal Confequcnces of thefe Divifions. It was eafy to fee, ""~"'?l
that the two Parties, in deciding their Quarrel by Arms,
could not but ruin the Kingdom, and occafion in the end
fome fad Revolution. Neither Party was fo fuperior, as
to promife themfelves certain Victory. Succefs depended
on the Events of the War, too doubtlul for either to found
any reafonable hopes upon. The Duke of Tori was fen-
fible, it was no eafy thing to difpoflefs by Force, a King
that had been on the Throne thirty five Years. The
truth is, Henry was .little efteemed by his Subjects, on
account of his Incapacity ; but he gained their Affection by
his innocent Life, and good Intentions, though ill-fupport-
ed by his flender Abilities. On the other hand , the
Queen, the new Duke of Somerfet, who held the late
Duke his Father's Port, the reft of the Miniftry, and the
whole Houfe of Lancajler, were in a very tottering State.
The French and Scots took Advantage of thefe Quarrels to Hall,
invade the Kingdom, and all the Mifcarriages were laid
upon thole who governed in the King's Name. The
Court faw plainly, the Duke of Tori ufed this pretence to
ftir up the People againft them. Though hitherto he had
not made all the Progrefs, he could have wifhed, he faw
himfelf, however, able very foon, to make a much more
confiderable. Thefe Rcafons, added to the Kind's In-
ftances to adjuft thefe Differences, moved the Queen and
the Duke of Somerfet, at length to fend the Duke of Tori
an Offer of a hncere Reconciliation. This firft Step beingHaJl,
taken, the King defired the Duke of Tori and his Friends tow.
to repair to London, a Place by them unfufpecteJ, in order f^ ""^
to endeavour an Agreement. He writ them a Letter with
his own Hand, promifing upon his Salvation, he would
do them no Injury, and that his Intention was fincere.

Such an Invitation could not be rejected, without openly
declaring himfelf, which the Duke of Tori was willing to
avoid. So, the Lords of his Party refolved to accept it.
They were jealous however of the Queen, who, on her
Part, had as little Confidence in them. It may be, they
were both equally in the right. Very likely, each Party
hoped to reap fome Advantage from this Proceeding, with-
out intending however to alter their firft Projects. Mean Hall,
while, to remove all Fears, it was agreed, that both Parties
might be attended with a certain Number of armed Fol-
lowers. Nay, the King gave the Eatl of IVarv/uk- Leave,
who was to come from Calais, to bring with him four
and twenty Foreigners, befides Englijli (8).

(1) February 25. Rjmcr's Fad. Torn. XI. p. 370.

(2) He wa> made Chancellor, at the lametime that the Duke of Fork was appointed Protector, but they were bub. deprived of their Offices at the lame
time. Hat/, fol. 160. Stow, p. 400, 401.

(;) In May.

(4) The Ground and Rife of this Quarrel was thus : An Ervtijh Merchant's Servant thet had formerly been in Italy, ard blamed, or pun-flud for wear-
ing a Dagger at his Girdle, meeting an Italian Merchant's Servant with one in CheapJiJe, qucftionrd him abcut it ; and words ar.'ing, < lie Englift. man :nateh-d
the Da r ger from the Italian, and broke :t about his Head. Whereupon a great Tumu.t entiling, the Meb riricd the H ufet ol ..v.ral Italian Merchants J
tut three weie executed (or this Riot- Fabian. Stew, p. 401. Hall, tol. ificy J;o. He calls thtm Merchants.
(-,) Under the Privy-Seal. Hill, fol. 171.

This Lneetfhip came to the Net its by Mary, Dat:g hf 1 ard Coheir to Falph Fitz-Randulpb, Lad of IrfidtUtbttn, who was married to Rebel t di .Vex//,
one of the Ancestors of the Earl ci Salisbury "Tins Robert dt Nevt , frequenting the Company ot a certain Ledy in Craven in an adulterous Manner, Was
1 1 1 izt'd by the Lady's Husband, who in revenge cut oft his Genitals, which threw ham into juch excemve Grief, that he died, June 6. 2271, 55 htr.ry III.
■ ■'' Baron, vol. I. p 29:.
(7) They landed there Augujl :3, with frur ihoufand Men. P. Daniel. Tom. VI. p. 292.

(SI He brought with him fix hundred Men in red Coats, embroidered with white ragged Staves before and behind. The Earl cf Salisbury brought five
hundred. The Duke of T.ri four hundred. The Dukes of S 1 • mAExcta eight hundred. The Earl of A/artiumber/tml, lie Lords Bgraxant and
- dred. St to, p. 403.

"No. XXX. Vol. I. 7 H Every

5 3 2

The 111 STO RT of EN G LAND.

Vol I.


I4C8. Every thing being 'thus fettled, the Lords of both Par-
ties came to Lonlm in January ; but the Earl of War-
Hoir.rrgfh. tvlck arrived not till February. They were lodged in
two diffeient Quarters ( i ), to avoid the Dilorders which
their being together might occafion. The Mayor of Lon-
don (z) rode every Night round the City with his Train-
bands, to the Number of ten Thoufand. The King and
Oueen entered the City the :7th of March, and lodged
irT~the Biihop's Palace, at an equal diftance from both
Parties. . -

Mediators being chofen with unanimous Confent, fuch

was the difpofition of both Sides, that en the 3d of April

a Reconciliation was made (3) to the common Satisfaction

of the King, the Queen, the Parties concerned, and the

Boiling*.. Whole Kingdom. The Subftance of the Agreement was,

Sicw. that, all Animofity being laid afide, the Lords mould live

together in Peace and Concord, and in perfect Obedience

TbiDuieof to°the King's Commands. But to avoid all occafion ot

York and Complaint," it was agreed, that the Duke of York, the

taMtZd Earls of Salisbury and Warwick, withjome others ofthat

into the

Party, fhould be admitted into the Council (4). Then
the 5th of April was appointed for a publick Thankfgiv-
clff™. "' ing-Day, for this Reconciliation, by a folemn PiocefTion to
St. PWs Church (5'


The King and Queen, and all the
S"n- n Lords weieprefentV'and walked two and two, one of each
H " % "" Party, in token of a perfect Union (6). The Duke of

York k<i the Queen by the Hand, who publickly gave him

Marks of Confidence and Efteem.
The Duh of It appeared however foon after, that this Confidence, of
York and wn ich fo great fhew was made on both Sides, was far from

beino- reftored. The Duke of York and his two principal

his Friends
retire from

C<*rt. Friends, always fearing lome Treachery from their recon-

ciled Enemies, withdrew from Court on divers Pretences.
The Duke and the Earl of Salisbury went to York, and
the Eail of Warwick to his Government of Calais. The
The Earl of Englijh Hiftorians fay, this Earl being Admiral of the
Warwick Channel, equipped fourteen Ships, to give chace to fome

"'v Tflnin Spanijh Corfairs, who infefted the narrow Seas, and meet-
>,/.,. '"'" ing them, funk feveral, and brought fix to Calais. But
AQ Pub probably they were miftaken, fince the ColUEtion of the
Xi.p.406, Publick Ads gives us quite another Idea of this Affair. It is
4'5- true, we find there Complaints fiom the Republicks ol Ge-

noa and Lubcck to the King againft the Earl of Warwick,
and that the King appointed Commiflioners to take Infor-
mations. But in this Commiflion there is no mention of
Me erne a Spani/h Ships. It even appears, that this Engagement was
England u occafioncd by an accidental Quarrel between the Ships of
jujhfy what Q moa zn dLubeck, and thofe which were conveying the
ie lad done. ^ ^ jpr arw ; c ]> with his Retinue to Calais. This does
not fhew they were Pyrates, or that the Earl of Warwick
attacked them defignedly, Be this as it will, upon this
Complaint he was forced to return to England to anfwer
for himfelf, and ftaid fix or feven Weeks.
Quarrel he Whilft the Earl was at London, it happened one day,
iw«» ii'iWwhilft he was prefent at the Council, one of his People
the King's quarrelled with a Servant of the King's, and wounded
hX"'* ™ m : Whereupon the reft of the King's Domefticks arm-
Stow, ing themfelves, fome with Swords, others with Clubs or
other Weapons, ran to revenge their Comrade. As they
could not find the Aggreffor, they fell upon the left of the
Earl of Warwick's Retinue. In ihort, They even aflault-
tacie'ani ea his Peifon, as he was coming out of the Council to go
hardly to his Barge, which waited for him on the Thames. The
tfcafa. Afiault was fo violent, that he very hardly efcaped to his
Barge, after feeing feveral of his People killed on the fpot.
He did not doubt this was a Contrivance of the Queen to
., , .difpatch him, without appearing to be concerned. He was

lit :s ordered r . > . _ . ." P . , . . „. ,

to he feized. confirmed in his Opinion, when he heard the King had
Hall. ordered him to be arrefted and fent to the Tower. He had

notice timely enough to difappoint thofe who were fent to
arreft him. It is very difficult to decide, whether the
Queen contrived this Quarrel to difpatch him, or whether
it happened by Accident. However this be, the Order to
apprehend him, though he himfelf had reafon to complain,
made him fenfible, he fhould never be more fecured from

the Plots of his Enemies, than by attacking them with 1458,
open Force. With a Mind full of Refentment at this H ' «*«
Affront, he went to the Earl of Salisbury his Father ; and ""^l"l is
without delay, they repaired together to the Duke of York, Fatter aid
to confult what was to be done in this Juncture. From'*/ Duu j
what had lately palled, they concluded, the Reconciliation J
at London was only a Snare to furprize them the more ealily,
and deftroy them one after another. Perhaps they were
not forry for having this Excufe to juftify their Refolution
of ailing openly, as not being able to rely any more on the
Promifes of the Court. Purfuant to this Project, the Earl jj e rtluril ,
of Warwick fpeedily returned to CaLis to fecure that Place, to Calais,
not queliioning that there was a defign to take it from Ha " -

Mean while, the Duke of York and the Earl of Sails- 1459.
bury took meafures to execute their Projects. They The /■.«. nf
agreed, whilft the Duke was levying an Army in Wales, ' 2 ' hMy
the Earl fhould advance towards London at the head of five [, a ,d u n -
or fix thoufand Men (7), and openly demand Satisfaction ienwtthan
for the Injury done to his Son. As this Defign could not.d""-^' ,
be executed without the Queen's Knowledge, the Lord Audlcy «
Audley (%) was commiffioned to raife Troops (9), and oppofe;'" againft
the Earl of Salisbury ( to). Audlcy made fuch difpatch, that „",',
in a veiy fhort _time he was at the head of ten thoufand sto*.
Men, and in condition to march towards Lancajlnrc, thro'i-ioilingin.
which the Earl of Salisbury was to pafs. But he found the
Earl was already advanced as far as Shropjhire, where the
two Armies met. The Earl of Salisbury, though but half The Battle cf
as ftrong as the Enemy, did not think proper to retreat, s: r[ - Ha *'
but refolved to make ufe of Stratagem to obtain a Victory, f^'aS n
which otherwife he could not expect. Audlcy being en-
camped on Blore-Hcaih near a little River, Salisbury polled
himfelf on the other Side, as if he meant to guard the
Pafs, and hinder his being attacked. Then fuddenly feign-
ing a Fear, he retired in the Night, marching fo, as at
bieak of Day his Enemies could itill fee the Rear of his
Army. This Retreat, which feemed to be with precipi-
tation, infpiring the Royalifts with Ardor, they began to
pafs the River in diforder, imagining they had nothing to
do, but to purfue the flying Enemy. But whilft they were
in this Confufion, fome being over the River, others in
the Water, and others ready to pafs, the Earl of Salisbury
leturned and (ell upon the Troops already over, who had
fcaice time to draw up. The i ight lalted however four
or five Houis, becaufe the King's Troops were fupported
by thofe that were continually paffm.g. But as this could HaTT.
not be done without Contulion, the Royal Army was ai Hollingflu
length put to rout with the Lofs of two thoufand four hun-
dred Men. Audlcy himfelf was flain with all the principal
Officers (ri).

The Earl of Salisbury having thus opened a Paffage, Salisbury
joined the Duke of Yotk, who was raifing Troops iru '»-' Voifc.
Wales. It would have been too dangerous to continue his "^ \ Cy ""
March towards London, becaufe the Court had now af- Army.
fembled a great Foice at Coventry. The Queen, who ftill
commanded in tiie King's Name, ufed all poffible Endea-

vours to have a ftrong Army. She faw plainly, there was
nothing to be done without a great Superiority. On the 77., p ui! „*
other hand, the Duke of York and the Earl of Salisbury Yotkfrt-
were no lefs intent upon procuring all pofhble AiTiftance, in^""'' , " ! fi'
order to withitand the Forces that were preparing againft
them. They fent word to the Earl of Warwick, it ne Ear.' of
would be very neceflary to come and join them, and try Warwick
to bring them fome Troops. Upon this Advice, Wanvick''"'"-'
left Calais under the Government of William Nevil Lord y or k.
Falconbridge his Uncle, and took with him Part of the Ha!!.
Garrifon, of which he gave the Command to Sir Andrew 5!°": ,
Trollop, who had iignalized himfelf in the Wars of
France (12).

It was feven Months after the Battle of Blore-Heaih, be- n< . xy„,
fore the two Parties had drawn all their Forces together, marches «.
Oclober was come, and no Motion yet made on either Side. " l " d . r '!' '**

. , , , , r . , - V, l l 1 1 Male-City

At length the King departed from Coventry, where he had „„,;.
aflembled his Troops, and marched towards Wales in queft Hall,
of the Male-contents, who were encamped about Ludlow.

(1) The Duke of York at Baynard's Cattle, which belonged to h'm ; the Earl of Salisbury at his own Hcufe, called the Hetber ; and the Earl of li'ar-
tvitlt at his Ho ile n<:ar the Grey Friers. The Duke of Somerfet and his Friends were lodged without 'Tar.pte-Bar, Hoibwm, and other Places in the Suburbs.
Hall, tbl. 171. Stow, p. 401. HMnith. 1192. The lormer Party held their Confutation at the Black-Fncrs ; and the latter in the Chapter -houfe
it Wtjlminjltr. Ibid.

(2) S^r Godfrey Bullen, Anceftor of two famous Queens ; Ann, fecend Wife of lier.ry VIU, and Q^een Elizabeth, their Diu^htcr.

(3) Through the Perfualkns of the Archbifhop of Canterbury, and other Prelates. Hall, lot. 172. HMtngjh. p. 1292. Uto-.v, p. 403.

(4) Th,s Agreemtnt pjlled the Great Seal, March 24. Hollmgfo. p. 1293.

(5) Our Hiftorians lay, it was March 25. Stew, p. 404.

(tjj Before the King went, Hand in Hand, the Duke of Somerfet and Eail of Salishury; the Duke of Exeter and Esll of H'amiet: And behinj t(w
King came the Queen and Duke ot 7'^rk. Hall. (ol. 172. Stcta, p. 404,

(7) Four or five thoniand. Hall, fbl. 173. Stciv, p 404. HJlmgJh. p 1294-

(a) yames Tttc&et, Grandlon of John Tuchet, by Joan, Daughter and Heir ol Nicholas Aldithly or Audk y of Helcigh, who died vithcut IlTue-Mile.
Wherefore the Pofterity of the ia.d John and Joan had the Title of Lord Audley. Dugdaie's Baron. Vol. II. p. 28.

(ol Becaufe his Seignory and Power lay in thofe Parts. Hall, fi.c. Ibid.

(:o) And ordered to bring the Earl dead or alive. Ibid.

(II; The Cbejbirt Men were the greateft Sufferers, who wore that Day little firver Swans, the Prince -of ffalgs', ParJjc, which the Qeeen h2d ordered
to be diftiihuted to all the Gentlemen of that Countty. Holtingjb. p. 1295. Stow, p. 404- This Battle was fought c;i September 23, about a Mile trom
Drayton in Shropjhire, on BUre-Heatb, which lies in Staffordfhtre, where, at the Head ot the River Sow, a Stona is let up in Mercury of James Lcid

I there flain. Can.d. Add. to Stafford. The molt eminent Perfons flain in this Actien, bcfides the Lord .-ui.y, were, Sii 'Tbomo* Dutton, Sir

J tr. Dunne, s tr Hagb ^enables, Sir Richard Moltneux, Sir J:br, Leigh, &c. Hall, tol. 163. Hcllmgjh. p. 1293.

(.•2j And to Sir John Blunt. Hall. fol. 174.


Book XII.

is-. Henry vi.


H .„,,.
item a Pa



The K






fa lur



Afl. !'


XI. p.

4a r <



<■/ tfc


iv/irj re







Hulling fh.

When he came taGloce/ier (\) he made a Halt, and fent
an Offer of Pardon to the Rebels (2) provided they would
lay down their Arms. They anfwered, they could no
iljry demand longer rely on fuch Promifes, which weie intended only to
i,M.r;/y. furprize them, as was vilible in what had happened at Lon-
don to the Earl of Warwick ; that neverthelefs, they were
ready to fubmit to the King, if fome Expedient could be
found for their Safety. Upon this Anlwer the King or-
dered his Army to advance. At the fame time, he gave
the Duke of Somerfet a Patent to be Governor of Calais,
in the 50,0m of the Earl of Warwick . But it was eafier
to give the Duke this Government in Parchment, than to
put him in poiieflion.

The King luving advanced wilh defign to give Rattle,
the Yorkijls lent him a very fubmiffive Letter, praying him
to confuler, that they had taken Arms only in their own
Defence, againlt the Attempts of their Enemies ; That this
Intention appeared, in their keeping themlelves in a Corner
of the Kingdom, without undertaking any thing, being
determined not to fight unlefs forced j That they delircd
only the Rediefs of the Grievances introduced into the Go-
vernment, to the great Oppreffion of the People, by the Fault
of the Miniftry. Laftly, they befought the King, to look
upon them as loyal Subjects, who had formed no Delign
anainft his Perfon and to reftore them to Favour.

This Letter had a quite contraiy Eftcdt to what they
expedted. Their Enemies not queffiuning but Fear had
made them talk thus, advanced within half a Mile of
them, with a Refolution to give them Battle next day.
At the fame time, they found means to difperfe in the
Enemy's Camp the King's Proclamation, otteiing Pardon
to all the Adherents of the rebellious Lords, provided they
would lay down their Arms. This Proclamation had a fur-
prizing Eft'ecL The Duke of l'ork's Troops imagining the
King offered a Pardon, by reafun of the Superioiuy of his
Forces, and that there was no time to lole Co take the Be-
nefit of it, immediately began to disband themlelves-. Sir
Andrew Trollop, who commanded the Detachment of the
Garrifon of Calais, put the whole Army in Dilorder, by
flying in the Night to the King's Camp, with the Troops
under his Command. This Defertion, which increafed every
moment, threw the Leaders into fo terrible a Conllerna-
tion, that feaiing to be dehvcied to the King as foon as
Day fliould appear, they chofe to fave themlelves by
The Duie of flight. The Duke of York taking with him the Earl of
Yoxkjia Rutland his fecond Son, embarked for Ireland. The Earl
Wa£i* d " o( Warwick fled towards Calais, and the Earl of Satis-
WSalu- bury fpeedily followed him, with the Earl of March cldeft
Son of the Duke of York (3). This young Piince was
then nineteen Years old. The Generals being retired,
the reft of the Officers and Soldiers thus abandoned were
reduced to the King's Mercy, who was pleafed to pardon
all, except a few that were executed for an Example.
TbtDuhof The Parliament being afiembled in December (4J, de-
York and clared the Duke of York and his Adherents guilty of
""' High-Treafon. Their Eftates were confifcated, and
they and their Pofterity, pronounced incapable of Inherit-
ing, to the fourth Generation. We fee here a remark-
able Inftance of the Variablenefs of the Parliament, accord-
ing as the Face of Affairs was altered. I fhall have fre-
quent occalion hereafter to take notice of many the like

Upon the breaking up of the Parliament, the Duke of
Somerfet embarked with a Body of Troops (5), in order
to take poiieflion of his Government of Calais ; but the
Garrifon firing upon him, he was obliged to land elfe-
where, and retire to Guifnes, from whence he made fie-
quent Incurlions about Calais. But thofe little Sallies
were not capable of rendering him A'lafter of fo flrong a

The Queen finding the Earl of Warzvick would not be
deprived of his Government, equipped a Fleet to tran-
fport Succours to the Duke of Somerfet. This Fleet, well
provided with all things, lay at Sandwich in expectation of




bury to Ca


are ottnmtea



The Duke if
Somerfet i

rcpitljcd at

The %«n
find! htm
•which ai e
carried otf
to Calais.
Act. Pub.
XI. p. 44.O'

a fair Wind. The Earl of Warwick having notice of it,
fent a Body of Troops privately from Calais, under the
Command of Sir 'John Dinham, who arriving at Sandwich

about break of Day, furprized moft of the Officers in , !;L „-
Beds (6 j. As foon as he h;>d them in his Power, he found
means to gam the Soldiers and Mariners, and carried the
Kmg s Ships to Calais (7).

1 he Earl of Warwick made ufe of thefe Ships to con- w ,-. ■ k
voy fiini into Ireland, where he went to concert mcafurcs ''■■■■ '
With the Duke of York, lor their common Defence. After >-r
he had been about a Month (s) on this Voyage, he met in K*P*
Ins Return the Duke of Exeter ( 9 ), Admiral of England, XI
who waited to take him in his Paflage But theRoval rh ' Dut "f
Elect were fo little inclined to fight againft him, that the Sw"
Duke of Exeter fearing to receive fome Difs-race, thoueht *""•
not proper to attack him.

The v^icen and the Minifters doubted not, that the In- „ r
terview of the Duke of Urk and the Earl of WarwickTv
would pioduce a frefh Rebellion. For this reafon, at a'"'/'*
Council held upon that < ccafion, it was refolved, ftrift, fc
Search fhould be made in all the Counties and Towns of U» Nfc.
the Kingdom, for the Adherents of the Duke cS York, and »■ P- ♦«■
that fuch fhould be fupprefled as favoured him m.. if, and

^^4 ab!e t0 ferVe him - h was not 'lutfHoned, but
this Method would put an effectual Stop to his ambitious
luiluits 1 urluant to this Refolution, James Butler EaAAOm ■
ot Wutjhire, and the Lord Scales (10J were impowered to'" '
inquire out thofe that boie Aims for the Maie-contents' : ." ; " ,/ '-
in the late Rebellion, and to punifli them according to
Law. I hefe two Lords began to execute their Commif-
iion, in fome of the Towns (11) which had moft openly
declared for the Duke of York, and condemned feveral Per-
fons to Death. Of all the Counties of the Kingdom, none
had more reafon to dread the Court's Refentment than Kent.
Upon all occalions that County had fhewn a very ftron"-
Attachment to the Duke of York, and what was done there
in favour ot Cade was not yet forgot. So, the Inhabitants * ,
ot Kent perceiving, by what was practifed in other Places, 7 ,"' „ '
that their Ruin was unavoidable, began early to think of t w. '
means to prevent it. To that end, they fent word to the and
Lords at Calais, if they would make a Defcent in their «*<■/&
Country, they fhould be received with open Arms, and the L ° rJ '. "
Inhabitants were ready to venture their Lives and Fortunes Li ""'"
with them.

This Overture was very agreeable to the Lords. How- _ . .
ever not to embark rafhly in this Affair, they fent the KSfiL
Lord talconbridge to be allured of their Sincerity. Fal- •■: ";
conbndge meeting at Sea with Sir Simon Montfort, who I -°'- m &-
was appointed to guard the Coafts, attacked him, and J ' OW "
taking him Prifomer with many other Officers, fent them
all to Calais. Upon their Arrival, the Ead of March
ordered Montfort with twelve of his Captains to be beheaded,
by way of retaliation for his Father's Adherents, who had
been executed in England. Thefe are almoft unavoidable
Cruelties in fuch Civil Wars.

talconbridge being come to Sandwich, found the Inha- „.- r ,
biuiits of that Place and of the whole County of Kent, fo ,U'',I
well aftedted to the Lords, that he writ to Calais, there was *»» ,hl
no time to be lolt ; that the County of Kent was going to 1 V' ? ;'/ W
be ruined, it not fpeedily relieved ; and that in the Terror HoalingOi.
People were under, it was not to be doubted, that feveral
other Counties, as well as Kent, would rife againft the
Court, if they could hope to be fupported. This Junc-
ture appearing very tavorable, the Lords at Calais relblved
to improve it, and took care to inform the Duke of York,
who ltill kept in Ireland. Before they failed, a Manifefto 2& 1 .j,
was dilpened in Kent and in the neighbouring Parts (12), pMJba
declaring chat the lole Motive of cheir taking Arms, was ;'-''" V'.'-'"-

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