M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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" Exhortation, adminiftered to her ; her hardened and
" obftinate Heart would not be humbled or mollified. She
" ftill boafted, that all fhe had done was performed by
" the Command of God and the Holy Virgin, who had
" vifibly appeared to her. And what is worfe, fhe would
" recognize no Judge on Earth, except God alone, and
" the Saints in Paradife ; rejecting the Judgment of our
" holy Father the Pope, and of a General Council, and
" the Univerfal Church Militant. Whereupon, her Ec-
" cleliaftical Judges feeing her perfevere fo long, and fo
" obftinately in her Refolution and Purpofe, ordered her
" to be conducted to the Church, before the Clergy
" and People, there affembled in great Multitudes ; in
" the prefence of whom her wicked Purpofes were fet
" forth, expofed and declared, folemnly and publickly,
" by a notable Doctor in Divinity ; to the Exaltation of
" our Faith, the Extirpation of Errors, the Edification
" and Amendment of Chriftian People. After that, fhe
" was charitably admonifhed to return to the Union of
" Holy Church , and reform her Faults and Errors,
" wherein fhe was hardened. And therefore, the Judges
" proceeded to denounce upon her, the ufual and culto-
" mary Sentence in fuch Cafes. But before the Sentence
" was fully declared, fhe feemingly began to relent, cry-
" ing out, fhe would return to Holy Church. This was
" readily and gladly heard by the Judges and Clergy,
4 " who

Book XL A Differ tation on the Maid c/ORLEAN S.


" who kindly received her, hoping by that means, her
" Soul and Body would be faved from Perdition and Tor-
" ment. Then fne fubmitted to the Ordinance of Holy
" Church, abjured with her own Mouth her Errors and
" deteftable Crimes, and made a publick Recantation, fign-
" ing the Inflrument with her own Hand. And thus,
" our companionate Mother Holy Church, rejoicing over
" this penitent Sinner, glad to find and reftore this ftrayed
" and loft Sheep to the reft of the Fold, condemned her
" to do Penance in Prifon. But hardly was fhe there,
" before the Fire of her Piide, which feemed to be cx-
" tinguifhed, re-kindled into peftiferous Flames by the Sug-
" geftions of the Enemy. And prefently, the unfortunate
" Joan relapfed into her former Eriors and Follies, lately
" abjured and recanted.

" For this reafon, according to the Decrees and Or-
" ders of Holy Church, fhe was again publickly preach-
" cd, that fhe might not hereafter infedt the reft of the
" Members of Chrift. And, as fhe was relapfed into
" her wonted wretched Crimes and Faults, fhe was de-
" livered over to the fecular Arm, and condemned to be
" burnt. Perceiving her end to approach, fhe plainly
" owned and con felled, that the Spirits which, fhe faid,
" appeared to her feverul times, were evil and lying Spirits,
" and that their frequent Promifes to free her, were falfe.
" So fhe acknowledged, flie had been deceived and mocked
" by thefe Spirits, and purfuant to her Sentence, was car-
" ried bound to the old Market-Place in Roan, and pub-
" lickly burnt in the Sight of all the People."

Before we proceed to her Trial, it will not be amifs to
fee a Letter, faid to be fent by her, to the King of Eng-
land and his Generals, before the Siege ot Orleans was
raifed. You have it as follows, in the Words of 'John de
Serres, a French Hiftorian.

King of England,

" Do Juftice to the King of Heaven, in his Royal
" Blood. Reftore to the Virgin the Keys of all the good
" Cities you have forced. She is come from God to
" demand the Blood Royal, and is ready to make Peace,
" if you are willing to do Juftice, and reftore what you
" have taken away. King of England, if you will not
" do thus, I am chief of the War. In what Place fo-
" ever I find your Men in France, I will make them de-
" part, whether they will or no. If they will fubmit,
" I will take them to Mercy. The Virgin comes from
" the King of Heaven, to drive you out of France. If
" you will not obey, fhe will make fuch a Havock, as
" has not been known in France this thoufand Years.
" And be allured, the King of Heaven will fend to
" her and her good Men at Arms, greater ftrength than
" you can have. Go in God's Name into your own
" Country. Perfift not obftinately in your Opinion ;
" for you fhall not hold France of the King of Heaven,
" Son of the Holy Mary. But King Charles the right
" Heir fhall poftefs it, to whom God has given it, and
" he fhall enter Paris with a noble Train. You, IVilliam
" Poullet Earl of Suffolk, John Lord Talbot, Thomas Lord
" Scales, Lieutenants of the Duke of Bcthford, and you
" Duke of Bethford, filling yourfelf Regent of France,
" fpare innocent Blood. Leave Orleans at Liberty. If
" you do not Juftice to thofe you have injured, the French
" will perform the nobleft Exploit that ever was done
" in Chriftendom. Hear this Advice from God and the
" Virgin."

This Letter, writ in a prophetick Style, by a Girl
who pretended to be fent from God, and appears fo cer-
tain of the Future, ought to contain nothing but what was
afterwards found to be exactly true. And yet, there
are Predictions in it, which were never accomplished.
For inftance, it is not true, that fhe drove one fingle
Englijhman out of France. She farther affirms, fhe will
make fo great a Havock, as had not been known this thou-
fand Years in France. Thefe Words can 1 elate only to
the raifing of the Siege of Orleans, and the Battle of Patay.
But the firft of thefe Actions has nothing in itfelf extraor-
dinary. That a Garrifon fhould make a Sally and drive
the Befiegers from their Pofls, is a thing too common to
be reckoned a Miracle. As to the Battle of Patay, fup-
\iohngjoan had commanded the French Army, which fhe
did not, can that Action be faid to deferve to be exprelled
in the Terms fhe ufes ? The Bnglijh had only fix thou-
fand, and loft two thoufand five hundred. That Defeat
hardly bears any Proportion to thofe of the French at Crtjf,
Poi fliers, A%incourt, the firft of which, was but a hundred
Years before Joan's time, and the laft but thirteen or four-

It is further remarkable, That in her Letter, fhe fpeaks
as if fhe were actually at the Head of the Armies of
France, fince (he luminoned the King of England, to re-

turn her the Keys of all the Towns in his Pofil-ffion.
And yet, the Letter muft have been writ whilft fhe was
only upon the March, with the Convoy defirrned forOr-
leans; which inftead of commanding, 'fhe obtained, fays
Monjlrelct, as a fort of favor, leave to accompany. I fay
nothing of her fpeaking to the King of England, as if
then a grown Perfon, thoueh he was but nine Years old,
exhorting him not to perfift in his Opinion, nor of hei
admonifhing him to depart out of France, though he was
then in England; thefe things may be palled over as be-
ing in a prophetick Stile, and taken as fo many Figures of
Speech. But fhe fhould at leaft have known the Names
of thofe fhe addrefled herfelf to, and not have called the
Earl of Suffolk, Poullet, when his Name was it la Pole.
lomiltake the Name of Foreigners, may beealily excufed
in common Perfons : But 1 do not know whether it is
pardonable in one, who pretended to fpeak in the Name,
and by the Authority of God. Thefe, and feveral other
Rcafons, which it would be tedious to infift upon, induce
me to believe, this Letter was compofed after the Event,
by feme Perfon, that knew the Maid had really writ to
the King of England, or the Duke of Bedford, as we fhall
fee prefently.

Let us proceed now to theProcefs of J can of Arc, as we
find it in Pafquier. I fay to the Procefs, and not to the
Sentiment ot that Author, who lived too long after her,
for his Teftimony to be of any great Weight. It fuffices
to fay with regard to him, that he every where fpeaks of
her with great Commendations, and believed fhe was really
infpired, and fent from God to fave France. Here follows
her Examination and Anfwers, which I fhall abridge as
much as poffible, without obfeuring the Senfe.

In the firft Place, being charged to fpeak the Truth, fhe
replied, fhe would fay what concerned her Father and Mo-
ther, but not difclofe the Revelations fhe had told King
Charles, though in eight Days fhe fhould know whether
fhe might or no.

To the fecond Qiieftion, concerning her Name and Fa-
mily, fheanfwered, fhe was of the Village of Dompre, W3s
called in her own Country Jeanctte, but in France, Joan
of Arc. That her Father's Name was James of Arc, and
her Mother's Ijabel/a, &c.

That fhe was then about twenty nine Years old.
That fhe was by Trade a Seamftrefs and Spiniter, and
not a Shepherdefs.

That fhe went every Year to Confeflion.
That fhe frequently heard a Voice from Heaven, and in
the Place where fhe heard it, faw alfo a Light, which fhe
took for an Angel. That the Voice had often warned her
to go into France, and raife the Siege of Orleans. That
fhe fhould go to Robert de Baudricourt, Captain of Vau-
couleurs, who would give her a Guard to condud her,
which fhe did accordingly.

She added; fhe knew, God loved the Duke of Orleans,
and fhe had received more Revelations concerning him,
than any Perfon living, except the King.

Item. She confelled file was ingaged in a Skirmifh before
Paris, on a Holy-day, and being asked whether that was
Right, fhe anfwered, Go on.

Being asked when fhe heard the Voice laft, fhe replied,
Yefterday, three times ; in the Morning ; at the time of
Vefpers ; and when the Ave Maria Bell rung in the Even-

Being asked, whether fhe had ever feen any Fairies, fhe
anfwered, No; but that one of her God-Mothers pretend-
ed to have feen fome at the Fairy-Tree, near the Village
of Dompre.

Being examined who they were that fpoke to her, fhe
anfwered, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret, and fhe had
frequently feen and touched them fince lhc was in Prifon,
and killed the Ground on which they trod. Aloreovei,
that fhe confulted them about her Anfwers.

She faid further, fhe had put on Man's Cloaths by the
exprefs Command of God, and was wounded in the Neck
before Orleans.

Item. That, within feven Years, x\\cEngl:Jh mould leave
a greater Pledge than that befoie Orleans, and lofeall they
pollcllcd in France.

That they fhould fuftain in France a much greater Lofs,
than what they had yet done, by means of a great Victory,
which the French fhould gain over them.

Being asked, whether fhe bore any Coat of Arms, fhe
anfwered, No, but only her Standard. That it was true,
the King had given her Brothers a Coat of Arms ; namely,
in a Field Azure, two Flowet-de- luces, Or, and a Crown
in the Middle.

She added, that her Father dreamt fhe would go with
the Soldiers, and for ti at Reafon kept her fhort, and faid,
he had rather fee her 1 rowncd.

Then fhe was charg.-d with throwing herfelf head-
long from the Tower, in order tu Jcii. herfelf, whilft fhe
was Prilcmer at Btaurembr, She con.ei.su in*- 1 ¬Ђil, but



The H I S TO R Y of E N G L A N D.

Vol. I.

feid, her Defign was not to kill herfelf, but make her

Whilft her Procefs was in hand, fhe defired leave to
hear Mafs, and communicate at Eafter. This was granted
her, upon condition me would put on Women's Clothes ;
but fhe chofe rather not to communicate, than do it on
that Condition.

She was taxed with fuffering herfelf to be worfhipped ;
but (he replied, if fome People had killed her Hand, or
Clothe-, it was without her Confent.

After thefe Anfwers, came feveral others, which give
cccafion to believe, they were made to as many Interro-
gations, fuppreffed by Pafquier. And are as follow:

That fhe had talked with St. Catherine and St. Mar-
garet, at the Fairy-Tree, and not with the Fairies, as
flie had been aceufed. That fhe began at thirteen Years
of Age to converfe with thefe Saints.

That at twenty Years old, fhe hiied herfelf at Ncufcha-
tel in Lorrain, to a Woman that kept an Inn, called La
Rouffc, and there led the Beafb to Grafs, and watered the
Hoifes, and fo learned to ride.

That whilft flie was there, file had a Law-Suit about
a Marriage, before the Official of Thoul, and carried her

That after ferving five Years, fhe returned to her Fa-
ther, and, againft his Will, went to Baudricourt, who
made no Account of her for the two fit ft Months, but in
the third gave her a Guard of twenty Knights, a Squire,
and four Servants, to conduct her to Chinon, where the
King wa'.

The Judges eameftiy preffing her to put on Woman's
Apparel : She replied, fhe dclired to have none of her Sex's
Clothes, but a Shift after fhe was dead.

Whereupon flie was told, fhe fliould be received to Com-
munion only in Women's Clothes ; but fhe refufed toeotn-
ply with that Condition. However, fhe confented at laft
to take a Woman's Habit to hear Mafs, provided fhe
fhould be allowed to put on Man's Clothes again. But as
that favour was refufed her, flie declaied, fhe would rather
die than be dreffed like a Woman, contrary to God's ex-
prefs Command.

She faid likewife, fhe had promifed the King to raife the
Siege of Orleans, and caufe him to be crowned.

She was taxed with being always againft a Peace ;
which fhe owned, affirming, there could be no Peace con-
cluded, unlefs the Englijh would leave France.

The Proctor charging her with caufing a Sword to be
concealed in St. Catherine's Church at Ficrbois, and fend-
ing for the fame, after fhe had talked with the King, fhe
denied fhe had ever ufed any Frauds. She owned how-
ever, fhe had heard three Maffes in that Church.

Upon being aceufed of faying, flie was fent from God to
wage War, which was directly contrary to the Will o! God;
fhe anfwered, that in the Letter fent by her to the King of
England and the Princes of the Blood, fhe had firft offered
them Peace. Pafquier fays, the Letter is copied in the
Tiial. But as he thought not proper to tranferibe it him-
felf, one cannot be fure it is the fame inferted by de Serres
in his Hiftory.

Upon being charged with putting to Death Franquet
d' Arras her Piifoner; flie replied, he was a known Rob-
ber, and condemned to die by the Bailiff of Sen/is.

Upon the Charge of having feveral times communicated
in Man's Clothes, and kneeled to the Voice which fpoke to
her ; She confefled it all.

The Proctor aceufed her alfo of having feduced many
People to fuch a degree, that they reverenced her as a
Saint, caufed Prayers to be faid in the Church to her Ho-
nour, maintained that, next to the Holy Virgin, fhe was
the greateft of Saints, and wore about them her Image in
Lead, or other Metal. To this Charge fhe replied, that
God fhould be Judge.

Upon the Accufation of ufurping Dominion over Men,
by making herfelf Chief of the War, flie anfwered, fhe
had dune it to beat the Englifl.'. Adding, her Standard was
of Linen or Fuftian, bordered with Velvet, with a Field
femee of Fleur-de-lis, and in the middle, the Image of God
holding the World, fupported by two Angels in white, and
underneath, '/ejus Alaria.

Whereupon her Judges upb; aided her, that flie was in
the wrong to afcribe unto God fuch Vanities, contrary to
the Reverence due to him, and asked her, whether fhe put
her Confidence in her Stanuard ; to which fhe replied,
fhe placed her Confidence only in him whofe Image it

After this fhe was asked, why fhe held alone her Stan-
dard at the Coronation ol King Charles. She anfwered
i but j lit, i hat he who had been in Truuoie, fhould

I'- vile in Glory.

was farther told, that being wounded before Paris,
fl ifed her Armour to be hung up in tiie Church of

St. J ..'j; out of Oftentation: She replied, ihe did it

from a Motive of Piety, according to the Cuftom of thofe
that were wounded in War.

Laftly, She was asked, iffhewouIJ fubmit to the Judg-
ment of the Church Militant. She anfwered, flic would,
provided the Church did not enjoin her what was imprac-
ticable. That fhe could not in any wife revoke what fhe
had faid concerning her Vifions and Revelations, and if
the Church affirmed they were Illufions, in that cafe, fhe
would not refer it to the Judgment of Men, but to God

The Examination being ended, the Judges drew a Sum-
mary of her Confeffions. Containing

L That being thirteen Years old, fhe faw St. Michael,
St. Catherine, St. Margaret, and a great. Company of An-

II. That thefe Saints advifed her to go to King Charles,
and to wear Mens Clothes.

III. That flie chofe rather not to hear Mafs and com-
municate, than put on Woman's Apparel.

IV. That flie refufed to fubmit to the Judgment of the

V. That fhe pretended to foretel future Contingencies.

VI. The fhe knew Saints by their Voices, whom flie
had never feen or heard before.

VII. That fhe was exprefly commanded by God to wear
Men's Clothes.

VIII. That flie caft herfelf headlong from a Tower,
chufing rather to die than remain in the hands of her

IX. That flie not only faw and heard, but likewife
touched bodily St. Catherine, and St. Margaret, and kiffed
the Ground on which they trod.

The Proctor having taken his Conclufions upon thefe
Articles, it was faid by the Judges, That what Joan cf
Arc had done, was all a Cheat, and the Invention of
the Devil, to delude the poor People : That fhe was
guilty of Difobedience to her Parents, and of Idolatpy,
to the Difhonour of the Church ; particularly, for chufing
rather to deprive herfelf of the Body of our Lord, than
lay afide Men's Clothes. At this Sentence were pre-
fent the Bifhops of Coutance and Lificux, the Chapter
of the Cathedral of Roan, fixteen Doctors, fix Licenti-
ates, or Batchelors in Divinity, and eleven Advocates of

This Sentence being fent to the Univerfity of Paris,
was confirmed by the Faculties of Divinity and the De-
crees, and Joan pronounced Heretick and Schifmatick.
Then the Univerfity writ to the King and the Bifhop
of Bayeux, to dcfire fhe might be put to death. It does
not appear in Pafquier, to what Punifhment fhe was
condemned by this firft Sentence. All that can be faid,
is, flie was at leaft excommunicated. However that be,
'Joan being carried into the Church, and placed on a
Scaffold, was publickly preached, as it was called in thofe
Days. All thefe Preparations ftriking her with great
Dread, fhe cried out aloud, She would fubmit to the
Judgment of God and the Pope. But finding what fhe
laid was not fufficient to revoke her Sentence, or ftop the
Publication, fhe declared, She would ftand to the Church's
Determination: That fince fo many wife and learned
Men affirmed her Vifions came not from God, flie
was willing to believe fo too, which fhe repeated feveral
times. Then file made a publick Abjuration, inferted in
the Trial, but Pafquier thought not fit to give the Con-

Upon this Abjuration, another Sentence intervened,
abfolving her from the Bond of Excommunication, and
condemning her to perpetual Imprifonment by way of
Penance. Alter that, fhe put on Woman's Apparel. But
as flie had all along been very obftinate to Men's
Clothes, which fhe wore, as file faid, by God's exprefs
Command, it was thought proper to try whether her
Abjuration was fincere, by leaving a Man's Habit with
her in Prifon. This Expedient, to her Misfortune, fuc-
ceeded but too well, fince file was no fooner alone, than
flie relumed this fame Habit. On the morrow, being
found in that Drefs, fhe was asked the Reafon : To
which file anfwered, She had put on her former Habit
by the exprefs Order of St. Catherine and St. Marga-
ret, and had rather obey God than Man. Whereupon,
an Information was entered againft her in the Ecclefiafti-
cal Court, and fhe was declared an Heretick Relapfe, and
delivered over to the fecular Arm. Pafquier fays nothing
of her Confeffion, according to the King of England's
Letter, that fhe was feduced by lying Spirits, who had
promifed to fet her free. Indeed, this Confeffion is direct-
ly contrary to the Inferences Pafquier would draw from
the Recuids of the Trial, nameh, that Joan was in-
fpired by God. He only fays, fhe was fentenccd to be
burnt, May the 31ft, 1431. But as all the reit of the


Book XI f. A D fieri at ion on tie Maid of ORLEANS.


Facts, mentioned in the King's Letter, exactly agree with
the Records of the Proccfs. I do not fee why Pafquier's
Silence fhould caufe this to be queflioned.

One might make numberlefs Reflections upon the Exa-
mination, Anfwers, and Behaviour of the Maid. But not
to tire the Reader's Patience, I fhall content my felf with
the following Remarks.

i . It is certain, Pafquier's View in what he has related of
this Trial, was, to prove Joan's Infpiration. And there-
fore, prejudiced as he was, he made no fcruple to curtail
in feveral Places, the Queftions and Anfwers. This mani-
feftly appears, in that Feveral of the Anfwers have no Con-
nexion with the Queftions, nor with one another. For In-
stance, what fhe fays in her Anfwer to the fecond Queftion,
concerning the Duke of Orleans, necetTarily fuppofes fome
other Queftion, which Pafquier was pleafed to omit.

2. It appears, that he has pafled over in Silence fome of
the Anfwers. For Example, it is faid in the Summary of
Joan's Confeflion, that file had boafted of feeing St. Mi-
chael, and yet it is not mentioned in the Examination.

3. Pafquier would not tranferibe Joan's Letter to the
King of England, or her Abjuration : Papers however of
no lets Importance, than all he has produced. Much more
unwilling was he to mention her Confeflion before file
died, that fhe was feduced or deceived. Thefe Omiflions
gave occafion to prefumc, that Pafquier fought in Joan's
Trial, not fo much what might be of fervice to difcover
the Truth, as what he believed conducive to prove his
Opinion. And indeed, he multiplies Words, to draw from
Joan's Anfwers Confequences favorable to his Notion , and
to (hew, that her Predictions were fulfilled, and her Afler-
tions all true. He labours chiefly to prove, by very weak
Arguments, that the Duke of Orleans was, as the Maid
affirmed, greatly beloved of God. Among other Reafons,
he alledges this : That God had blefl'ed that Prince with
two illuftrious Sons, the one, legitimate, afterwards King
of France, by the Name of Lewis XII, the other Natural,
namely, the great General, known firft by the Name of
the Baftard of Orleans, and afterwards by that of Earl of
Duncis and Lmgueville . But every one knows, this laft
was natural Brother, and not Son of the Duke of Orleans,
mentioned by Joan. It is furprifing that a Man fo verfed
as Pafquier in the Hiftory of France, fhould be guilty of
fo grofs a Miftake.

Having related fuch Fails concerning the Maid, as
cannot be denied, fince they are fupported by incontestable
Teftimonies, nothing more remains, but to examine the
three Opinions upon this Affair, in order to embrace the
moft probable.

Molt of the French Writers maintain, that Joan was
really infpired, and fent by God, and found their Opi-
nion upon thefe four principal Reafons. The firft is, the
Poflibility of God's working fuch Miracles. But this Point
may be granted them, and yet they not able to draw any
Inference from the Poflibility, for the Truth of the Fact.

The fecond is, Joan's own Evidence, grounded upon her
Vifion6 of Saints and Angels. But this is the very Thing
in queftion, and confequently cannot be urged as a Proof.

The third Reafon is taken from her knowing King
Charles in difguife, among his Courtiers. This does not
deferve notice. Suppofing, as a great many believe, that
Joan was perfuaded to act this part, it is eafy to conceive,
fhe might be very well inftructed to know die King, tho'
file had never feen him before.

The fourth is founded upon the accomplishment of her
Prediction, of the raifing of the Siege of Orleans, and
the King's Coronation, at a time when thefe Events were
extremely improbable. This Reafon, added to her uncom-
mon Valour on all Occafions, is doubtlefs, the ftrongeft
that can be alledged for this Opinion. However, the
Objections this Argument is liable to, very much weaken,
if not wholly deftroy it.

Firft, It may be objected, it is fhe herfelf, who faid
in her Examination, and after the Event, that fhe had
foretold to the King, the raifing of the Siege of Orleans,
and his Coronation. We have obferved, that Monjirelet
does not make her fpeak fo precifely. He only makes
her fay to the King in general Terms, That Jlie would
exalt his Dominion, and drive his Enemies out of the King-
dom ; which however fhe did not perform, fince the En-
glijh were not expelled out of France, till above twenty
Years after her Death.

Moreover, Joan fays in her Examination, thefe two
Things Were revealed to her by St. Catherine and St.

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