M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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of London, built Leaden-ball, to be a common Garner for the City. 4'fow'i Survey, B. V. p. 120.— - In 1453, Sir John Norman, Mayor of the
fame, went by Water to Weftminfter to take his Oath ; being the firft that went in that manner. For before that time they rode on Horfcback.
Idem. p. 121.

I. In this and the two foregoing Reigns, the Parliament was reformed in many Particulars, as appears by the Statutes. Firft, in point of Elections,
the Parliament 7 Henry IV, and (25 Henry VI, ) ordained, " That the Election of Knights (hall be at the next County-Court, after the Writ de-
" livered to the Sheriff, and that the Names of the Perfons elected (hall be returned by Indenture between the Sheriff and the Electors." This
the Sheriff was to do, under Penalty of one hundred Pound, and a Year's Imprifonmcnt, without Bail or Mainprilc, bcfides Damages for falfe Re-
turns, (II Henry IV. 8 Henry VI. 23 Henry VI. ) Thus the Election was reduced, but the Perfons were not as yet, for hitherto any Englijh-
man had right to give or receive a Vote, wherefoever he refided. But ( I Hen. V. ) (8 Hen. VI. ) the Parliament reduced thefe alfo to their
proper Counties, or elfe rendered them uncapable to vote or ferve for any County : And the like Order was made for the Burroughs, ( 23 Henry Vl. )
*' That no Perfon muft ferve for any City or Burrough, nor give vote in electing fuch as lhall ferve for that Town, unlrfs they be both Free
" and Refiants within that City or Burroughs* This was a feafonable Law, for the Times of Henry IV had taught Men, That a King that hath
Soldiers difperfed over the Kingdom, can eafily fway the County-Courts, and make fuch Parliaments as they pleale. However, this was not enough:
For all Electors, though of the meaneft fort, could do as much hurt with their Vote, as thofe of the beft fort could do gocd by theirs. This made
Elections much fubject to ConfuGons and Parties, and rendered the Parliament lefs confiderable. Hence ( in 8 Hen. VI. ) it was ordained, " That
" no Man mould give his Vote in Elections in the County, iinlefs he had forty Shillings yearly in free Lands or Tenements, and this is to be tef-
" fined upon Oath of the Party." And more plainly, two Years after (10 Hen. VI.) it was ordered, " That the laid Lands mould be within
" the County." Thus the Free-men yielded up their Liberty of Election to the Free-bolders, poflibly not knowing what they did. But this change
was no lefs good than great, iff, It prevented Parties, Tumults, and Bloodfhed j for the Preface of the Statute (hows, the meaneji held himfelf as
good a Man, as the grcattd in the County. 2dly, Where the Multitude prevails, the meaner fort are fuperior; and thefe ( generally ignorant, J can-
not judge of Perfons, nor Times j but being, for the moft part, led by Faction or Affection, rather than by right Underftanding, make fuch Elec-
tions as are either inconvenient, or injurious to the State. 3dly, There is no lefs Equity in the Change than Policy. For what can be more rcafo-
nable, than that thofe Men only mould have their Votes in Election of the Common-Council of the Kingdom, whofe Eftates are chargeable with the
publick Taxes and AirefTments, and with the Wages of thofe Perfons that are chofen for the publick Service ? But above all, this advancing of the
Free-bolders was beneficial to the Freemen of England, though perhaps they confidered it not. Firft, It abated the Power of the Lords and great
Men, who held the inferior fort at their Devotion, and much of their PolTcfiions by their Will. 2dly, It raifed the Spirit of the meaner fort to pub-
lick Regards, and by a kind of Ambition, to afpire to the Degree of a Freeholder, in order to be iumewhat iR the Commonwealth. And thus
leaving the meaneft Rank, rack'd to the very Dregs, they become lefs confiderable, and more fubject to the coercive Power; whilft, in the mean
time, the Freeholder, now advanced to the Degree of a 7eoman, becomes no lefs careful to maintain Correfpondency with the Laws, than he was
induftrious to attain his Degree. Laftly, To bind all the reft, a negative Law was made, ( 23 Hen. VI. ) That the Perfons elected in the County,
muft not be of the Degree of a Yeoman, but of the moft noted Knights, Efquires, or Centlemen of the County, which tacitly implies, it was too
common to advance thofe of the meaner fort. The Perfon thus agreed upon, his Entertainment muft be accordingly ; and therefore the manner of
taxing in full County, and levying the Rate of Wages for their Maintenance, is reformed and fettled ( 23 Hen. VI : ) And laftly, their Perfons are
put under the Protection of the Law in an cfpecial manner ; and a penal Law is made ( 1 1 Hen. VI. ) againft Force upon their Perfons, either in
going to, or attending the Parliament. Thus, even in thefe Times of Confufion, a Foundation was laid of a more uniform Government in future
Times, than England hitherto had feen.



1461.





u >. xtxSr ■*?' H ""- V VI ' A Po " nd "' c 'S nt of Gold > of 'he old Standard, was coined into forty five Rials of ten Shillings, or a proportionable
Number of Halt-Rials, and Quarter, or Farthing-Rials, at five Shillings, and two Shillings and fix Pence. Thefe Rials give him crowned with an impi -
rial Crown, feated on the Throne, with a Scepter and Globe, inferibed, HENRICUS. DEI. G R A. REX. A N G L. E T. FRAN. DNS.
H I B. Reverie, the Arms of France and England, quarterly, IHESUS. AVTEM. TRANS1ENS. fife. (See Fig. 1. ) By the fame In-
denture, inftead of Nobles, and Half-Nobles, were coined fixty feven and a half to the Pound, Angels, at fix Shillings and eight Pence, or a proport on-
able Number of Angelets, at three Shillings and four Pence. Confequently the Pound Troy, was coined into twenty two Pounds ten Shillings, by Tale.
The Angels were imprelTed with Michael and the Dragon, H E N R I C. D I. G R A. REX. A N G L. Z. F R A. Reverfe, a Shield.
with the Arms of France and England quartered, in a ship, having a Crofs for a Maft, on one Side the Letter H, on the other the Rofe. PER.
C R V C E. T V A. S A L V A. N O S. X R E. RED. (See Fig. 2. ) The Salut was a French Coin, like his Father's, and very much re-
fembled the Silver Groat, which he iikewife coined in that Kingdom, laving that the Groats wanted the Angel and Virgin over the Shield, and inftead of
CHRISTVS. V I N C I T. had SIT. N O M E N. DOMINI. B E N E D I C T V M. By (he Indenture of the fame firft Year of
Hen-y VI, the Silver Money was of the old Standard, one hundred and twelve Groats to the Pound, making in Tile thirty feven Shillings and fix
Peace, or a proportionable Number of Half-Groats, Sterlings, Half-Pence, and Farthings. Thefe are diftinguMhed from all his Predcceflbrs, by the
Crown, he being the firit of our Moriarchs that bore the arched Crown, with Globe and Oofs upon it. (See Fig. 3.) Thefe were moft coined at
i*S> , but ,hcre were other Mints at York, Bn/lol, and Dunwicb, Dublin, Canterbury, and at York with the Kevs. The Half penny has likc»ile
trie Rant , Head very fair. H. D. G. ROSA. S I E. S P A. By Indenture, the fourth of this Reign, the Value of Gold was brought down
again to luteen Pounds thirteen' Shillings and four Pence, and the Silver to thirty Shillings. By another Indenture of the laft Year of this Reign, it
VL „• L a ?""r ", j"9 feve " shHli "B s an<t <"<* P<™«, and fo continued for near fifty Years. In the thirty feventh of this Reign, Brafs Money was
tu-K Mind in Iriltnd, but there is no perfect Account from any Author that has ever feen it.

A D I S-



Book XII.



589



A D ISSERTATION on the Maid of

ORLEANS.




with



1 HE Anions of JOAN of ARC, commonly

called the Maid of Orleans, made formerly a

great Noife in the World. We find them dif-

perfed in the Hiftories of France and England,

Circumftances all favouring, of Prodigy. Moll of



the Writers upon this Subject have fcarce left their Readers
the Liberty of reafoning and judging. They have expiefly
decided, fome, that Joan of Arc was infpired by God, o-
thers, that (he was an Inftrument of the Devil. But even
in this Difference, they all agree to infmuate, that what
file did could not be performed without a fupernatural
Affiftance. However, impartial and unprejudiced Rea-
ders find great Difficulties in both thefe Opinions. As
they do not fee wherein Religion can be concerned in
Joan's Actions, they think it equally hard to believe, that
God fhould either fupernaturally raife this Maid in favour
of Charles VII, or give the Devil an extraordinary
Power to make her his Inftrument to ruin the Affairs of
the Englijh in France. Hence feveral have been induced
to embrace a third Opinion ; namely, That the pretend-
ed Infpiration of Joan of Arc, was only a Contrivance
thought proper to produce the Effect, it did indeed pro-
duce. This Diverfity of Opinions, joined to the Mar-
vellous vifible in the Actions of a Country Girl, very na-
turally raifes a Curiofity to know what may be relied on.
Wherefore I am perfuaded , it will not be unacceptable
fairly to examine this matter, with the fole view of dif-
covering, as far as poffible, the Truth. As I defign to
be as brief as the thing will allow, omitting the Learning
fuch a Subject is capable of, I fhall only relate the Facts
and Teftimonies which may clear this Affair, and after-
wards make fome Remarks upon the whole. They who
are impatient to purfue the Hiffory of England, may dif-
penfe with reading this Differtation, without fear of lofing
any thing abfolutely neceflary to be known.

It mult fir ft be obferved, that we have but one fingle
cotemporary Author, who gives an Account of the Maid
cf Orleans. All the After-writers have added fomething
to what he relates, in order to embellifh. their Hiftory.
Monftrdet is the Author I mean. He was one of the
Retinue of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, and had
himfelf feen this Girl. But he is extremely refer ved in
what he fays. He never gives his own Opinion, and the
Reafon is very evident. For Joan making her appear-
ance when the Duke of Burgundy was in Alliance with
England, Monflrelet, with all of that Party, did not be-
lieve her infpired. But as he writ not his Chronicle till
after the Duke was reconciled to King Charles, he thought
it not proper to combat in his Writings the general Opinion
of the French, who were then his Mailer's Friends. On
the other hand, as probably, in changing his Party, he had
not changed his Opinion of Joan, he took care to fay no-
thing, to make it thought he was under the fame Prejudice
with the reft of the French. It feems to me therefore that
Monflrelet may be taken for a Guide, who, whatever his
Opinion was, has faid nothing to render him fufpected.
The truth is, he never fays either that Joan was, or
was not infpired.

The fame Author has inferted in his Chronicle a Letter
written in the Name of Henry VI to the Duke of Bur-
gundy, to acquaint him with what paffed at the Trial and
Condemnation of the Maid of Orleans. This Letter might
be juftly fufpected of Partiality, if the Facts it contains did
not, for the moll part, agree with the Records of the Trial
mentioned hereafter. So, this Letter is a farther means
to help us to difcover the Truth.

We have a third means which is both the ampleft and
moll confiderable, namely, Joan's Examination and An-
fwers, of which the famous Stephen Pafquier has given us
the Particulars. Pafquier fays, he had Joan's original
Trial four whole years in his hands, and what he has re-
lated was faithfully extracted. But we mult carefully di-
llinguifh what Pafquier fays as of himfelf, from the Re-
cords of the Trial. He was fo prejudiced in favour of
Joan, that he could not help being angry with thofe of his
Countrymen, who did not believe her infpired. He fays,



they were worfe than the Englijl), and extremely injurious
to the Honour of France. So, confidcring only his private
Opinion, he may be faid to have juftly rendered himfelf
fufpected to one of the Parties. But the Trial itfclf is an
original Piece beyond all Sufpicion, fince we find there
Word for Word, Joan's own Anfwers to the Articles (he
was examined upon.

MonJlrelet's Chronicle, the King of England's Letter to
the Duke of Burgundy, and the Trial of the Maid, are
the three Evidences which mult he examined, in order to
pafs a true Judgment upon this Affair. As to the Facts
difperfed in the Hiftories of France and England, which
are not drawn from thefe three Fountains, I do not think
they ought to be much regarded. It is evident that the
Hiflorians have copied, without any previous Examination,
thofe that writ before them, and that feveral have induftri-
oufly cmbellifhed their Subject, by relating more Wonders
than there really were. If fome are to be credited, Joan
worked Miracles, foretold future Events, knew Secrets
unknown to all but the King, her Heart was found whole
and entire arhongft the Afhes of her funeral Pile, and out
of the Flames which confumed her Body, was feen to fly
a white Dove, the Emblem of her Chaftity. According
to thefe Hiflorians, Joan had the Command of the Ginvoy
which entered Orleans, and led the Befieged to the Affault
of the Englijh Forts. By her fole Advice the Battle of
Patay was fought, and to her Valour the French were in-
debted for their Victory. In a wcrd, they pretend Joan
did all, and leave King Charles's Generals only the Honour
of following her, and fighting under her Banner. In all
this they doubtlefs exceed the Truth. The fureft way is
to keep to the three forementioned Authorities, which it
will be neceflary to examine. I fhall begin with Monflre-
let, and cite fome PafTages of his Chronicle, efl'cntial to the
Point in hand, for it would be tedious to cupy all he has
faid concerning the Maid;

" Now in the Year above-mentioned, came to the BvfonftreMi
" King at Chinon, where he relided, a young Damfel v : - "■
" about twenty Years old ( 1 ), cailcd Joan, cloathed and *'*
" drefltid like a Man. She was born in the Parts between
" Lorrain and Burgundy, at a Place called Droimy (;),
" not far from Vaucouleur. This Joan was long a
" Servant at an Inn, and had the Courage to ride the
" Horfes to Water, and like wife to perform other Feats
" which young Girls are not ufed to do. Being turned
" away, fhe was fent to the King by a certain Knight
" called Sir Robert de Baudrencourt, Captain under the
" King, at Vaucouleur, who furnifhed her with Horfes,
" and four or five Attendants. She ftiled herfelf Pucelle
" [or Maid,] infpired with divine Grace, and faid fhe
" was fent to the King, to put him in pofleffion of his
" Kingdom, of which he was wrongfully deprived. She
" was in a very mean Condition. She was about two
" Months in the King's Palace, whom fhe feveral times
" admonifhed to furnifh her with Men and Aid, and
" fhe would repulfe his Enemies, and exalt his Domi-
" nion. In the mean time, the King and his Council
" gave no great Credit to whatever fhe faid, but took her
" for a Mad-Woman, and not well in her Senfes. For
" to fo great Princes and other Noblemen, fuch or the
" like Words are very doubtful and dangerous, as well on
" account of the Wrath of our Lord chiefly, as of the
" Slander from the Talk of the World. All her Words
" were in the Name of God; and therefore many of
" thofe that faw and heard her fpeak, were flrongly per-
" fuaded fhe was, as fhe herfelf faid, infpired by God.
" She was feveral times examined by notable Clerks and
" other learned Men of great Authority, that her Inten-
" tion might be more fully known. But fhe always kept
" to her Point, faying, if the King would believe her,

" fhe would reftore him to his Dominions. When ftie

" came before the King, there were prefent the Duke of
" Alenfon, the King's Marfhal, and feveral Generals.
" For the King had held a Council concerning the Siege
" of Orleans, and from thence went to Poicl'urs, and this



(1) She was then twenty (even Years of Age; for in h-r Examination in the Year 143 1, (he declared flrf was twenty nine Years 0)6, confequcntly when.
Sit came to the King in 1429, me was twenty feven Y tars of Age Rjpin,

(2) It fhould be read D^mgrt. Rapin.



No. 30. V o l. I.



K



M



Maii



59°



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol I.



" Maid with him. Shortly after, the Marfhal was ordered
" to carry Provinons and other Neceffaries to Orleans.
" Joan would go with him, and requefted fhe might have
" a Suit of Armour and Man's Cloaths, which fhe was
" furnifhed withal. Prefently after, fhe fet up hsr Stan-
'•' dard and went to Blah, where the Rendezvous was,
" and from thence to Orleans with the reft. She was
" always completely armed. In this Expedition many
" came and lifted under her. And when fhe was arrived
" at Orleans, fhe was made very welcome, and many
'•' People were overjoyed at her coming."

This is all Monjlrekt fays of the Maid, to her Entry
into Orleans. It may be obferved, it was not fhe that
commanded the Convoy, but only that fhe attended the
Marfhal with fome who had lifted under her. As to the
ftormingof the Forts, it feems at firft from what he fays
of it, that Joan commanded in all the Sallies. But after-

Monflrelct. wards he fays: " And notwithftanding that in thefe three

tol. 43. ti AfTaults, Joan is reported by common Fame to have
" had the chief Command, yet all or moil part of the
" noble Knights and Captains were in them, who during
" the S.ege, were in the City of Orleans, and behaved,
" each forhis Part, valiantly, as Warriors ought to do on
" fuch Occafions." He does not fail however, highly to
commend her Valour in feveral Places. For inftance,
fpeaking of the March of the French Army after the raif-

fol. 44. ing of the Siege of Orleans, he fays : " Joan was ever in
" the Front before her Standard. And in all the March-
" es, her Fame was fpiead, as if there had been no other
" Warrior but herfelf."

After his Defcription of the Battle of Patay, he adds

fol. 4.-. thefe Words; " and efpecially Joan acquired on fuch
" occafions fo great Praife and Reputation, that all People
" imagined, the King's Enemies would be no longer able
" to refift her, and that fhortly by her means the King
" would be reftored to his whole Kingdom."

In fine, not to cite too many Paffages of this Author, it
will fuffice to obferve in a word, that when he mentions
the Infpiration of the Maid, he never fays what he him-
felf thinks, but always, that fhe called her felf infpired.
He is fo very cautious, that in fpeaking what the Duke of
Burgundy faid to her, when he went to fee her after fhe
was taken, he pretends not to remember it, though he was
himfelf an Ear-Witnefs. His Words are thefe: " The
" Duke went to fee her at the Place where fhe was lodg'd,
" and fpoke to her fome Words, which I have forgot,
" tho' I was prefent." It is eafy to fee, the Duke's Words
were Reproaches for feducing the People, and Menaces
upon that account. But Monjlrclet chufes rather to be
filent, than to fay any thing pro or con.

fol. 57. He relates moreover, that a few days before Joan threw

her felf into Cumpiegnc, fhe had fought a Captain of the
Duke of Burgundy % called Franquet d' 'Arras, and having
taken him Prifoner, cut ofF his Head. But he does not
fay whether juftly or not, contenting himfelf with relating
the Fa£t, without giving his Opinion.

When he comes at laft to her Condemnation, he fo ex-
preffes himfelt, that he does not difcover his own Senti-
ments. He only tranferibes the King of England'* Letter
to the Duke ot Burgundy upon that occafion. As that Let-
ter is an Original which may help to difcover the Truth,
it will be proper to infert it at length.

Mojl Dear and JVell-hehved Uncle.

Monftrekt. " ' I ' HE fervent Affection which we are fenfible you

Vol. 11. tc J_ have, as a true Catholick, for our Holy Mother

pj]l, ' " Church, and for the Advancement of our Faith, juftly

fol. 113, " exhorts and admonifhes us to notify to you in writing,

"4- " what, to the Honour of our faid Holy Mother Church,

" to the ftrengthening of our Faith, and to the Extirpa-

" tion of peftilent Errors, has been lately in this our City

" of Roan folemnly tranfacted.

" It is now well known almoft every where by com-
" mon Fame, how the Woman who called herfelf Joan
" the Maid, had, for above thefe two Years, contrary to
" the divine Law, and the Condition of her Sex, wan-
" dered about in Man's Clothes, a thing abominable to
" God, and in fuch Drefs brought to our and your
" mortal Enemy ; and to whom and to thofe of his Party,
" Churchmen, Nobles and Commons, fhe frequently in-
" timated, fhe was fent from God ; prefumptuoufly boaft-
" ing to have perfonally and vifibly converfed with
" St. Michael, and great Numbers of Angels and Saints
" of Paradife, as St. Catherine and St. Margaret. By
" this falfe Intimation, and the Promife of future Victo-
" ries, fhe turned the Hearts of many Men and Women
" from the Truth, to Fables and Lies. She likewife
' wore Arms appointed for Knights and 'Squires, and fet
" up a Standard. Moreover, ihe demanded with great
" Boldnefs, Pride and Prefumption, to bear the molt ex-



" cellent Arms of France, which fhe partly obtained, and
" bore in feveral Incuriions and Affaults, as did her Bro-
" thers alfo, according to Report : Namely, Azure, Two
" Flower-de-Luces, Or, and a Sword, the Point up-
" wards, fermed with a Crown. In this State, fhe took
" the Field, and led Men at Arms and Archers in Bands
" and great Companies, to commit and exercife inhuman
" Cruelties, by fhedding human Blood, by railing Serii-
" tions and Commotions among the People, leading them
" into Perjury, Rebellion, Superftition and erroneous
" Opinions ; by difturbing all true Peace, and renewing
cc " mortal Wars ; by fuffering herfelf to be honoured and
" reverenced of many as a Saint ; and by working other
" damnable Deeds, too tedious to relate, which however
" were well known in feveral Places, and at which almoft
" all Chriftendom was offended. But God taking Pity
" on his faithful People, and not fuffering them to remain
" long in Danger, nor to continue in vain, pernicious,
" and novel Opinions, which they had rafhly embraced,
" has permitted, through his great Goodnefs and Mercy,
" that this Woman fhould be taken in your Army at the
" Siege you were carrying on at Compiegne, and by your
" good means put into our Power. And becaufe we were
" immediately required by the Bifhop of the Diocefe
" where fhe was taken, to deliver over to him as her
« Oidinary Ecclefiaftical Judge, this fame Joan branded
" with the Crime of High-Treafon againft the Divine
" Majefty ; we, as well out of Reverence to our Holy
" Mother Church, whofe Ordinances we juftly prefer
" to our own Will and Pleafure, as alfo for the Honour
" and Exaltation of our Holy Faith, delivered her to him
" to be brought to her Trial, without fuffering our fecu-
" lar Judges to take Vengeance upon her, as we might
" lawfully have done, confidering the great Damages
" and Mifchicfs, the horrible Murders, and deteftable
" Cruelties, with innumerable other Crimes, fhe had com-
« mitted againft us and our dutiful loyal People. The
'< Bifhop joined with him the Vicar of the Inquifitor of
" Errors and Herefies : And calling in with them a great
" and notable Number of folemn Mafters and Doctors
" in Divinity and Canon-Law, commenced with great
" Solemnity and due Gravity the Procefs of this Joan.
" After he and the Inquifitor, Judges in the Caufe, had
" for feveral Days examined her, they ordered her Con-
" feflions and Affertions to be maturely confidered by the
" Mafters and Doctors, and in general by all the Faculties
" of our moft dearly beloved Daughter the Univerfity of
" Paris, before whom the Confeftions and Affertions were
" laid. By their Opinion and Determination, the
" Judges found Joan guilty of Superftition, Witchcraft,
" Blafphemy againft God and his Saints, Schifm, and of
" greatly erring in the Faith of Je/us Chrijl. And in
" order to reftore her to the Union and Communion of
" our Holy Mother Church, to cleanfe her from her
" horrible and pernicious Crimes and Wickednefs, and
" to preferve her Soul from eternal Damnation, fhe was
" frequently and long, very charitably and calmly admo-
" nifhed, to reject and caft away all her Errors; and
" humbly return to the Way and Paths of Truth, or
" otherwife fhe would' greatly endanger both Soul and
" Body.

" But the moft pernicious and divided Spirit of Pride
" and cutragious Prefumption, which is always endea-
" vouring to deftroy the Union and Safety of Chriftians,
" foftrongly poffeffed this fame Joan, that notwithftand-
" ing all the holy Doctrine or Counfel, or other mild



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