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And indeed, it is hard to conceive what could induce Edward Bretagne
wantonly to renew the War, at a Juncture when he fhould Vl d J""rl € '
have thought himfelf very happy in being left unmolefted. ^ 0K4 "
Nay it appears in the Collcilion of the Publick Ails, that ,

he was not without Fear of an Infurrection of the Lancaf- cmctjBtmtt
trians. At leaft it feems, to this only can be afcrib'd his ttt Clergy.
care to gain the Clergy to his interefts, by granting them a £ft. Pub.
Favour, none of his Predeceffors had ever willingly granted ; p '
namely, that for the future all Eccleiialtical Perfons indicted
for any Crime, fhould be tried in the Ecclefiafticai Court,
without the Interpofition of the King's Judges upon any
pretence whatfoever. By this fame Patent, he fcreened the
Clergy from the Penalties of the Statutes of Provijhs and

(1) And a!lj Sir Thmai Tudenbam Kn : ght, William Tyrri/, and Walter Montgomery Efiiuires. The Dukes of Exeter and Somerfet, with a hun-
dred and forty more, were attainted. This John de Vert, is laid to have difputed in a former Parliament the Ctueftion about the Precedency of
Tempral anj Spiritual Barons (a bold Attempt in thofe Days ) and by his Arguments carried it for the Lords Temporal. Stow, p. 416. Hd-
lingjb. p- 1 3 1 3 .

1 2) This Year, in the Harveit-feafon, King Edward took a Progrefs through feveral parts of England; nr.mely, to Canterbury, Sandwich, and Co
along the Sea-coaft to Southampton, and. from thence into the Marches of fValct, and to Brtjlol. Stow, p- 416.

;v The weirern Illes, called by the Inhabitants Inch Gall j by a Writer of the latt Age, Hebrides ; by the Antients, Beteorica, Jmhadel, Leueadet,
titeiudei, commonly thought fo be lorty four in Number, but are really more. Among them is Jena, which Bede calls Hy or nu, given to the Sctcb
Monks by the Ptets, for preaching the Golpel amonglt them. Here Hands a Monastery laraous for the Burial of (he Kings of Scotland. The In-
habitants of thefe Illes fpeak the Irijh Language, and retain the Cuftoms, CSV. of the antient Sects, as the Highlanders do. They aie enjoyed at
prelent by the Mac-Ccnelit, who derive themielves fiom this Donald, who took the Title of King of tbe IJet, and ravaged Scotland in a cruel manner.
^4.) That of the Earl ot Rofs to be two hundred Pounds. Fyrner 1 s Ford. Tom. 11. p- 485.

(5; In which were the Lords Audky and Clinton, Sir 'John Howard, Sit Richard tPalgrai/c, aid others, t» the Number of ten U.ouknd. Hcllingjk.
r 1 3 1 3. Stow, g. 41G.


Book XIII.

16. E D W A R D IV.



Praemunire, pafled in the 1 6th Year of Richard 11. He Places were cafily taken, and the commanding Officer; 146-,
pretended, he was induced to this Conceffion from his great punifhed. Alnwick., where a Frenchman commaiuled with
Zeal for Religion, his Dread of the Excommunications de- fome Troops of his Nation, held out till the Earl of A:-
creed by the Holy Canons, and his Belief that all the Cala- gus came to its Relief with a Body of Scotch Troop." (10).
mities with which England had been for fome Time afflicted, But the Earl could do no more tlian draw out the

Garnfon, probably by a Treaty with the Benegcr^,

though Buchanan fays otherwife.

Edward being arrived at London, ordered two Patents Montagm ;

to be drawn under (he Great Seal, to reward the Lord *■''""*

were the juft Judgments of God for the difregard fhown
to his Miniftcrs. But, very probably he was led by quite
another Motive, to break fo many Statutes, which the Par-
liaments had deemed neccflary to check the Growth of the
Clergy's Power.

About the end of this Year, the Truce of Com-
merce between England, and the Duke of Burgundy's Do-
minions, was prolonged for fome time (1).

Mean while, Edward hearing that Preparations were
Edward. alls privately making in Scotland, and probably againft him,
Kali of called upon the Earl of Rof; to perform his Promife ;
and for that purpofe, appointed Commiflioners, who were
ordered to receive his Oath. But the Earl, who had his
Spies in England, not feeing that Edward was really pre-
paring to fupport him, did not think proper to begin, for
fear of being deferted.

It was not without Reafon, that Edward dreaded a
Storm from the North. Prefently after, Queen Marga-

Ib. P . 493,



form b\
p. 499.



Montague and Sir William Herbert, with the Dignity he and Herbert
conferred on them. The firft had done him a great Scr- Barltf
vice in his two late Victories. The other had all along ^■^■" ki '
diftinguifhed himfelf by an extraordinary Zeal for the Ha'-]."
Houfe of York. So, being pleafed to give them both StJW -
Marks of his Gratitude, he created the former Earl of
Northumberland, and the latter Earl of Pembroke ; Henry
Percy, and Jafper Tudor, who bore thefe Title-, having
forfeited them by adhering to King Henry. But Per^y
fubmitting afterwards to the King, and obtaining his Par-
don, Montague willingly refigned him the Title of Earl
of Northumberland, for that of Marquifs of Montague.
As for the Title of Earl of Pembroke, care muff be taken
not to confound the two Lords that bore it ; namely, Jaf-

tkc Nirrb

ret having obtained of the King of France, an Aid of per Tudor Half-Brother of Henry VI, and William Hir-




and is for-
ced to jit to


0/ England ; five hundred Men, with the Promife of a greater, em-
barked to make a Defcent into England. As fhe hoped,
the Inhabitants of the Northern Counties would take
Arms in her favor, fhe landed at the Mouth of the Tine.
But flic found there a Body of Englijh Troops, who
forced her to re-embark with Precipitation. A few Hours
after, her Ship being feparated from the reft of the Fleet
by a Storm, it was with great difficulty that, having en-
tered the Tweed, fire at laft landed at Berwick. The
relt of the Ships were driven towards Bamburgh, where
the French would have landed ; but the Baftard Ogle (2),
who was in thofe Parts, having hindered their Defcent,
they retired to the little Ifle of Lindisfarn ; for the Wea-
ther would not furlcr them to put to Sea. Thither Ogle
followed them, and attacking them flew part, and took
four hundred Prifoners. Their Leader (3) was the only
Perfon, that found means to efcape in a Fifher-boat to

Edward, ipon receiving this news, eafily perceived,
Margarc ■■> fecure of the Affiftanre of the Scots, and
would narch into England. 1 his fear caufing him

feriou f . attend to his Affairs, he difpatched the Lord
Mc.iague, with what Troops were ready, whilft himfelf
haftcned a great Armament, he was making by Sea and
L.uid, t. . oppofe his Enemy (4).

Mont tgue having begun his March, heard upon the Road,
that the Queen was entered Northumberland at the Head
of an Army, which daily increafed, by reafon of the great
Licence the Soldiers were allowed (5). He advanced
howe er as far as Durham, where he ftaid fome days ex-
pecting a Reinforcement, fent by the King. Thefe Sup-
plies Leing arrived^ he continued his March, and meeting
a Detachment of the Enemies (6), commanded by the
Lords Hunger ford and Rof, attacked and put them to
Rout. Ralph Percy, who ferved Henry, though he had
taken the Oath to Edward, was flain in this Adlion.
The Duke of Somerfct making no more Scruple than
Percy, of breaking his Oath, was likewife gone to join the

Montague, incouraged with this Succefs, marched imme-
diately to Hexham, where Henry lay intrenched (7), and
attacking him in his Lines, without giving him time to

punb.m to recover himfelf, gained a compleat Victory. The Duke
of Somerfet, the Lords Rof and Hungerford, (8), were
taken Prifoners ; but Henry, Margaret, and the Prince
their Son, fled into Scotland. The Prifoners were not
long fuffered to languifh. Some Days alter, the Duke of
Somerfct was beheaded at Hexham, Rof, and Hungerford,
el fe where ; and twenty Officers of Diftindtion at York.
Many others, who had concealed themfelves in feveral
Phces, being difcovered, or given up to the Conqueror,
were likewile facrificed to his Vengeance.

After this Victory, Edward, who was advanced to Dur-
ham, fent the Earl of Warwick farther Northwards, to

I, mdon.W recover fome Places taken by the Queen ; after which, he

kvecitbt returned to London. The Earl of Warwick having no-

Tie King

fords MV.n-

l..gue into

tec North.

Art. Pub.
XI. p. jju
5 0, „'


Henry ar.d
re- e nter

tie f rats a
Detjcbm nt
of their

He attjrkl

Camp, tin,

Hairy ef-
11 bohcttded.

Edward re-

rns to


Warwick in thing to fear after his Brother's Victory, divided his Ar-
my into three Bodies, and befieged at once Bamburgh,
Dunfanburgh, and Alnwick (9). The two firft of thefe

Si )» .


bcrt, who was in Edward'?. Service.

Whilft Edward was enjoying the Tranquillity pro- Prtfsn ■ -
cured by his late Victory, he received Advice that Pre- "." ™° k r z
parations were making in France, to fupport the Intcrelts agaMr&i-
of Henry and A'largaret. Whereupon he refoived to fend ward.
for the Earl of Warwick, and leave the Marquifs of"' c f "*. r y
Montague in the North, with a Patent of Governor of Warwick!
the Northern Marches , and a Power to levy what
Troops he thought nccelTary. He did not doubt, that
his Enemies had retolved to make their greatcft Efforts
from that quarter, by reafon of the Neighbourhood of
Scotland. Thefe Precautions, joined to his late Viftory,
probably cooled the Ardour of the French and the Scots.
Soon after the Scots demanded a Safe-ConduiSf. for Ambaf-
fadors they intended to fend to him. At the fame time, ^ Truce
Lewis XI, negotiated a Truce with him, by the Duke *"«* <*>c
of Burgundy's Mediation. This Truce was actually con- , r A nC p'.
eluded at St. Orner, to the ift of Oclobcr 1464, on the XI. P . 504,
condition, that neither of the two Kings fhould affift the 5°8-
Enemies of the other. The Duke of Burgundy agreed a -.d D-Ac ef
likewife to renew, for one Year, the Truce of Com- Burgundy,
merce between England and the Low-Countries. p ' 5 ° 7-

After Edward had thus fecured himfelf againft France, ar.d „.,.(,
he concluded with Scotland a Truce for a Year, ncgoti- Scotland,
ated by the Archbifhop of St. Andrew's at London, in the p ' 5 '°'
Name of the Regents. Thus having nothing to fear
from his Neighbours, at lead for one Year, he faw him-
felf at leifure to ftrengthen himfelf in the Throne, in
cafe of another Attack.

Mean while, the unfortunate Henry, deferted by the Henry and
King of France, the King of Scotland, and the Duke of Margaret in
Burgundy ; who alone, were able to affift him, faw him- *■"" PcT ~
felf entirely without Refuge. He was ftill at Edinburgh, ?''*"■>''
but not without Uneafinefs. Befides that the late Truce
between the Englijh and Scots, did not allow thefe laft to
give him any Affiftance ; very likely, in concluding the
Truce with Scotland, Edward had ftipulated, that his Ene-
my fliould not be fuffered to remain any longer in that
Kingdom. It even appears in the Colleclion of the Pub- p . 508.
lick Ails, that before the Truce was figned, the two Kings
of England and Scotland, agreed upon certain fecret Ar-
ticles, which could only concern the unfortunate fugitive
King. Be this as it will, Henry not knowing where to Henry fan-
retire, prepofteroufly imagined he mieht be concealed in "" h < "M
England. Perhaps, he flattered himfelf that the Inhabi- *2SS!
tants of the northern Counties would rife in his favour. Hall.
But unhappy Princes feldom meet with faithful Friends.
At leaft, it may be prefumed, that fearing to be delivered
up by the Scots, and having no Conveniency to efcape by
Sea, he hoped to find a fafe Retreat v/ith fome Friends
in England, till an opportunity offered of paffing into
France. Whatever his Defign might be, he had no Hc ., .^ k . n -
fooner fet foot in England but he was known, feized (n), "id corned
ignominioufly conducted to London (12), and confined in '° L " naon -
the Tower. Some affirm, he was taken the laft 'tear at
the Battle of Hexham, or at leaft a few Days after. But
it appears in fome Publick Ails, that in Oilcbcr, that
Year, he was not yet in Edward's Power. It is there-
fore more probable he was taken, as I faid, in endeavour-

(1) For a Year, from December I?. Rymer's Faed. Tom. II. p. 497-

(2) And John Manners. Hall, fed. 190. (3) Peter de Brefc.

(4) See an acci tint ot the Lords and Knights that accompanied him in this Expedition, in Stow, p. 416, 417.

(5) She wok Bumborougb Caftle, and gamlontd it with Scots, making Sir Ralph Gray Governor. Hail, tol. 190. Sntv, p. 417.
,6) At Hegelcy-More, in June. (7) On Lyvefs-Plain, near the Water of Detail in Hexhamjhire. Halt, tol. 190.
[ij As alio the Lord M-lyns, Sir Themes Wenpa/orlb, Sir Thomas Hafey, Sir John Fyndcrne, &c. Ibid. Hcllmgln. p. 1314.

(9) Having with h:m the Lords Montague, Favconbridge, Scrcpe, Ik. Hall, tol. 191. tiotlingjb. p. 1315.

(io) Thirteen thotiland. Ibid.

(11) By Sir James Haryn^Hn, it Waddir.gtcr. Hall in Iwlbire, whilft he was at Dinner. Uab.r.g. p. 435, Rjmtr's Fad, Tom. II. p. 5;3.

iir. With his Legs tied to tie Slimips, ijttn/, p. 419,


The H I S 7 R T of ENGLAND.

Vol. I.


.7.' ■" .'i'

;. 1 1 : ; - . 1 ' I .

Sbertt 1
/. bti Fa-



!l !:.,-,;ih.

ing, after fome ftay in Scotland, to conceal himfelf in
England. An Adventure which befel Margaret, and is
related by Monjlreht, makes it thought, {he had likewife
rcfolved to hide herfelf in England, in expectation of an
opportunity to imbark, not daring to truft the Scots any
longer ; and, the better to accomplifh her Defign, had
parted from the King her Husband. Monjlreht fays,
Margaret being in England with the Prince her Son, at-
tended with La Verenne a French Lord, fell into the hands
of Robbers who would have kiiled her, if a fudden Quar-
rel amongft them, had not afforded her an opportunity to
efcape into a Wood with the Prince. He adds, that after-
wards fhe founJ means to in.bark for Sluice in Flanders,
where the Duke of Burgundy gave her an honorable Re-
ception. If this Adventure be true, it muff have happen-
ed at the time I am now (peaking of. However that be,
after her departure from Scotland, fhe retired to Rene of
. / Anion her Father, with the Prince her Son. Edmund,
Somerfct tne n ew Duke of Somerfet, Brother of him beheaded at
"Hexham, with the Duke of Exeter, fled for refuge into
Flanders, the Loui-Countrics, where however they durft not make
themfelves known, for fear of being delivered to Ed-
ward. They endured in Flanders all that a wretched
Exile, attended with extreme Want, was capable of bring-
ing upon Perfons of their Character. Philip de Comminei
fa)S, he law the Duke of Exeter, before he was known,
following barefoot the Duke of Burgundy's Equipage, and
ferving probably as Footman for his Livelihood. But
thefe two Lords being at length known, the Duke gave
them a mean Penfion for their Subfiftence, not daring
doubtiefs to carry his Generality any farther, for fear of
offending Edward. Thefe are ftrange Turns for a King
who had fat thirty-eight Years on a Throne, for a Queen
who had for many Years governed England with an ab-
folute Sway, for a Prince deltined by his Birth to wear a
Crown, for Lords related or allied to the Royal Family,
who had always enjoyed the higheft Offices. Such In-
stances of the Viciffitude of worldly Grandeur often make
hut little Impreffion at the time they are feen, becaufe
thofe who are concerned, are generally induced to alcribe
their Misfortunes to the malice of their Enemies. But
they who read them impartially in Hiffory, can they help
obferving, and acknowledging the direction of Provi-
de (1)?

Edward having King Henry in his Power, and Queen

Margaret being retired to the Duke her Father, there was

no Perfon capable of railing Commotions in the Kingdom.

Then it was, that after offering in vain a Pardon to all the

the Rebels. Lancajlrians, that would make their Submiffion and fwear

tlimzih. Allegiance by fuch a time, he conhfeated their Eftates,

and liberally bellowed them upon thofe that had ferved him.

Then, willing to gain the Affection of his Subjects, alter

bimjtlf titty giving them convincing Proofs of his Severity, he made

himfelf extremely popular, even to fuch a Degree that the

Italian Auther before mentioned, taxes him with running

into Excefs on that account.

He imaiidt During this Calm, which feemed to be lafting, the

■ 4 Marriage j£j lic ,' s c hief Counfellors preffed him to think of marrying,

Savi 1, in order to leave tne Crown to his roitenty. He toojc

Lewis i Sif- their Advice, and three Matches were propofed. The

hilt was Margaret Siller of the King of Scotland. But

fii adi



befides that this Princefs was already affianced to Henry's
Son, fhe was fo young, the Marriage could not have been
confummated many Years. The fecond was Ifabella of fame Declaration, and Charles VII recened his Homage.

Peerdoms which (till remained to be united to the Crown. 1464.
This Prince, who was moreover Sovereign of almoft all Cntefii bi-
the Low-Countries, was fo powerful, that to attack him '^"'fr
firft would have been very imprudent. So it was with France and
the Duke of Bretagne that Lewis refolved to begin the exe- '*' Dukc! 'I
cution of his Projects. An old Quarrel about Homage af- Argefiae.
forded him a Pretence. Ever fince Peter, firnamed Matt'
clerc, had done Homage to St. Lewis, the Nature ot that
Homage had been a continual Subject of Oifputes between
the Kings of France and the Dukes of Bretagne. The
Kings pretended it was Liege or Full, and the Dukes af-
firmed, it was not. This was a very important Queftion,
becaufe of the great Difference between bare Homage, and
Homage-Liege. The firlt was paid by thofe, who with-
out being naturally dependent on a Prince, did him Ho-
mage however for other reafons, as for his Protection, for
his Affiftance when wanted, or even for a Penfion. The
Collection of the Publick Ails contain fundry Homages of
this Kind, paid to the Kings of England by Sovereign
Princes of Germany and the Low-Countries, and by Earls
of Savoy. But Homage-Liege was paid by thofe that held
Lands difmembred from the Dominions of the Prince to
whom it was paid ; fuch were the Dukedoms and Peer-
doms of Fiance. As thefe two Sorts ot Homage were of
a different Nature, they were likewile performed in a dif-
ferent Manner. The Perfon that did Homage-Liege was
uncovered, on his Knees, ungirded, without Sword or
Spurs ; he held his Hands joined within thofe of the So-
vereign, and fworc Fealty to him. But Simple- Hon 1 ..:.',
was paid Handing, with the Sword and Spur,-, on, and
without Oath. Thus Liege- Homage was for Lands dif-
membred from a State, and denoted their being liable to
Conflication, and Re-union. But Simple- Homage was
perfonal, upon certain Conditions advantagious to the Vaf-
fal : So that the Default of Homage depiived him onl) of
the Benefit of thefe Conditions. And therefore, the obli-
ging the Duke of Bretagne to do Liege-Homage, would
have put him under a neceffity to own his Dukedom li-
able to Confutation, and to be re-annexed to the Crown
of Fiance. To avoid this Inconvenience, the Duke-
Bretagne had found the expedient of doing their Homage,
like their Predeceffors, in general Terms. Whether the
Right of the Kings of France, with regard to the Na-
ture of the Homage, could not be well proved, or the
Circumftances of Affairs obliged them to manage the
Dukes ot Bretagne, it is certain they long received their
Homage in that manner. It is true, after Homage done,
the Chancellor or High-Chamberlain faid aloud, the Ho-
mage was Liege, to which the Duke anfwered it was
not ; and thus the Pretenfions of each remained entire.
Charles V plainly fhowed he fuppofed the Homage to be
Liege, fince he caufed the Dukedom of Bretagne to be
confifcated and annexed to his Crown, by a Decree of the
Court of Peers. A Peace being concluded between France
and Bretagne in the beginning of the Reign of Charles VI,
the Duke of Bretagne was reltored to his Dukedom, and,
as nothing was fettled concerning the Nature of the Ho-
mage, the Pretenfions of both Parties ftill fubfifted. Ar-
thur III, who had been Conftable ot France, when he
became Duke of Bretagne, folcmnly declared in doing his
Homage to Charles VII, that he meant not to do Liege-
Homage, and was allowed to pay it in general Terms,
like his Predeceffors. Francis II his Succeffor made the


E ■

The Earl
fettt up m
that ac-
count to

.Srjfr of
Affairs in

F ince.

Caftile, afterwards married to Ferdinand of Arragon. The
1 Writers fay, fhe was rejected by reafon of her
being too young : And yet, it is certain fhe was then
thirteen Years old (2). Bona of Savoy, Sifter of the
. Queen of France, was the third. Edward refolved upon
this lalt, and thortly after, fent the Earl of IVarwick to
demand her in marriage. She was then at the Court of
France with the Queen her Sifter. It is time now to
fpeak of the Affairs of France by reafon of their Connec-
tion with thofe of England. Otherwife, the Reader
would underftand but imperfectly, what palled in England
in the Reign of Edward IV.

Lewis XI, a Prince of a tuibulent and reftlefs Spirit,
was no fooner on the Throne of Fiance, but he formed
the defign of rendering himfelf abfolute. This is what
fome Flatterers have called rendering himfelf free, but
what a famous Hiftorian fays ought rather to be termed,
running Mad. To execute this grand delign, the over-
grown Power of the Peers was firlt to be humbled,
amon^ whom the Dukes ot Burgundy and Bretagne were
the moft confiderable. They not only upheld one ano-
ther, but were moreover a Support to the reft. The firft
held Rurgiv.dy and Flanders, the only two ancient Lay-

though without approving his Proteftation.

The Affairs between France and Bretaane, were in this . . „.

L"wis XI

Situation, when Lewis XI came to the Crown. Prol.;

bly, this Prince would have been no harder to pleafe than r>- ■ >/


Charles his Father, in refpect of the Duke of Bretagne's
Homage, had he not, as I faid, refolved to begin with r., ,
him, his grand Project of humbling all thofe that could i r: <' '■ ••
hinder his arriving at arbitiary Power. He had taken „ r S; nti . e ",
this refolution the moment he was feated in the 1 nrone,
and it may be, before the Death of the King his Father ;
but it was not till 1464, that he began to execute it.
To that end, having firft ordered fome Troops into An-
jou, he fent the Chancellor de Morvillicrs to the Duke ot
Bretagne, to forbid him in his Name to aflume any
Right of Sovereignty in his Dukedom. Francis II finding
himfelf unprepared for his Defence, had recourfe to Ar-
tifice, and demanded three months delay to confult his
States. This Term being granted him, he made ule of
it to cabal in France among the great Alen, and to form
againlt Lewis a powerful League, called the great League
of the Publick Good,' which will be prefently mentioned.

At the very time Lewis thought of attacking the Duke ,,
of Bretagne, Edward lent the Earl of IVarwick to demand

wa a /

(1) This Year a Parliament met at IVcfminfltr, on April 20, and was prorogued to November 4, and ih nee to February ao, at Tori. This Hall.
P rliamen: granted the King an Aid ot th rty leven thoul'and Pounds, to be levied in the Counties, Ciiie>, and Towns. 'Cotton's Abridr. p. 675. v - cuw

In this Parliament the Importation . f Woollen^loths, Laces, Ribbands, all forts or Iron-wares, and raoit other th:ngs rr.anufa^hirea in Eng-

'. was .. : ;ct y forbidden, -ee Utatnt. 3 Edna. IV. e. 4. Stew, p 417.

\7) Hall proves, (he was then but between (is and fevtn Years old, (A »93- Eut B-'r.di affirms. Bie was thirteen, p. II.

4. - . "

Book XIII.

1 6




1464. Bona of Savoy his Sifter-m-law in Mariiage. This Propofal
could not but be verv agreeable to him, lince he delired no-
thing more ardently than to make an Alliance with the
King of England, in order to prevent his interpofing in his
future Quarrels with the great Men of his Kingdom. But
before the Conclufion of the Marriage, he was willing to
be Cure of reaping this Benefit by it. To that end, he

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