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and Henry VIII, have put an ill Conltruction on all his
Anions. Thofe that came after them, not content with
taking the Facts as they found them related, have likewife

fortified, and did not queftion but the Earl his Son would copied the Reflections, and even the very Invectives

The S\uecn


fpeedily come to his Relief.

The Queen was extremely troubled to fee her Enemy
thus fecured from all Attack. As fhe was then much fu-
bim e> fight. p er j or ; n Number of Troops, if the Duke would have
Ha "' fought, fhe might have flattered herfelf with undoubted

Succefs. But it was not certain, that after the Earl of
March's Arrival, fhe fhould be in the fame Situation.
For this Reafon, fhe neglected nothing to provoke her E-
nemy, and induce him to come out of his Retreat. As
fhe did not defpair of accomplifhing her Defign, fhe placed
a Body of Troops in Ambufh, behind a Hill (2). Then
fhe appeared before the Walls of Sandal, provoking the
Duke all manner of ways, one while threatening him,
another while fending him Defiances, and upbraiding him,
that a Man who afpired to the Crown, fhould fuffer him-
felf to be thus fhut up by a Woman.

The Duke of York had hitherto acted with great Pru-
dence and Conduct. During the Wars of France, where
jie had often commanded in Chief, he had fhown no lefs
Wifdom, than true Valour. But, on this occafion, he
unfortunately fuffered his Courage to prevail, contrary to
the Opinion of his Friends (3), who advifed him to defpife
thofe vain Reproaches. Probably, his Hatred to the Queen
led him, as it were againft his Will, to commit an unpar-
donable Fault, in a General of fo eftablifhed a Reputation.
Thefe at Ieaft were the Motives afcribed to him by the
Hiltorians. For my Part, if I may be allowed to (peak
my Opinion, I own I think it improbable. I fhould
rather believe, the want of Provifions forced him to a Bat-
tle, in order to avoid the Danger, to which he was ex-
pofed. So, if he committed a Fault, it was in fhutting
himfelf up in a Caftle, inftead of returning, or meeting
his Son, who could eafily join him. Be this as it will, he
marched out of Sandal, and drew up his Men on Wake

Tht Duke
ref.h'S to

They have thereby all unanimoufly given the Caufe for
the Houfe of Lancajler, inftead of leaving their Readers at
Liberty to pafs an impartial Judgment upon fo difficult a
Cafe, the Decifion whereof, fhould the fame thing happen
again, would be no lefs perplexing at prefent, than it was
formerly. The Earl of Salisbury having the Misfortune TbeEarltf
to be taken Prifoner in the Battle, was carried, notwith- Salisbury
ftanding his Wounds, to Pontfrail, where he loft his Ha ) t _
Head on the Scaffold (7). The Queen ordered it to be let HJlingfli.
on a Pole, near the Duke of York's.

Such was the Succefs of this Battle, fought on the laiT The Earl of
Day of December, near IVakeficld (8), from whence it March «-
took its Name. This Battle feemed to have firmly ic-'„J:", M °„ t be
ftored the Affairs of the King and Queen, and yet it ferved parrel.
only to haften their Deftruction, and fooner advance the s Jj"™ >
Houfe of York to the Throne. The Earl of March hear- ' ,
ing of the Defeat and Death of the Duke his Father, was
not difcouraged. On the contrary, he refolved to main-
tain the Quarrel, let what would be the Conjequence, and
lofe his Life, or execute his leather's Defigns. After what
had palled, there was no Medium, one of the two Houfes
muft neceflarily be eftablifhed, upon the Ruins of the other.
This Prince was then in ITales (9), ready to march to the H ,u #
Affiftance of his Father. His Army was three and twenty Hjiiinjih.
thoufand ftrong, befides what was left at London, under
the Command of the Earl of Warwick, for the . Defence
of the Metropolis. So, finding himfelf ftrong enough to
go in queft of the Queen, he wifhed for nothing more
ardently, than an opportunity to revenge his -Father's

Whilft the Earl of March was taking this Refolution, 77,, e> rea
the Queen advanced towards London, with defign to fecure manbau.
that great City, which alone could influence the Fortune ?" j '

o j * don ani

of either Party. But hearing upon the Road, that the/,-/; rem-

The Batch
ef Walce-

tLbukt 'If field Green, counting, his Courage and Experience would Earl of March began to move, fhe detached Jo/per Tudor bri kt «-
fupply the Defects of his Army. He was no fooner drawn Earl of Pembroke (10), to oppofe this new Enemy, whom ^"f '^
up, hut he faw himfelf attacked by the Queen's Troops,
which being more numerous than his, had a great Ad-
vantage over him. Whilft he was prefTed in the Front
by his Enemies, ftronger than himfelf, the Ambufhes rofe,
and attacked him in the Rear. This unexpected Aftault,




fhe did not imagine to be fo ftrong as he was. The Earl Msich.
of March being informed of the Queen's Motion towards HaU ;
London, altered his Courfe, and inftead of going to meet s ,°J nE!
her, took likewife the Road to London, in order to pre-
vent her. But having Advice of the Detachment lent

bred fuch Confufion among his Troops, that within half againft him, he did not think proper to come between the

hllii h


an Hour they were routed, and himfelf flain, valiantly
The Earl cf fighting. The young Earl of Rutland his fecond Son,
not above twelve Years of Age, flying with his Governor,
was overtaken by the Lord Clifford, who plunged his Dag-
ger into his Breaft, notwithftanding the earneft Intreaties
of the Governor, to fpare the young Prince's Life (4).
Afterwards, the fame Lord Clifford finding the Duke of
York's Body, cut off the Head, and crowning it with a
P.tper-Crown, fixed it on the end of his Lance, and pre-
fented it to the Queen, who ordered it to be placed on the
Walls of York (5).
RmaAon Thus fell the Duke of York, about fifty Years old (6),
ebc Parti- j t m:1 y be faid, never was Prince fo near a Throne, and

"ulimaM to not ' n ' f > anul tnat lt ' av ' n h' s own Breaft to take pofTef-
tbcHouf:of fion, had he been willing to ufe the Power he had in his
Lancaft-r. H an d 3 , I fhall not undertake, either to condemn, or

two Armies of his Enemies, which muft have happened,

had he continued his Rout. So, coming to a fudden Re- p c mbr<lte

folution, he returned to meet the Earl of Pembroke. Hft is defaced.

met him near Mortimer's Crofs in Hereford/aire, and as he

was much fuperior in Number of Troops, eafily defeated

him, and flew three thoufand eight hundred of his Men.

The Earl of Pembroke had the good Fortune to efcape.

But Owen Tudor his Father, according to fome, or more OwenTudor

probably, his younger Brother (n), being taken Prifoner, •'' tcbaded.

was beheaded, with feveral others, in revenge (or the Earl

of Salisbury.

The News of this Defeat reaching the Queen on the tbt <?.■.—*
Road, prevented her not from continuing her March to- *"?* « *»
wards London. She believed, that appearing at t'le J™J "
Gates of the City with a victorious Army, fhe fhould" fo Kali.
aftontfh the Inhabitants, that they would of themfelve>, Stow -

' ' Holl

(1) On Decmb. 24. Hall, fol. 182.

(z) She is faid to place an Ambufh on each fide Wakefield Green, under the Command of the Lord Clifford and the Earl of Wil'Jbire. Her mJo
Army was led by the Dukes of Somerfe.' and Exeter* Idem. fol. 183. Stotv, p. 413.

(3) Particularly Sir Davy Halle, and the Earl of Salisbury. Hall, fol. 182.

(4) He is faid to have killed that Day fo many with his own Hand, that he was thenceforward called the But. her. His Father, Thomas Lord
Cliffoid, having been flain in the Battle of St. Albans by the Duke of York, this Lord Clifford (as Grafton lays,) fwure, be would not leave cue
Branch cf toe York Line /landing. Leland Col. Vol. I. p. 45.

(5) Befides the Duke of York, there fell in this Battle his two Baftard Uncles, Sir John, and Sir Hugh Mortimer, S;r Da-ay Halle, Sir Hugo H.:S-
ingt, Sir 'Ibomas New!, Sec. and two thoufand eight hundred Perlbns more. Hall, fol. 1S3.

(6) His Corps was fii-ft interred at Pon'fraSi, but afterwards in the Collegiate Church of Fotberinghay. The Duke of Somerfet f his '.chief Oppo-
nent ) faid of him, That ;/ be had not learned to play the King by bis Regency in France, be bad never forgot to obey as a Suijecl, -when be re-
turned to England. By Cecily, Daughter of Ralph Nevd Ear] of IVejlmor eland, he had, as forne fay, eight Sens, ( Henry, who dicdyour.g; Ed-.cjrd
Earl of March, afterwards King Edward IV ; Edmund, Earl of Rutland j John, William, and Thomas, who all died young J George, Duke ol Cia-
rfftce j and Richard Duke uf Gloccfier, afterwards King Richard III.) and four Daughters. Dugdale's Baron. Vol. II. p. *6l. Sanafrd, p. 391,
392 402.

(7) His Body, with that of Alice his Wife, fole Daughter and Heir to Thomas Montacute Earl of Salisbury, and his Son Thomas ( flain in the
Battle) were, in 2 Edw. IV, Feb. r6, buried at Bijham Abbey in Berkfhire. He had IlTue four Sons, ( Richard Earl of Warwick. John Maiquils
of Montague, Sir Thomas, Ge:rge Bilhop of Exeter, Chancellor of England, and then Archbilhop or York, ) and five Daughters. Vugdale's Buret.
Vol. I. p. 303-

(8) A Town in the Weft-Riding of York/bin, famous for its Cloth Trade, Lrrgenefs, neat Buildings, Markets ; and for the Bridge upon wb:ch
King Edward IV built a very neat Chapel, in Memory of thofe that were cut oft in this Battle. The carved Work of Stone upon the CJiapt:.
was very beautiful, but is now much defaced. On the Right-hand of the Road from Wakefield to Sandal, there is a lquare Plot or Ground hedged
in fiom a Clole, whereon (before the Civil War between King Charles and the Parliament) flood a Crofs of Stone, where the Duke of Y*rk was
flain. The Owners are obliged by Tenure to keep up that Hedge. Camden.

(9) He was then at Glocefter, from whence he removed to Shrewsbury. Hall, fol. 183. Hcl.'ir.gjb. p. 1304.

(10) And James Butler Earl of Orir.ond, with a Body of Weljh and Iri/b. This Battle was fought on 1 cbruary 2. Hall, fol. l8j. Hollingfn.
p. 1304.

(n) Oiven Tudor the Son, was a Monk of Wcjlm-nftcr. See above, p. 559, Note (7). Hall, fol. 184. Hollingjh. p. 1304; and Stow, p. 413,
fay, it was Sir Oiven Tcwther (or Tudcr ) Father of the Earl of iembroke. And indeed there is no manner of Improbability or Contradiction in lup-
pofing it to have been him. For (torn the Year 14.23, or 1424., when it is probable he was married, to 1460, there are but thirty fix or
thirtj leven Yewt ; and fuppafing he was tw t n:j 0: twenty hie when he married, ttc might very well live till *a&o, and not have been a very
u'.i Alan.


Book XII.



i-ffii. expel the Earl of Warwick. Indeed, the Earl himfelf the King and the Duke of York, with the Act of Par- 1461.


gOi S Oltl tO

fobl her.

feenis to have been of that Mind, fince he chofe rather to
go and fight the Queen, than remain in London ; which
doubtlefs, he would not hare done, had he been fecure of
the City. The Queen being arrived at St. Albans, re-
ceived certain Advice, that the Earl of Warwick was
marching towards her with his Army, reinforced with a
Body of Londoners, and bringing the King with him. The

-lament, whereby it was confirmed. That done, he
told the People, Henry had notorioufly violated this Agree-
ment, and fo forfeited, according to the Act of Parlia-
ment, his Right to the Crown. But after all, I do not
fee upon what foundation he could charge the King with
the Queen's Proceedings, fince he was all the while as
a Prifoncr at London : Neither was he any more his

He is de.

failed at


I! ,.:..
Fel). 17.

fres ifil

Iter Troops
plunder 01.



Queen's Army conlifted of northern Troops (1), who own A'lafter, after he was with the Queen, Be 1

committed fuch monftrous Ravages, that it was one of the it will, the Earl of Warwick railing his Voice, asked the

chief Rc.ifons, why the Londoners chofe to join the Earl People, who flood round him, whether they would have

of Warwick. If thefe Troops had entered the City, they Henry of Lancafter for King? The whole Multitude

would have had every thing to fear from fuch Guefts. crying out, No, No : He asked, whether according to that

The two Armies meeting near St. Albans, on Bernard's Settlement, they would have Edward, Son of the late Duke

Heath, began a Fight, which at firft was very fierce on of York, to reign over them ? To which, all the Peo-

both Sides. But Lovelace, who commanded one of the
Wings of Warwick's Army, cither through Treachery,
or for fome other Reafon, not ingaging in time, Viftory
declared for the Queen, and the Vanquilhed loll two thou-
fand eight hundred Men (:). She had withal the Satis-
faction to fixe the King, whom the Earl of Warwick
durfl not venture to leave at London. She ufed her Vic-
tory with the Barbarity too common in Civil Wars, be-
heading fcveral Perfons of Dift'.nction, particularly the Lord
Bonvile (3J, and Sir Thomas Kiriel, though the King had
granted them their Lives. As her Troops had voluntarily

pie anfwered with Acclamations, exprefling their Con-
fen t.

She demands
tf theMayor

of London.

The Mob

eppofe it.


The Earl of

Match ap-

The Stueen

trttires to-
wards tie

This firft Step being made, and the People's Mind Aff-nbly ,f
being, as was pretended, fufficiently known, a creat Coun- ''" ""■/
cil was called of all the Bifhops, Lords-, Gentlemen and ^"j'j
Magiftrates, in and about London (S). Edward being b,m tb,
prefent in this Aflembly , fet forth his Title to the Cn r'-
Crown, as well by Birth, as by the fore-mentioned Agree- £»w.
ment, and defired it might be adjudged to him. It
would have been great boldnefs, to difputc his Prctenfi-
on at fuch a Juncture. So, with one Confent the AfTem-
lifted in her Service, without her having wherewithal to bly declared, that Henry of Lancafter having forfeited
pay them, Ihe could not hinder them, after the Victory, his Right of enjoying the Crown during Life, bv the
from plundering tiie Town of St. Albans. Thefe northern Breach of the folemn Agreement made with the Duke of
Soldiers declared, they had taken Arms only upon the York, and ratified by the Parliament ; it was devolved to
Promife of having the plunder of the Country lying South Edward, eldeft Son of the Duke of York. Upon this Hal!,
of the Trent. This Pretenfion infpired the Inhabitants of Declaration, the Crown was offered the Duke who ac-
London, and the neighbouring Country, with a Terror cepted it, modeftly confeffing his Infuffkiency ; and ad-
very prejudicial to the Queen. Provilions being grown ding, that though his Youth and Inexperience made
very fcarcc in her Army, by reafon of the great Licen- him apprehenfive"of taking upon him fo weighty a Charge,
tioufnefs of her Troops, fhe fent to the Mayor of London he would however, with God's Affiftance, ufe his utmoft
for a Supply, wiio not daring to deny her at fuch a June- Endeavors to render his People happy. On the Mor- Hall.
ture, ordered feveral Carts to be "loaded. But as they were row (9), he went in Proceffion to St. Paul's, [ and from
going out of the Gate, the Mob flopped them, and told thence, was conducted in great State to Wejlminfler-Hall,]
the Mayor, they would not fuffer Provifions to be fent to where he fat in the King's Seat, with the Scepter of
an Army, which was come on purpofe to plunder the St. Edward in his Hand (10). The Archbifhop of Can-
Country. The Mayor not being able to help this Dif- terbury having asked the People, whether they woidd
order, made his Excufe to the Queen (4), and gave her have Edward Earl of March for King ; the People an-
fwered with loud Acclamations. Then, the King took
the Homage of the Lords that were prefent. The Ce-
remony concluding with finging Te Dcwn, Edward was

hopes of being received into the City, as foon as the People
were appeafed.

Whilft the Queen at St. Albans was treating with the'

- w CJ ._-_-. ~ j v. ... .^ ••*(.*• imiiiiit .«. t. *~r I . 1 . ■■ . , J_, Li tV it I li VV d)

Mayor of London, the Earl of March was advancing conduced with great Solemnity to the Bilhop's Palace,

with all poffible diligence, to infpire the Londoners with
a Refolution to keep their Gates fhut againft the Queen,
on account of the approaching Affiftance. And indeed,
the News of his March did not a little contribute to
prolong the Negotiation between the Queen and the
Mayor, which ruined her Affairs. When fhe heard, the
Earl of A/arch was approaching, and had ftrengthned his
Army, with the Remains of the Earl of Warwick's (5),
fhe chofe to retire into the North. Befldes that fhe

where Henry ufed to lodge, when he was within the Walls
of the City. Next Day, being the 5th of March, he
was proclaimed in London, and the neighboring Towns,
by the Name of Edivard IV.

Thus ended the Reign of Henry VI, which had lafted E . d „,
thirty-eight Years and a Half, without his ever inte/- Henry's
medling with the Adminiftration of the publick Affairs. *"£*•
It does not even appear, that he was, upon any occafi- HlJ ctara( ,
much moved with Events ; which however were n'r.

The Sari en-
t'l-i Louden.

His Friend,
retohie to

place kiln
up the

nu-j EUe-

lior. of lbs

Karl of





was inferior to her Enemy, fhe was juftly apprehenfive of for the moft Part, fuch as would affei2 a Prince of a dif

not being received into London, in cafe fhe advanced that ferent Character. He was fitter for a private Life than

way, and of being obliged to join Battle at the Gates of a Crown. His great and only Deleft was a natural

the City, too well inclined to favour her Enemy. Imbecillity, which rendered him incapable to govern of

The Earl of March, overjoyed that the Qiieen volun- himfelf. Ever ruled by thofe who managed the Affairs
tarily gave him up the Metropolis, entered as it were in his Name, his Capacity reached not to lee the Con-
in Triumph, the beginning of March (6). He was re- fequences of the Counfels given him, which to him feem-
ceived with the Acclamations of the Citizens, who, fe- ed always good. Herein, he was different from the Kin"-
veral Years fince, had very near declared againft the his Father, whofe Genius was always fuperior to that
Court. The Caution wherewith the late Duke of York of his Minifters. As to the reft, he was chafte, tempe-
had thought fit to proceed, had been (o much to his Pre- rate, extremely religious, abhorring Injuftice and Cru-
judice, that his Son's Friends judged it abfolutely ne- elty. It was thefe Virtues that have ferved for Foun-
cellary to place him at once in the Throne. After fun- dation to the Praifes beftowed on him by feveral Hifto-
dry Confutations, they refolvcd not to be expofed to rians, and which have made fome confider him as a true
the Delays of a Parliament, but to proceed to an extra- Saint. Indeed, thefe Virtues would have rendered him
ordinary Election, firft by the People, and then by the an accomplifhed Prince, had they been attended with the
Nobles. They were of opinion, this Method could be Qualifications of a Sovereign. But being alone, they ferv-
juffified by the Aft of Parliament, confirming the Agree- ed only to make him an honeft Man, and withal, a very
ment between the King and the Duke of York, and indifferent King, not to fay worfe. His Incapacity ren-
that it was unneceflary to ftay for a frefh Confirmation. dered him contemptible to his Subjects. But the Innocen-

Puifuant to this Refolution, the Earl of Warwick (7) cy of his Life, never fuffered their Contempt to turn

drew up his Army in St. Johns Fields, in the midft of into Hatred.

Throngs of People, whom ordering to be caft into a
Ring round him, lie read aloud the Agreement between

During the firft Years of his Reign, his Affaire were r , ,...
in a profperous State, becaufe they were managed by the decay ef/b'

Englilh Afm\
(1) PVelfh, Scott, and Trip, befides Engli/h. Stew, p. 413. fairs in

(z) Two thouland three hundred ; and no Man of Note among them, except Sir Jcbn Grey of Gm.'y, firit Husband of Eighth MW-„A ~. Hcn T Vr '
ried afterwards to King Edward IV. Hall. fol. 184. Hollmgfh. p. 1305. Dugdales Baron Vol. I p. 719. »°*H»u, mar- Raph

3) He was one of tnol'e who had the Cullcdy of the King alter he was taken at St. Man,, and had ilayed with him at h : s Reeucft and ur,™
Fromlle of being fate. Halt, tol. 184. Stu-jj, ibid. ' ' ' °

(4; liy the Recorder, the Duchel's of Bedford, the Lady Scales, and fome Biflicps. HUlh.gfh. p. 3&0. Hall fol. 184,
(O Wh.ch he met at Cbipping-norton in Offordjhire. Ibid. ±tow, p. 414.
(6) February iS. o'fSTO, ibid.

THis wai done on March 2, by the Lord Fauconbridgt, who took the Mofters. See Hall, fol. iSj. Stew, p. 415. RcdUr.gjb,


(S) Which met at Saynard't Caftle. Hall, &c. ibid.

(9) March 4. Hall, tol. 185.

\t6] I Then he went ill Prcceffion, under a Canopy, to the Abbey, and was placed in the Choir as King, whilft Tt Dcum was W - a f tc r which
he made (£ : ufaal Offerings. That done he returned by Water to St. PauN, and lodged in ,h E Bii>.ap\ PaU«. Hid, fol. ,!,. ^ P1 „
Map,*, by uuttake fay,, he lat in the King's Seat at St. Pauls, with the Scejrter in lus Hand, S w ' p> ***'


5 88



Vol. I.

Dukes of Bedford and Glocejler his Uncles, Princes of
great Abilities, and who had his Intereft at Heart. And,
if even in their Life-time, his Affairs began to decline, it
may be faid to be owing, not fo much to their Fault, as
to fome unforefeen Accidents, which all the Prudence in
the World could not have prevented. After the Death
of the Duke of Bedford, Henry fuffered himfelf to be
governed by the Cardinal of JVinchejler, and the Duke of
Suffolk ; who, acting not by the fame Motives, and re-
garding only their own Affairs, compleated his Ruin.
Afterwards, Queen Margaret by her uncommon Abili-
ties, might have reftored his Affairs, but the King's Glo-
ry, and the Nation's Intereft, were leaft in her Thoughts.
Her fole View, was to grafp all tha Power, and ufe the
King's Name to authorize her Paflions. The Minifters
fhe employed, were all of the fame Character. It is

not therefore ftrange, that the King's Affairs fhould run
fo fwiftly into Confufion. The Death of the Duke of
Glocejier, will be an indelible Stain in Margaret's Re-
putation, and unhappily, this Crime reflected but too much
upon the King himfelf, fince he had not the refolution to
oppofe it, or puniih the Authors. Accordingly, it was
manifeft, that Heaven took publick Vengeance of this
Murder, by the Civil Wars which cnfued, and which oc-
cafioned the Ruin of the King, the Queen, the Prince
their Son, and the whole Houfe of Lancajler.

Henry VI. was thirty-nine Years and about a Quarter
old, when he was difpoflelTed of a Crown, which he had
enjoyed almoft from his very Birth (1). He ftill lived long
enough to be the fport of Fortune, as will be feen in the
following Reign. Edward his Son, Prince of JFalcs, was
in his nineteenth Year, at the time of this Cat.iftrophe (2).

(1) In the firft Parliament of his Reign the Queen-Mother came and fat among the Lords, with the young King in her Lap.

(2) The mod remarkable Things during this Reign were thefe : The Art of Printing being found out at Mentz in Germany by John Cutten-
bergen, was brought into England by William Caxton of London Mercer, who firft practilcd the fame in the Abbey of Weftmmficr, in 147 1. Hall,
fol. 170. Stow , s Ann. p. 4.04.

In the 13d Year of this Reign it was enabled in Parliament, That when Wheat was fold for fix Shillings and Eight-pence the Quarter j Rye

for four Shillings; and Barley for three Shillings ; it ftiould be lawful to export the faid Kinds of Corn into foreign Parts without Licence. In

the Year 1454, there was fuch Plenty of Corn, that a Quarter of Wheat was commonly fold for twelve or fourteen-pence ; and a Quarter of Malt
for fixteen or feventeen-pence at molt. Stow's Ann. p. 398.

Queen Margaret began !%ucen' s-Cottege in Cambridge, which was fiaiihed by Ed-ward IV's Queen her Enemy- Archbifhop Kemp built the Difr-

nityScboiI at Oxford, as it now (lands, and St. Paul's Crofs. William Eafipcld Mayor of London, built at his own Charge the Water-Conduit in

Fleet-ftrtct ; and Job* Wells Mayor of London, the Conduit, commonly called the Standard in Cheap. In the Year 14+6, Sir Simon Eyre Mayor

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