M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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the 17th of Augujl he made him Judiciary of South-
Wales, and fome time after, Senelchal of the whole
Country (4).

Notwithftanding thefe Favours, the Earl of Warwick's An Infrr-
Projects began to be executed. In the beginning of Oc- r -ff i '° ] " l J."
tober, there was a Sedition in York/hire, which all the nifijly
Hiftorians unanimoufly afcribe to the fecret Practices of Warwick'r
the Marquifs of Montague (5), and his Brother the Arch- „"■'"''''
bifhop of York. The occafion or pretence, was this. Hollingfh.
There was at York an Hofpital (6), to the Maintenance
whereof the whole County had always contributed, with-
out however being obliged. In time, thefe voluntary Con-
tributions were changed into a kind of Right, wholly
founded upon Cuftom, and for which there were Collec-
tors appointed. They who had been bribed to ftir up the
People, artfully fpread a report, that the Contributions
were mifapplied, and ferved only to inrich the Directors
of the Hofpital : That befides, the Hofpital being fuffici-
ently endowed, thefe Collections were needlefs. Where-
upon the Country People took fire, as if it had been an
Affair of the utmoft Importance. They adembled to the
number of fifteen thoufand, and killing fome of the Col-
lectors, marched towards York, under the command of
one Robert Huldern. Upon this news, the Marquifs of Montagus
Montague, who refided at York, affembling a Body of the J <f""> '**'
Citizens, fallied out upon the Rebels, (lew a great num- ar j 'I'X'jdt
ber, and taking their Leader, ordered his head to be tbcirLtader,
ftruck off. This conduct would give occafion to prefume,
the Sedition was not raifed by himfelf, had not his after-
Proceedings been lefs ambiguous.

The firft rumour of this Commotion made the King p embr0 L
apprehenfive of the confequences. Indeed the Caufe was o r dc td to
not very important, but knowing how numerous the n 'fi '"
Lancajhian Party ftill were, he did not doubt that it was \Va7fj."
raifed by fome Lord, Friend to that Houfe. However, Stow,
he was very far from miftrufting his Brother and the H *l>ing"»p>
Earl of JVarwick to be the chief Authors. Whatever
the I flue might be, he difpatched Orders to the Earl of
Pembroke Governor of Wales, to affemble all the Forces
of thofe Parts, and keep himfelf ready to march (7).
Mean time, the York/hire Male- Contents, rather anima-
ted than difcouraged at the ill Succefs of their firft at-
tempt, took arms again, and fet at their head Henry Son
of the Lord Fitz-Hugh, and Henry Neville Son of the
Lord Latimer. Thefe two young Leaders had not much
experience, but were directed by Sir John Conyers, a Per-
fon of great conduct and valour, and well verfed in the
art of War. Their firft Project was to make themfelves
matters of York, but fuddenly altering their refolution and
rout, they marched towards London, not at all doubting
that their Army would encreafe by the way, as it really

(1) He gave Licence and Liberty for fome Cotcfwold Sheep to be rranfportci into Spain. But the Reader nv.ift not from hence infer, that there
were no Sheep in that Country before : For the contrary is evident, from a Patent of Ring Henry II, granted the 31ft of his Reign, to the Weavers
ot London, importing, That if any Clath were found to be made of Spanijb Wool, mixed with Englijh Wool, the Mayor of L.n.t.n fliould lee it
burnt. Stow, p. 419-

(1) lobelia. Halt, f, 1. 200. (3) Of which the Earl of Vjrw.T* was Governor. HoUinjjb. p. 1319.

fa.j Capitalem Julliciarium Suthwallia:,- - - Cameranum Sulbioalli*, & Senefcallum Curiarum &c Commoturum, in Comitatibus de Kermerdya

& Cardigan, &c. Rymcr'i Fad. Tom. II. p. 647.

(5) John Nrvill. (6) Dedicated to Jr. Ltonard. Hall, fol. 101.

(7) He alio ili'ued out Orders, on Novenb. 16, to Jibn Moubray Duke of Norfolk, Jbn dt la Poll Duke of Si(l~>H, and Antbny Earl of Ry.
vert, to array, and alienable all Perf.ins able to bear Aims in Norfolk, and other pares ; and made Henry Ptr^y Earl of N:r:bumlt lard, and the
Prior of St. 'John 1 of 'JtruJjUm, renew their Oaths of Fealty to him-

No. 31. Vol. I,

Rymsri Fard. Tom. II. p. 64S, 6+9, 65c.




the H I S T R T of E N G L A N D.

Vol. I.

1469. happened. Then it was that the affair of York Hofpi-
tal appeared to have been only a pretence to draw the
People together. For the Hofpital afforded the Seditious
no manner of pretence to take the rout to London.
The Earl of Mean while, the Earl of Pembroke having drawn toge-
Pembu.ke tner arj0 ut ten thoufand Men(i), began his March in
g m"tTbcm. quell of the Male- Contents. He was joined on the road
Hchjomd by the Lord Stafford, with eight hundred Archers. The

reetions. As therefore, Edward could not he ignorant of 1469.

the Difcontent and great Credit of the Earl of Wanvick

and his Brothers, he ought to have naturally concluded,

they were the fecret Authors. And yet, though it ap- Ad. Pub.

pears in the Colleclion of the Publick Ails, that the Earl of XI P- 6 49>

Rivers was put to death before the 1 6th of November, the

King did not clearly fee till the following March, that he

had to deal with the Earl of Warwick ! Strange and in-

h 't' h" rd two Armies being come near one another, the Earl of conceiveable Blindnefs !

Hall? Pembroke fent Sir Richard Herbert his Brother, with a The Sharpnefs of the Seafon interrupted for fome time 1470.

Habington. Detachment (2) to view the Enemy as near as poffible. the Civil War lately kindled. Befides, the King, lo lt '- ty ^ r

Sir Richard, who was a very good Officer, executed his whom it was very unex peeled, wanted time to prepare. ^;»7i!to?
Orders with great conduit , without expofing himfelf On the other hand, the Male-contents having yet no de-
however to be attacked. But his Men, who had not his clared Head, remained quiet, in expectation of more par-
experience, prepofteroufly imagining, he would lofe a fair ticular Directions,
opportunity to defeat the Enemies, fell, againft his Will, During this Winter, Lewis XI, fent Ambaffadors into £ m i a fy

The Earl
receives a


Stafford in-
fant bsm.

England, under colour of renewing the Truce. Probably ,/«»> France,
his fole Aim was to be perfectly informed of the Situation p ' 6 5°-
of Affairs in that Kingdom. At the fame time Edward, p. 651.
defirous of ftrengthening his Alliance with the Duke of
Burgundy, fent him the Order of the Garter, which that
Prince received at Bruges, the 4th of February, with great

If the Duke of Clarence and the Earl of Warwick
were at Calais during the late Troubles, it is likely, they
returned not to England till about February 1470. For, „. 6 J2 ,
Leaders knew, they fhould be received. But the Earl of they are not mentioned in the Colledion of the Publick
Pembroke, impatient to have his revenge, marched diredtly Acls iince Augujl the laft Year. After their return, Ed- p. 654.
towards them, and forced them to halt near Banbury, ward was fo far from fufpecting them, that on the 7th
where the two Armies incamped at a fmall diftance one of March he fent them, jointly, a Commiffion to levy
from another (3). Mean time, the Earl of Pembroke and Troops againft the Rebels in the North. Seven Days
the Lord Stafford quarrelling about an Inn (4), Stafford after, he conferred on the Earl of Worce/ler the Office
withdrew in the night with his eight hundred Archers, of High-Conftable, vacant by the Death of the Earl of


But, fhortly after, the King's Eyes were fully opened Warwick
with regard to the Duke his Brother, and the Earl ofon^Cla-
Warwick. They levied Troops by virtue of his Com- ™<* *"''"*

upon their Rear. But Conyers, who forefaw it, was
l~o well prepared, that the Detachment was routed with
great Lofs.
Ihe Mali- Edward hearing this news, writ to the Earl of Pem-
netrsrefofoe broke not to be difcouraged for fo inconfiderable a Lofs,
to niirtto affm-jjig h[ m n e would come in perfon and join him, or
fend a ftrong Reinforcement. Mean while, the Seditious
finding they had near them an Army which might dai-
ly encreafe, and fearing to meet the King in the way,
refolved to retire to Warwick, where, very likely the

lit Earl


On the morrow, at break of day, the Male-Contents
marched in good order to attack the King's Army.
They had heard by Deferters of the Lord Stafford's re-
treat, and were refolved to improve it. Henry Neville (5),

one of their Generals, advancing in order to ingage, for miffion, but not for his Service. Befides, the Rebels made m,

for tke Re-

fear the Royalifts fhould retire, was fiercely repulfed,
The King's m ade Prifoner, and (lain in cold blood. This barbarous
•smiled' ArStion infpiring the northern Men with a fort of Fury,
andtbe Earl they ruihed upon their Enemies, and notwithftanding the
e/Pembroke Valour of Sir Richard Herbert, who performed that day

Aftions extolled by all the Hiftorians (6), the King's Ar


no fcruple to own them for their Heads. Thus, both Hall.
Sides were preparing more than ever to renew the War.
Mean time, Edward was fo prepoffeffed, that his Brother Ttt K - t
and the Earl of Warwick durft not appear before him, Security til-
that he imagined their Defign was to retire into Ireland, S.'°" nd '- L
of which the Duke of Clarence was Lieutenant. In this

Aft. cub.
XI. p. 654.


Brothers fell into the hands of the Conquerors, who car-
rying them to Banbury, ordered their Heads to be (truck
off, in revenge for the Death of Sir Henry Neville. After
this Victory, the Male-Contents continued their march to
Warwick. Hitherto the Earl of Warwick and the Duke
of Clarence had not declared themfelves. It may be, they
were gone fome time before to Calais, to avoid the Suf-

my was put to rout (7). The Earl of Pembroke and his belief he illued out a Proclamation, dated March the 23d,

forbidding the IriJIj to obey the Duke his Brother, and
ordering them to apprehend him as well as the Earl of
JVarwick, in cafe they came there. Moreover, he pro-
mifed any Perfon that fhould take them, a Penfion of a
thoufand Pounds Sterling, or the Sum of ten thoufand
Pounds in Money, which he would. By the fame Pro-
clamation, he conferred the Government of Ireland upon
picion of being concerned in the Infurre£tion, in cafe it the Earl of Worce/ler. Three days after, he gave Or- p. 655.
mifcarried, and to improve it, in cafe of Succefs. ders to levy Troops in all the Counties under his Obe-

A few days after the Battle of Banbury, the People of dience, which was very diligently performed ( 1 o).
Northamptonflnre, following the Example of the York/hire But the Duke of Clarence and the Earl of JVanuick The Duh
Men, affembled in great numbers, under the conduct of were very far from any Thoughts of retiring into Ireland, and Earl
one Robert of Riddifdale (8). This Multitude, which On the contrary, they were very intent upon railing 3 7^°$*
continually increafed, tumultuoufly afiaulting Grafton, a Troops, each in different Quarters. At laft, having ad- *

Seat belonging to the Earl of Rivers, the Queen's Fa- vice the King was preparing to march againft them, they '* K '"£
ther, . feized the Earl, and brought him to Northampton, thought proper to join, left by remaining feparate, they gaiufttiS*.
where he was beheaded without any form of Law. fhould give him too great an advantage, to, Edward Hall.

On the other hand, the King juftly incenfed with the when he marched to attack them, found them ready to ^'", ndl -
Lord Stafford for abandoning the Earl of Pembroke upon a expect him, and bent to decide the Quarrel by a Battle. '' n £ 0^ •
frivolous quarrel, and by his retreat occafioning the lofs However, the Uncertainty of the Iffue keeping both Sides Tilt of «
of the Battle of Banbury, commanded him to be publickly equally in fufpence, fome of the moft prudent Lords in- Accommoda-
beheaded (9). terpofed, to procure an Agreement before it came to a ""'

The Death of the Earl of Rivers fhould, one would deciiion by Arms. The King paffionately defired it, be- Thl „
think, have convinced the King, that the Earl of Ik ar- caufe he confidered he was going to hazard his Crown by drjires it.
Wl'tXarlof wick, though abfent, was the real Author of thefe Trou- the lofs of a Battle, whereas the Vidtory could procure
Warwick, bles ; fuppofing the March of the Male-contents towards him no great Advantage. On the other hand, he flat- jj r !s n ,.
London, and the Battle of Banbury had not been fufficient tered himfelf, that the Earl of Warwick feeing him in fo gen j U n„ s
to make him fuf'peft it. Warwick was fworn Enemy of good Pofture, wouIJ be glad, by an honorable Compofi- ,te A '<x«"»-
the Earl of Rivers, he was angry with the King, and the tion, to get clear of his prefent ill State. So, thinking h"il
Male-contents had been received without oppoiition into the Negotiation could not fail of Succefs, he neglected to
Warwick. In a word, thefe People had no reafon to take take the ufual Precautions for the defence of his Camp, .
Arms againft Edward on account of York- Hofpital, if contrary to the moft conftant Maxim of War, that a /
they had not been privately incouraged by fome powerful Man ought never to be more upon his guard, than whilft \
Enemy of the King, who could be no other than the he is in Treaty. /

Earl of Warwick. For, there was not then in the King- Mean time, the Earl of Warwick being informed of-'

dom, any Prince of the Houfe of Lancajler, or any Lord the King's Negligence, failed not to take the Advantage. Warwick
of that Party, of fufficient power to caufe thefe Infur- After uling all polfible care to hinder his Delign from be- attach the

K'ng una-

(r Hall, ( fol. 201.) Hollingjh. (p. 1319. ) and other;, fay, he had only fix or feven thoufand Men. But Stow affirms, he had with him
eighteen thoufand Men, and Humphrey, Lord Stafford of Southwuk, fix thoufand Atchers, p. 421.

(2) Of two thcufand Horfe. Hall, fol. 2>oi.

(3) Upon Danes-Moor near Hidgecot, within three Miles of Banbury. Idem. fol. 201. Stow, p. 422.

(4; Where it feems a Woman lived, who was a Miftrefs of the Lord Stafford's. They had agreed too beforehand, that whoever took poflVflion
of an Inn, fhould keep it, and not be liable to be turned out. Hall, ibid. (5) Son of the Lord Latimer.

(6) With his Pole-Ax in h,s Hand, he made his way twice through the main Body r{ his Enemies. Hall, fol. 202.

(7) This Battle was fought July 26, and there were above five thoufand fVJcbmen Hun. hall, fol. 202. Stow, p. 422,
(S ; Robert Milliard, w hom they nick-named Robin of RsdeteJUalc. hollmg/h. p. 1 321.

(9) He was beheaded on Augujl 17, at Bridgewatcr, and buried at Glajhnbary. Dugdale's Baron. Vol, I. p. 173.

(10) And appointed, on Augujl 26, his Brother Richard Duke of Turk, Guatdun of the Ifefi- Marches towards Scotland. Rymer's Feed. Tom rr.
p. 6c*

The North-
behead the
Earl of

The King
beheads the
Lord Staf-

Ihe King's



Book XIII.

1 6. E D W A R D IV.


1470. ing difcovered, he marched in the night directly into the
King's Camp, and fuddenly attacking it, put it in the ut-
mitakft molt: Confufion. Edward himfelf furprized, like all the
bim l'n- re ff_ f n ; s Army, faw himfelf in the hands of his Ene-
itoli mies, before he could take any meafures for his Defence or

HnUiugfli. Efcape ( 1 ). The victorious Earl no (boner had him in
his power, but he caufed him to be conducted to Warwick.
After that, he ordered him to be removed to Middleham
Caltle (z), under Cuftody of his Brother the Archbifhop
of York, who was no lefs concerned than he, carefully to
guard fuch a Prifoner.
Warwick This Accident feemed to have ended the War. Indeed

difmiftsbii Edward being a Captive, nothing more appeared that
Imps. could oppofe the two victorious Lords. Wherefore, they
fo relied on their good fortune, that they disbanded molt
of their Troops, as not wanting them after this decifion.
They had only to refolve, in what manner the Govern-
ment mould be fettled ; for it does not appear, they had
any defire to reftore Henry to the Throne. But an un-
expected Event, no lefs furprizing than what had juft hap-
pened, broke all their Meafures. Edward being confined
in Middleham Caftle, in the Cuftody of the Archbifhop
of York, behaved fo obligingly to that Prelate, that he had
leave with a fraall Guard to hunt now and then in the
Edward Park. This firft Step being taken, he prevailed with one
wake: bit of his G uards to deliver a Letter to two Gentlemen of
"Ta '" tne Neighbourhood, wherein he pointed out to them,
London. what Courfe they fliould take to free him. The Gentle-
Hall, men (3), overjoyed at the opportunity to do the King fo
Hulling • g rea(; i; e rvice, privately affembled their Friends, and lying
in ambufh near the Park, eafiiy carried him away. Ed-
ward being at liberty, contrary to all Expectation, im-
mediately repaired to York. But he did not long remain
there, whether he miftrufted the Inhabitants, or thought
it more convenient to be nearer London. Be this as it
will, he made hafte into Laneafhire, where he found the
Lord Hajlings his Chamberlain, who had afTcmbled fome
Troops. After that, taking a compafs, to deceive the
Vigilance of the Earl of IVarwick, he went directly to
London, where he was received without any difficulty.
The Earl of Warwick fo little expected fuch a turn, that
he had neglected to fecure the Metropolis, not imagining it
to be in any danger.
Warwick ^ ' s ea fy t0 conceive the Earl of Warwick's Surprize,
trawi his when he received this fatal News. The Indifcretion of
7 '*/"'y his Brother the Archbifhop, was fo very great, that he
H»n, ' could not help fufpecting him of being bribed. But as it was
Hulling*, not then proper to examine his Conduct, he thought only
of re-affembling his difperfed Troops, which could not be
Edward don ^ one m * ew days. Edward was likewife in the fame
the fame. Confulion, fince he was without an Army. So, however
defirous both were to end their Quarrel by a Battle, they
Conference at were obliged to ftay till their Forces were aflembled. In
w ' ll ™* r the mean time, fome peaceable Lords propofed to renew
Hafl tne Negotiation begun before the King's Imprifonment.
Hollinglh. The Propofal being accepted, the Mediators judged an In-
terview of the King, and the two Chiefs of the oppofite
Party, might conduce to a Peace. In this belief, they fo
ordered it, that thefe laft came to IVeJlminJler upon the
King's Safe- Conduct. But the Conference had not the
defired Effect. It was wholly fpent in mutual Reproaches,
by which Men are not very apt to be foftened.
The I tri Prefentjy after the Interview, every one prepared for
w,ii- •< Xo» War (4). The Earl of Warwick commiffioned Sir Ro-
' War- b ert Wells, Son of the Lord Wells, to levy Troops in Lin-
wi, k. colnjliire, which he performed with great eafe, by reafon
Hail. f hj s Family's Intereft in thofe Parts. Edward having
notice of it, fent an exprefs Order to the Lord Wells, to
come immediately to Court. His defign was to oblige
him to ufe his Authority, to perfwade his Son to forfake
t*he Rebels. The Lord Wells being come to London, and
hearing how much the King was incenfed againft his Son,
in a dread of feeling himfelf the Effects of his Refentment,
took Sanctuary in IVeJlminJler Abby. But the King fend-
ing him a Safe-Conduct, he immediately came to Court.
He even writ to his Son, enjoining him to quit the Earl
of Warwick's Party, and difmifs his Troops ; but the
The Lord Son refufed to obey. Then Edward, inraged at not be-
w.i'wi be- ing able to fucceed, ordered the Lord Wells to be beheaded,
with Sir Thomas Dymock his Brother-in-law, who had ac-
companied him. Probably, he imagined them guilty of


This violent Action was very injurious to Edward's re- 1470.
putation, and infpired young Welti with a de;irc of Re- IT" King
venge, which occafioned his own Ruin, alfd proved e*
trcmely prejudicial to the Karl of Warwick'* Affairs. The M ■adibim
King perceiving that Wells's Troops vifibly inci
thought proper to fig! t him, before he was joined by the Sre "
Duke of Clarence, ai d the Karl of Warwick, who were
raifing Men in other Counties. Wells was encamped near
Stamford, where he might eafiiy have retired ; but the
dehre of revenging his Father's death, made him refolve
to expect the King. He fought with an undaunted Cou-
rage as long as he was fupperted by his Troops. At laft,
finding Victory declared tor the King, he would have-
provoked his Enemies to kill him, but they reftiftd him
that favour, and fpared his Life only to make him lofc it,
a few Days after (5), on the Scaffold. In this Battle Ed-
ward obtained a compleat Victory over his Enemies, of
whom ten thoufand were (lain (6).

Sir Robert Wells's defeat broke all the Meafures of the Chtrrrc:
Duke of Clarence and the Earl of Warwick. 'I hey were "? y '"~
not yet ready (7), and the King was now marching to "* France,
attack them. In this Extremity they (bund r;o other re- Cummin.
medy than to imbark, in order to fcreen themfelves fiom a ' :1-
the impending Danger (8). The Earl of Warwick took
his two Daughters with him, the eldeft of whom, Wife of
the Duke of Clarence, was ready to lye-in. His Intent
was to retire to his Government of Calais, where he had
left for his Lieutenant Vauclair, a Gafcon Captain, in
whofe Fidelity he entirely confided. But how great was vauclair "-
his Surprize, when approaching Calais he faw the Cannon/"/" them
fired at him ! He thought to move Vauclair by the con- £"'■"
fideration of the Duchefs of Clarence's Cafe, who was juft Cummin.'
delivered in the Ship of a Prince, named Edward. But Hoiiinjfli.
all he could obtain, was a Prefent of two Bottles of Wine HiU "
for the Duchefs. Mean while, Vauclair took care to fend
this fmall Prefent by a trufty Mellenger, who told the
Karl of IVarwick from him, that he was ftill devoted to
him, though forced to behave in this manner, the better
to ferve him, becaufe if lie entered the Town, he would
not be fafe ; but he might depend upon his Fidelity. Ed- He it made
ward, who knew not the Motive of Vauclair's Proceed-^'" ' -'
ings, was fo pleafed with his Conduct, that he gave him
the Government of Calais, to which the Duke of Bur-
gundy, of his own accord, added a yearly Pennon of a
thoufand Crowns.

Warwick feeing himfelf thus repulfed, fleered his Courfe n ' D "*'
to Dieppe, where he fafely landed with the Duke of Cla- '"i E '''-Ji
rence, and his two Daughters. A few Days after, they c mmin.
departed from thence to wait upon the King of France, Biond r .
then at Amboife, who received them very civilly. Lewis, Hollu, e' h •
as I before obferved, would not concern himielf with the
Affairs of England, when Edward and Henry were con-
tending for the Crown. But when he faw the ftrict Al-
liance between Edward and the Duke of Burgundy, he
found it equally his Intereft to labour the ruin of both.
To this reafon of State was added, the defire of reveng-
ing the Affront put upon him by Edward, on account of
his Marriage. In lhort, the Affiftance Edward would
have given the Duke of Bretagne, evidently fliowed, fo
long as he was on the Throne, the French Princes would
ever find in him a Protector. All thefe re.ifons toge- «•'■-;• •
ther moved Lewis, not only to receive the fugitive En- ""J'' 1 '""'
lijh, but moreover to promife them a powerful Aid. For, h^J.
nothing could be to him more agreeable, and withal,
more advantagious, than to fee the Civil War re-kindled
in England. Nay, very probably, he had already taken,
for that purpofe, private meafures with the Earl of JVar-
wick, and the Earl would never have ventured to declare
againft Ediuard, had he not been fecure of this Affiftance.
However that be, an opportunity naturally offering to £V«
create Edward, in his own Country, Troubles which Margaret it
would prevent his interpofing in the Affairs of his Neigh- ^"riwi.
bours, he fent for Queen Margaret to Court (9), who, Hall.
fome Years fince was retired to the King of Sicily her Contin.
Father. It was the Earl of Warwick that had been Au- MM!i " ln -
thor of all that Princefs's Misfortunes, and the Earl, on
his part, looked upon her as his mortal Enemy. And
yet, their common Intereft requiring them to ftifle their
Animofity, Lnvis very eafiiy reconciled them. At pre-
fent, they could hardly proceed without each other. War-

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