M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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(4) Geoffrey of Monmouth, I. I. c. 20; and Ranulph of Che ft er, 1. I. c. 50. confound thefe Mercian Laws with the Laws of one Mania, Wife of
Cutthehn a Britifh King. Alfred the Great fays in his Preface to his Laws, That he had talon them from the Laws of Ethelbert King of Kent, Ir.a King
of Wiffex and Offa King of Mercia. Rafin.

(5) Malmsbury affigns no other Reafon for it, but that he was pufh'd on by an inveterate Animofity againft them, which he inherited from
°Jf J . P- 33

(6) IV. Malmsbury fays, that he ordered him to be fet at Liberty foon after, p. \\.
( 7 J Cuthred. Malmsbury.

(8; He rcftored Adelard, Archbifhop of Canterbury, to the Dignity of Metropolitan, Malmsb, ibid,

6 with



Vol. I.

with Vi£torv, they prefs him fo earneftly, that at length he
yields to their requeft, and heads the Army with Egric,
carrying nothing but a Switch in his Hand. God, who is
not directed by the Imaginations of Men, gave the Victory
to the Mercians, both the Eajl- Anglian Kings being (lain
on the fpot. They were fucceeded by Annas, Son of En-
nitts, Nophcw of Redowald.


in 664, leaving his Crown to Aldulph his Nephew, Son of


Of this Prince all we can learn is, that lie was alive
in 6S0, and aiiifted at the Council of Hatfield. His Suc-
cellbr was Alfuoald.




Ann- Sax.
Fl Wig.

Annas was one of the mod illuflrious Kings of Eajl-An-
glia. By his Aidit was, that Cenowalch King of Wcjfex, who
fled to him for Refuge, was reftored to his Kingdom, of
which lie had been depriv'd by Penda in 645.

This Action drew upon him the Hatred of Penda, who,
out of Revenge, refolv'd to carry Fire and Sword into
Eajl-Anglia. Annas died whilit he was preparing for his
Defence, leaving the Management of this dangerous War
to Ethdric, his Brother and Succeflbr ( 1 ).

E T E L R I C.


Alfwahl died in 749, and was fucceeded by Btmia andFI°r.
Ethelbert, who divided the Kingdom. M ' Wc!L


Ethelbert dying before the Year 758, Beorna reign'd a- 74.9,
lone. But we know nothing more of him, but that he
was fucceeded by Ethelred.


Ethdric dreading the Valour and Power of Penda, bribes
him with a Sum of Money to defift from his War with the
Eajl-Anglians, and to induce him to invade Northumberland,
offers to accompany him with all his Forces. I have alrea-
dy related how they were both (lain in an Engagement with
Ofivy. Addwald, Brother of Ethdric, mounted the Throne
after him.


Ethelred dying about the Year 790,


left the Crown to


6 . We know nothing more of this Prince, but that he died

This is the Prince that Offa King of Alereia put to
death in order to feize his Kingdom in 792 (3). From that
time Eajl-Anglia and Mercia made but one Kingdom.


Hiftory of the Kingdom ESSEX,

Ki'gim of


H E Kingdom of E/fex or the Eajl-Saxons was
bounded on the North by Eajl-Anglia, on the
Eaft by the German Ocean, on the South by the
Thames, and on the Wejl by Mercia. Its great-
eft length was feventy five Miles, and its breadth thirty
eight. It contain'd the Counties of Ejjix and Middlesex,
and part of Hertfcrdjhire. Tiie principal Cities were Lon-
don and Colcbefter ; the fnft of which became afterwards the
Metropolis of all England. It haa formerly been very confide-
rable, by reafon of its Situation, in the time of the Romans,
who made it a Colony. Bi:t in ail Probability it was redue'd
very low after the Arrival of the Saxons

This Country having been extorted {romlortigern by
Hengijl, after the Maffacre of the Britijh Lords, was erect-
ed into a Kingdom by Erchenvuin the firft King. Hiftorians
have neglefted to inform us of the occafion and manner of
founding this Kingdom, by which the Succeffbrs of Hengi/1
were depriv'd of almoft as large a Tract of Land as the
Kingdom of Kent. Had a Monaftery been in the cafe, we
fhould have had all the Particulars.


Erchenwin began his Reign in 527

c.Maim'n. ter " e nad rei S n ' d fixty Year*.
1. 1. c. 6. Son Sledda.

and died in 587, af-
He was fucceeded by his

during their Father's Life. After they had reign'd feven Bede, 1. 2.
Years, they rafhly came to an unequal Engagement withe 15-
Cinigifil and Iguicdm Kings of JVeffex, and were all three M-Weft '
cut off, with their whole Army. Their SuccelTor was Si-
gcbert the Little.



Sigcbert the Little. Nothing particular is known con-
cerning this Prince, not fo much as the time of his Death,
but only that he was fucceeded by Sigcbert the Good, Grand-
fon of a Brother of pious King Sabert, and was on the
Throne in the Year 653.

S I G E B E R T the Good.

Sigcbert reftor'd theChriftian Religion in his Dominions, g.,
from whence it had been expell'd ever fince the Death of fi w,g!
Sabert. He was affifted therein by Cedd, a Korthumber- "J Genca I,
land Piled, confecrated Bifhop of the Eajl-Saxons. This"
Prince was affaffinated in 655, by two Counts his Relati- n e
ons, who, having been excommunicated bv Cedd, complain'd
that the King, inftead of avenging their Quarrel, had cait
hirnfelf at the Feet of the Bifhop, begging pardon for con-
verfing with them alter their Excommunication. His Suc-
celTor was Swithclm his Brother.

G Malm.

1. 1. c 6.


S W I T H E L M.


It is not known in what Year this Prince died, but only There is nothing particular concerning this Prince except g.r
that his Son Sabert or Saba reign'd in 599. that Sebba and Siger fucceeded him. F I. wig.

G. Malm.


604. Sabert was the fiiR Chriftian King of EeJJex, being con-

Bcde, 1. : . verted by the preaching of Mellitus, and Sollicitation of E-
c 3" thdbert King of Kent, his Uncle by his Mother's Side (4).

He was noted for his Piety and Zeal for the true Religion.

He died in 616, and was fucceeded by his three Sons (5).


M. Weft.


Thefe three Princes reigning together, forfook with one
Confent the Chriftian Religion, which they had profefs'd

Sebba was Son of Seward, and Siger of Sigcbert the Lit-
tle, Son of the fame Seward. Siger return'd to Idolatry ;
but Stbba ftedfaftly adhered to the Chriftian Religion. They
were VafTalsto the King of Mercia, as was before obferv'd
in the Reign of Wulfer. Siger dying in 63 j, Sebba remain-
ed fole King of E/fex.

SEBBA alone.

Sebba reigned about eleven Years longer, and then, 685.

(1) The Sax. Ann. Huntir.gd. p. 317. and Matmsb. fey, that he was (Tain in a Battle with Penda.

(2) Tynd lays, he law in a Chronica] of Mailrefs a King nam'd Switbcard, who reign'd in 749. He might have luaceedtd JlfivalJ, Rapin,

(3) He was {aimed alter his Death. Malmib. Biw.pt •
(4.) Ricula, Sifter to Etbslbert, was Sabcrt's Mother. Rapin.
(5) He was buried in St.iWs Cathedral, which, according to fome, he built, Bigd, Pctydi. p. is8,



Book HI.

The Kingdom of KENT.


being very old, rurn'd Monk in 694. He left his Crown Pope's Hands. Ojfa is faid by fome to be fucceeded by 4W-
to Sighard and Senofrid his Sons. red or Selred, Son of Sigebert the Good.


S E O L R E D.

604, Thefe two Brothers reigned, and very probably died,
together about the Year 705. Offa, Son of Sigtr, mount-
ed the Throne after them.


Seolred reigned thirty eight Years, and was killed at laft, 707.
but by whom, or in what manner, is unknown. Son- 9: ! ^ 2iw -
thrcd his Son fucceeded him, as fome fay.



Bcde, /. <

This Prince defiring to marry, and carting his Eyes on
Cinifwintha, Daughter of Penda King of Mercia, goes
to the Court of Cenred to demand this Princefs his Aunt
in Marriage. But Cinifwintha, being very religious and
not young, perfuades her Lover to turn Monk, as fhe does
hkewife her Nephew King of Mercia. Thefe two Princes
went to Rome together, and received the Tonfure at the

This is the laft King of Effex, whofe Name occurs in
Hiftoryor the Saxon Annals. He began his Reign in 746,
and in cafe he was alive at the time of the Diffolution of
the Heptarchy, mult have reigned feventy eight Years.

Of all the Kingdoms of the Heptarchy, there is none
whofe Hiftory is fo imperfect as that of the Kingdom or"



Hiftory of the Kingdom of KENT.

Kingdom of



H E Kingdom of Kent, the firft that was
founded by the Saxons, being neither large nor
very confiderable, made no Figure in the Hep-
tarchy, only during the Reigns of Hengijl and
Ethelbert. It was very advantageoufly fituated, having the
Sea on the South and Eaft ; the Thames on the North ;
and the little Kingdom of Suffix on the Weft. As long
as this laft fubfifted, it ferved as a Bulwark to the Kings of
Kent, againft the Ambition of the Kings of JVeffex. But
after it was fubdued by the Wejl-Saxons, the Kingdom of
Kent was in continual Danger of falling under the Domini-
on of thefe powerful Neighbours. The Truth is, the Jea-
loufy between the Kings of Weffex and Mercia, and the
Equality of their Forces, were the only things that long
prevented this little Kingdom from becoming a Prey to
one or other of them. It was not above fixty Miles in
length, and thirty in breadth. The chief Towns were
Dorobern or Canterbury the Capital, Dover, Rochejier, and
fome others not fo large indeed, but confiderable however
for their Situation and Harbours, as Sandwich, Deal,
Folk/lone, Reculver, &c.

HENGIST./r/ King.

Hengijl arrived in Great Britain in 449. He affumed
the Title of King of Kent in 455, and died in 488. He
was fucceeded by his Son Efcus.


G. Malm.
I. 1. c. 1.


Flor Wig.





E S C U S.

As the Saxons, after the Death of Hengijl, conferred the
Command of their Armies on Ella King of Suffix, Efcus
very likely was not in fo great Efteem as his Father.
I know of nothing remarkable concerning his Reign ( 1 ),
which lafted to the Year 5 1 z. His Succeffor was Ocla his

O C T A.

This Prince fuffered, or at leaft could not prevent the
difmembring of Effex and Middlefex from the Kingdom
of Kent, to form the Kingdom of the Eajl-Saxons. This
is the only Particular we meet with during this twenty
two Years Reign. After Ocla, his Father Hermenric af-
cended the Throne of Kent.


There is nothing particular concerning this Prince, who
reigned however thirty Years. Before his Death he affo-
ciated Ethelbert his Son and Succeffor.


Ethelbert was one of the moft celebrated Kings, not
only of Kent, but of the whole Heptarchy. He was
famous upon many Accounts, particularly for his being
the firft Chriftian King of his Nation. But as I intend to
lpeak elfewhere of the Converfion of the Anglo-Saxons, I

ftiall relate here only fuch of Ethelbert's Actions as refpect
not Religion.

This Prince, who had a great and an afpiring Genius,
beheld with regret, that his Predeceffors had loft the Digni-
ty of Monarch and the Superiority Hengijl had over all
the Saxons, fettled in his time in Great-Britain. At his FI " r - Wl 's-
coming to the Crown, he finds Ceaulin King of JVeffex in j ',
poffeflion of this Superiority as Monarch. He refolves to M. w r ».
difpute it with him, but is twice worfted. For this caufe 568.
he remains quiet till the Year 593, when he takes up Arms
again, not fingly as before, but in conjunction with all the
other Kings, who are difpleafed with Ceaulin's feizing the
Kingdom of Suffix. Ethelbert being declared General,
defeated Ceaulin, who died foon after.

After Ceaulin's Death, Ethelbert being elected Monarch G. Malm.
of the Anglo-Saxons, and forgetting the Fall of Ceaulin, of' - '■ '■ *■
which he himfelf was the caufe, exercifed an almoft ab-
folute Power over all the Kingdoms lying South of the Bcde, /. i.
Humber, the Northumbrians alone having found means to'^ 2 —,
keep themfelves independent. All the reft chofe rather to
fubmit than contend with him (2).

Befides his being formidable to his Neighbours for his
great Accomplishments, he h,id moreover the Advantage of
being allied to France by means of his Marriage with Ber-
tha, Daughter of Cherebert King of Paris. This Alli-
ance procured him great Refpect, the Kings his Neighbours
having reafon to dread the introducing the French into Eng-
land, as he might eafily have done. But though the
Haughtinefs wherewith Ethelbert treated them, after feveral
Victories, made them exceeding uneafy, they had ftill a
much greater Occafion to be alarmed.

Upon the Death of Crida King of Mercia, Ethelbert ^q\.
feized that Kingdom, though the deceafed King had left a
Son of fit Age to fucceed him. In this Ethelbert trod ex-
actly in the Steps of Ceaulin, though he had himfelf ftirred
up the other Kings againft that Monarch, on account of
his Ambition. Thus Men, for the moft part, condemn
in others what they approve in themfelves. Ethelbert it
feems pretended that he had a Right as Monarch, or as
Defcendent of Hengijl, to fucceed to all the vacant Thrones
in the Heptarchy. P or when Fortune fmiles on a Man, he
eafily finds Reafons, good or bad, to fupport the moft ex-
orbitant Pretenfions. However this be, the Anglo-Saxon
Princes, alarmed at this open Ufurpation, began to ftir and
take Meafures to put a ftop to this formidable Power, before
it grew to a greater Height. The Monarch dreading they
would all join in a league againft him, and ferve him as
they did Ceaulin, thought it not Prudence to expofe himfelf
to the fame Danger. Accordingly, to make them eafy,
he reftored the Kingdom of Mercia to IVibba, Son of
Crida, referving however fuch an Authority over him,
that he durft not undertake any thing without his Order or
Leave. Satisfied with this kind of Moderation, the Eng-
lijh Princes laid afide all thoughts of a War, which Ne-
ceffity alone had driven them to.

Nothing very remarkable happened in the reft of Sax. Ann.
Ethelbert's Reign, except what relates to Religion, of FI ' W 'S>
which I fhall fpeak in the Hiilory of the Church. This
Prince had two Wives, the firft was Bertha of France

(1) H. Huvttngd. fays, that be enlarged his Dominions, by conquering the Kingdoms of the Britonl, p. 312.

(1) Malmibury obferves, that King Etbtltirl, in the beginning of his Reign, was a Scorn to the neighbouring Princes ; for being beaten in one or
♦wo Battles, he could fcarce defend his own Territories: but when in his riper Years he had learned more Experience in War, he foon brought under his
iub;eftion all the Nations of the Angh-Saxam, except the tftrtbumtrians. Rapin.

N 3 . 3. Vol. I. P by



Vol. L


C. Malm.
G. 'I hovn.
Hilt. Ab.
S. Aug.

c. 6.

I. -.

bv whom he had Edbaid his SuccelTor, and Ethelburga,
married to Edwin King of Northumberland. The Name
of his fecond Wife is unknown. He died in 6 1 6 ( 1 ), after
he had reigned fifty two Years.

E D B A L D.

EdbaLl was very unlike his Father. As foon as he be-
came his own Mafter, he forfook the Chriftian Religion
and turned Heathen. He is even faid to have married the
Queen his Mother-in-law. His Vices rendering him floth-
ful and unaclivc, all the Englijh Sovereigns caft oft' the
Yoke they had worn during the Life of Ethelbert. The
King of Mercia in particular having freed himfelf from the
Servitude Ethelbert had kept him in, Edbaid had neither
the Power nor Courage to maintain what the King his
Father thought he had fo firmly eftablifhed. I don't know
whether Hiftorians are not agreed in giving this Prince an
exceeding bad Character, in order to fet off" his Converfion
the more. However this be, they allure us, that by the
Pains of Laurentius, Archbifhop of Canterbury, he was
brought to a fenfe of his Errors, and returning to the Pro-
feffion of the Gofpel, fpent the remainder of his Days in
the Practice of its Precepts. He left two Sons (2), Ermen-
fred and Ercombert, which laft fucceeded him, and a Daugh-
ter named Enfwith, Foundrefs of the Abby ol[Folkjhne.


the Kingdom of Kent, occafioned by the Ambition of
fome Nobles who fortified themfelves, and refufed to ac-
knowledge Widred for King. In all probability Swabert
was one of the principal of the Rebels, fince he was aflb-
ciated into the Government. It is not known whether he
was any way related to the Royal Family.

In the Reign of thefe two Kings, Cadwallo King of the H , Hant>
WcJi-Saxons"\mzgm\ag the inteftine Divifions of Kent would 1. 4.
render the Kingdom an eafy Conqueft, fent an Army thi- 678.
ther under the Command of his Brother Mollon, who over- p 1 Walms '
ran great part of the Country. But at length, the two
Kings joining Forces, vanquifh him in Battle. Mollon per-
ceiving he was clofely purfued, took fhelter with twelve
others in a Houfe which they valiantly defended: But the Btompr .
Kentijh Soldiers fetting fire to it, they all miferably perifh'd c. Them,
in the Flames. Cadwallo foon revenged the Death of his 1 PuiyJ ' r '
Brother, whom he tenderly loved. He entered Kent with ' 5 ' C '
a formidable Army, and never left till he had deftroyed the
whole Country with Fire and Sword. After this Invafion,
Kent was reduced fo low, that it never more made any
Figure in the Heptarchy.

The two Kings enjoyed no Repofe till the Year 691. fax. Ann.
This perhaps is the rcafon of Bede's placing the beginning Flcr ' Wi S*
of Widred's Reign in this Year, tho' he was crowned five Holj " hr *
Years before. Swabert died in 695, and Widred remained
fole King of Kent.

WIDRED alone.

G. Malm-
/. i. c. 1.
G. Thorn.


Ereombert, though the youngeft of Edbald's Sons, found
means to afcend the Throne, in prejudice of his elder Bro-
ther ( 3 ). This Prince ordered the Temples of the falfe
Gods to be razed to the Ground, and the Idols broken in
Pieces, left they mould prove a Snare to the People.
Ermenfred his Brother being feized with a Diftemper that
brought him to his Grave, he promis'd to leave the Crown,
which of right belonged to him, to his Children. But he
was not fo good as his Word : Perhaps it was too late when
he came to think of it juft before his Death, in the Year
664 (4). He left two Sons, Egbert and Lothair, and two
Daughters ; Ermcnilda the eldeft was Wife of Wulpher
King of Mercia : The other was a Nun.


Egbert was no fooner on the Throne, but he put two
Sons of his Uncle Ermenfrid to Death, for fear they
fhould difturb him in the Poffeffion of the Crown. He
prefented their Sifter Domnena with fome Lands in the
Ifle of Thanet, where flie founded a Monaftery. This
Prince died in 673, leaving two Sons, Edric and Widred,
who were not his immediate Succeffors, the Crown being
feized by their Uncle Lothair.


6-,-,, After Lothair had reigned ten Years unmolefted (;),
Vit. Richar. to fecure the Succeflion in his Family, he made his Son
685. Richard Partner with him in the Government. This Pro-
ceeding obliges his Nephew Edric, Son of his Brother
Egbert, to withdraw from Court, and apply to Edelwalch
King of Suffex for Aid, who puts him at the Head of an
Army ; with which entring Kent, he vanquifhed Lothair,
who died of the Wounds he received in Battle. After this
Offici. Eccl. Viftory, Edric was crowned without Oppofition. Richard
Son of Lothair fled into Germany, where Boniface, Arch-
bifhop of Mcntz, an Englijhman, gave him his Sifter in
Marriage, and caufed him to be elected King of Suabia,
if we may believe fome Hiftorians. I don't know how he
came to die at Lucca in Tufcany, where his Tomb is ftill
68? to be feen. They ftile him King of England, though at
C. MUms. moll: he was but King of Kent.


This Prince reigned but two Years (6), and as he had
no Children, left the Crown to his Brother Widred, who
was forced to make Swabert his Partner, whofe Extraction
is unknown.

G. Malm

Andr. in
Feito Ric.

He reigned twelve Years alone, and died in 7;
leaving three Sons, Ethelbert, Edbcrt and Aldric :
two eldeft jointly fucceeded him.


5 (7), 69c.
TheSpcl. Con

Thefe two Brothers reigned together till the Year 748, ?2 r.
when Edbcrt died. Sit , ^

Flor. Wig.


This Prince reigned ten or twelve Years alone, and af- 748,
ter a Reign of thirty fix Years, left his Crown to his E P . Bonif.
Brother Aldric. He had aflociated his Son Ardulph, who 40 a " d Ti-
died before him (8}.


Aldric was frequently attacked by his Neighbours, who 760.
feeing the weak Eftate of the Kingdom of Kent, improv'd FI. Gcncal,
the Opportunity to fubdue it. Offa King of Mercia was M -" lmlb -
one of the moll forward. He gained a Battle upon Aldric, ' u c ' 3 "
which funk the Affairs of Kent very low, but however the
Jealoufy of the other Kings would not fuffer Offa to be-
come Mafter of the Kingdom. Befide, he was diverted
from the War by a IVelJh Invafion in Mercia, as hath been
related in the Hiftory of that Prince. Had it not been for
this, he would in all likelihood have united Kent to Mercia.

Aldric had aflociated his Son Alcmund, but that Prince
dying before him, he left no Heirs, and with him ended
the Race of Hengijl. After his Death, Edbert, fimamed
Pren, was placed on the Throne.



M ilrm,

The Kingdom of Kent being extremely weakned, (?<•-
nulph King of Mercia, making ufe of fo fair an Oppor-c
tunity, ravaged it from one end to the other ; and at laft '•
having defeated and taken Edbert Prifoner, carried him into
Mercia, where he ordered his Eyes to be put out. After
that he placed on the Throne Cudred, who was in abfolute.
Dependence upon him, and paid him Tribute.


This tributary King .reigned eight Years as Vaflal of the . „
King of Mercia, who permitted, after his Death in 805, s . xsZxAm.
his. Son Baldred to fucceed him. Rog. h v.

B A L D R E D.

WIDREDmiSWABERT. In the Reign of Baldred it was that the Heptarchy was

diffolv'd. The Diflblution began with the Conqueft of Kent
686. After Edric's Death, Troubles and Commotions arofein by Ecbert King of Weffex; as will be feen hereafter.

(1) Bide places his Death in 613. Feb. 24.

(2) By Emma Daughter of the King of the Francs. Malmib. He reigned twenty-three Years: Huntingd. p. 317.
(5) Through the Afiiftance and Appointment of his Father. S. Dumlm. p. 86.

(4) Malmib. p. 10. gives- this Character of him, " That he was famous both for his Piety towards Gcd, and his Love t» hi f Country."

(5) This could not be, if Malmsbury\ Account be true, tiix. That he was molefted for elm* Years by Edric the Son of Egbert, and that tbfv
had fevcral Engagements, with various Succefs, p. 1 1.

(6) For he was deprived both of his Kingdom and Life, lays Malmb. p. 11. but how, he does not mention.

[V Acco ^'"S to this Computation, he muff have reigned forty Years, whereas Matmtburj fays he reigned but thirty three, p. ir.
(SJ In this Reign Cttitcrburj was burnt. Malmti, p. II,



Book III.

The Kingdom of W E S S E &


Hiftory of the Kingdom of SUSSEX.

Tt: Killg-
dcm tj Sul-




B. II.

TH E Kingdom of Suffix was one of the mofl in-
confiderable of the Heptarchy. It contained only
the two Counties of Sujfex and Surry, the greateft
part of which confifted of the large Foreft of An-
dredjwald, fo called by the Saxons from Anderida, the Name
it had in the time of the Romans. As this Foreft flood un-
touched when Ella conquered Sujfex, we may fuppofe it
was cleared by degrees. This Kingdom was not above fifty
Miles long and forty broad. It was bounded on the North
by the Thames, on the South by the Sea, on the Eaft by
the Kingdom of Kent, and on the Weft by JVeffex. The
capital City was Chichejler, built by C'tffa the fecond King
of this Kingdom. He built alfo C'ijsbury, whofe Ruins are
ilill to be feen.

ELLA firjl King.

Ella arrived in Britain in 476, and was crowned King
of Suffix in 49 1 . He was a Prince of fo great Reputation
among the Saxons, that they judged him worthy to fucceed
HengiJl in the Command of their Armies. He met with
fome ill Succefs, having to deal with fo experienced a Ge-
neral as Arthur. But however it did not hinder him from
fettling in the Country where he firft landed, and founding
there the Kingdom of Sujfex or of the South Saxons. I have
largely fpoken of Baldulph and Colgrin his Sons, {lain in
the Battle of Badon. This Prince dying in 514, left the

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