M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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wick perceived, he wanted a pretence to dethrone the
King, and could find none more plaufible than Henry's Refto-



(1) This happened at a Place called fVohey, four Miles from Wirmtk, Hall, fol. 201. Hotlinrjk. p. 1311.

(2) In Torkjhire. See above, p. r,Si. Note (6). (3) Sir William iittwty and Sir Thomas Burgb. Hall, fol. 203.

(4) The King retired to Canterbury , and the Duke of Clarence and Earl to Warwick. Idem. fol. 204.

(5) March 13. Stow, p. 422.

(6j This Battle was fought near Stamford, not Straff.rd, as Rapin fays by miftake, and from the Lincolnjhire Men throwing or! their Coats, io
order to run away the lighter, was called, Tie Battle of Loft Coat Field. Hall, tol. 204. Hcllingfb. p. 1321.

(7) They intended to march the next Day. Hall, ibid. Hdlmgfh. p. 1322.

(8) They repaired to £.\eler, and, after a fhort Stay there, hired a Ship at Dartmouth, and embarked fir France. Hall, fol. 304. This wa«
dene in May. The Continuator of Monfirelct fays, ihey went away with fourfcore Veflels, and landed in Normandy at llarji.ur, fol. 164.

19) Halt fays, fhe came thither of her own accord, attended by Jajpcr Tudor Earl of F-mbrokt, and John dt Vi<e Ezr. or Oxford, who, after
a lang Imprifonment in England, had clcaped into France, fol. 206.



ration.



6g8



iro,



m BISTORT of ENGLAND. Vol. 1.



fbeltrmi

Hall,
fol. 207.



The Dukt
Burgundy
ivjrni Ed
v laid if it
Commin.
fbtl.



Edward
pjins the
'Duke of
Clarence.
Commin.
Hall.
Biundi.
Habington



Hall.

Hollinglli



ration, which he cotild not endeavour, without being li-
nked with the Queen. On the other hand, the Queen
faw this to be the only way to reftore the King her Huf-
baiid, or rather herfelf, to the Throne. So, beholding a
ray of hope from that quarter, ihe readily received her
old Enemy for Protector. Their Reconciliation therefore
was made by the King of France's mediation, upon thefe

("Terms : That the Duke of C larenct and the Earl oilVar-
zuici fhould endeavour to reftore Henry to the Throne :
That the Queen fhould promife with an Oath to leave
the Government ot the Kingdom in their hands during
the King's Life, and the Prince his Son's Minority, in
cale he came to the Crown before he was of age : Laft-
ly. To Strengthen their Union, the Prince of JValet
mould marrv the Earl of Warwick's youngeft Daughter ( i ).
The lall Article was immediately executed. Thus the
Brother of King Edward (z) became Brother-in-law of
the youug Prince of Lancajier, and the Earl of JVarwick
was equally allied to botli Houfes.

if The Duke of Burgundy, who had good Spies at the
Court of Fiance, being informed of thefe Tranfactions,
gave Edward warning, who was very unconcerned. He
could never believe, the Earl of JVarw'ick, who was forced
to quit die Kingdom for want of fupport, would be pow-
erful enough, in his abfence, to caufe the People to rife in
his favour. As for the Preparations in France, they gave
him no unealinefs, being fenfible how difficult it is for a
foreign Nation to conquer England, if the People them-
felves don't amir. Thus, reafoning upon very doubtful
grounds, namely, the People's Affection, and the Earl of
Warwick's little Credit, he neglected his principal Affair,
to abandon himfelf to Voluptuoufnefs and Senfuality, to
which he was extremely inclined.

What gave him moft Uneafinefs was to fee the Duke
of Clarence his Brother ftrictly united with his Enemies.
This Union had already produced ill effects, and might
in time produce worfe. He believed therefore, to make
himfelf eafy, he ought to endeavour to gain his Brother
to his Intereft. To that end he bribed one of the
Duchefs of Clarence's Women, and inftructing her in the
part fhe was to act, granted her a Paffport, to go to her
Miftrefs. This Woman departing for Paris, pafTed
through Calais, where fhe faw the Governor without tel-
ling him the Secret. It was very happy for Edward that
Vauclair, who was in the Interefts of the Earl of War-
wick, was not acquainted with the Affair ; for he would
have entirely difcovered all. When the Woman came to
her Miftrefs, fhe very artfully and fuccefsfully difcharged
her Commiffion. She reprefented to the Duke of Cla-
rence from the King his Brother, " That the Courfe he
" was taking muft end in his own Ruin : That fuppofing
" the defigns he had formed with the Earl of Warwick
" fnould fucceed to his Wifh, he could not expect, the
" Houfe of Lancajier would put any truft in a Prince of
; ' the Houfe of York, when there was no farther need of
" him : That his very Life would be in danger : That
" inftead of relying on the Queen's Oath, he ought ra-
" ther to confider it as a Snare to furprife him : That
" the Earl of Warwick would be the firll to opprefs him,
" as well to free himfelf from a Collegue in the Govern-
" ment, as to be rid of a Prince, who might one day
" have it in his Power to revenge the Injuries done
'* to his Houfe : That on the other hand, the King
" his Brother having only a young Daughter, whom
" Death might eafily fnatch out of the world, he was
" next Heir to the Crown : But if the Houfe of Lancaf-
" ter was reftored, he would lofe all hopes of mounting
" the Throne, fince Henrys Son very poffibly would
" have a numerous Iffue. " To thefe reafons, which
were very ftrong, fhe added Motives taken from the
Ties of Blood, fome Excufes from the King, with a po-
sitive Promife to confider him for the future as his real
Brother and the chief fupport of their Family. A Man
muft have wanted common fenfe not to yield to fuch con-
vincing Arguments. The Duke of Clarence feeing at laft
his true Interefts, charged the Woman to tell his Brother,
he would not fail to declare for him, when he could do it
with fafety and probability of rendering him a confidera-
ble fervice. Edward being informed how the Duke of
Clarence ftood affected, grew perfectly eafy, believing the
Earl of Warwick's future Attempts would be fruitlefs,
when no longer feconded by the Duke his Son-in-law. It
muft be confeffed, the Earl of Warwick's Policy was very



extraordinary, in making the Duke of Clarenc an Inftru- (470.
ment to ruin the King his Brother. He muft have fuppo-
fed, the Duke would openly act againft his own Intereft,
which was not to be expected from the moft ftupid of
Men. And indeed, he was afterwards very fenfible, when
it was too late, that he had taken falfe meaiure-.

Whilft Edward lived in a deceitful fecurity, the Earl "!£*£*
of Warwick was preparing to return into England. He emu inti
was fure of finding a powerful Party, to which were join- England.
ed all the Friends of the Houfe of Lanca/ler, whom he 9°™ min -
had taken care to acquaint with his defign. Lnuis XI Hall,
furnifhed him, though fparingly, with Money and Troops. Cun> Mon -
As far as can be judged, that Monarch's fole Aim was to
foment difcord among the Englijh, to prevent their inter-
pofing in his Affairs. He (till perfifted in his defign of
fubduing the Dukes of Burgundy and Bretagne, in which
he thought he could not fucceed, fo long as thefe two
Princes might expect the Protection of England. Mean
while, to facilitate the Earl of // arwici's defcent, he order-
ed the Baftard of Bourbon to convoy him with fome
Ships of War ; but it was not eafy to pafs into England.
The Duke of Burgundy's Fleet, much ftronger than that
of France, waited in the Mouth of the Seine to ingage
the French if they failed, and it was not likely, the Baf-
tard of Bourbon would venture upon fo unequal a Fight.
Notwithftanding this, the Earl of IVarwick repaired to
Havre de Grace, to be ready to embrace any opportunity
that fhould offer. This precaution was not in vain.
Some days after his Arrival, a violent Storm fo difperfed Commin.
the Flemi/h Ships, that not being able to keep the Sea,
they were forced to retire to their Ports. The Storm
being over, the Duke of Clarence and the Earl of War-
wick fet fail and arrived at Dartmouth (3), from whence
they had paffed into France four or five Months before.

The News of their landing was fo far from alarming Edwarf .,
Edward, that he rejoiced at it. Poffeffed with the No- ,11-grmnded
tion that it was impoffible for the Earl of JVarw'ick to ac- Security.
complifh his defigns, he fancied he could wifh for nothing n^" 11 "'
more advantagious, than to fee his Enemy come and deliver
himfelf into his hands. Thus poffeffed, he defired the
Duke of Burgundy to continue his Fleet at Sea, to
hinder the Earl of IVarwick's efcape. But the Duke of
Burgundy thought otherwife of this Expedition. He could
not believe fo prudent a Perfon as the Earl of JVarwick,
would have thus ventured, if he had not been fure of a
Party in England capable of fupporting him. And indeed Warwick
JVarwick had no fooner landed his Men, but he faw him- "? ^

my c4 ttxty

felf at the head of an Army, which in a few days in- tbovfand
creafed to fixty thoufand. Immediately he caufed Hen- M ' n -
ry VI to be proclaimed, publishing an Order in his name, '
for all his Subjects from fixteen to fixty, to take arms and
expel the Tyrant and Ufurper.

So unexpected an Event opened Edward's Eyes, and Edward
fhowed him the Folly of his expectations. Mean time, raijei Trmft
he gave Orders to levy Troops, and appointed the Ren- '^T'^''
dezvous about Nottingham (4). Some affirm, his Army
was more numerous than the Earl of JVarwick's. Others
again fay, it was much inferior, and this indeed is moft
probable (5). For, had Edward been fuperior in number
of Troops, he would moft certainly have marched to his
Enemies ; whereas upon their approach he retired towards
the Sea. The News he received, that the Marquifs of Montague
Montague, who commanded in the North, had declared i '^'" '""'
againft him, troubled him exceedingly, apprehenfive as he c,mmin.
was, that this defection would be followed by many others.
He wanted to avoid a Battle, but knew not where to re-
tire, becaufe he was ignorant who were his real Friends.
At length, he encamped near Lynn, a little maritime Town Edward re-
in Lincoln/hire (6), and lodged in the Caftle. This pre- l™ 1„'-
caution, though perhaps taken without defign, proved of (hire,
great fervice. The Earl of JVarwick being come within Ha ll-
three Miles of his Army, caufed the cry of King Henry ! ?'J 1 ^ 1 "'*
King Henry ! to be every where refounded. And the fame Hall,
cry, by fome unknown practices, began likewife to be heard
in Edward's Camp. Whereupon he commanded the Caftle
Gates to be fhut, and the Bridge to be itrongly guarded,
whilft a Council was held to confider of what was to be
done. But the Shoutings, which grew louder in his Army, Hi Marti
not affording him time to deliberate, he faw no other w V"f»
remedy than to imbark with four or five hundred of the ctnimin.
moft trufty Men (7), on board three fmall Veffels which Hail,
had ferved to bring Provifions for his Army. The Lord Ho^g*-
Ha/lings placed himfelf in the Rear, to withftand the ef-



(1) Named Aim. ( 2 j George Duke of Clarence, who had married Ifaiella the eldeit Daughter.

(31 September 1 j. Stvw, p. 421.

(4) And marched towards that Place, attended bv hi) Brother the Dulte of Tcrh, the Lnrd Hajlmgs his Chamberlain, the Lord Scale;, &c. Hat!,
fcl. I; 5.

(5) Hall obferves, that of them who were fent for, few in effefl came, and yet more came than were willing, and more came willingly than
were trufted, fol. 208 (6j r t j s m NcrfM. See Camden, &c.

(7) About feven or eight hundred; j-nr-ng whom was the Duke of Clccejlcr, the Loid Scald, Sec, Cummnes, 1. 11, c. 5. //<•'', fol. 209. Hel-
'"■£/>>■ F. 1324,



forte



fcook Xltl



i 5 . Henry vi.



Hall



1470. forts of the Soldiers, in cafe they attempted to oppofe the
King's flight, and when all were embarked, went him-
f«Jf on board one of the Ships ( 1 ).
jfr U in Jan- Edward being reduced to this lad condition, ordered his
prof btfag Ships to fleer for Holland, not knowing where to retire,
rlivi,* ' u-ji is except into the Dominions of the Duke of Burgundy his
iclivirMk) Brother-in-law. Whilft he was beating the Seas, Jiis
fc ih vi Ships were defcryed by eight Corfairs of the Low-Countries
or Germany, whom the Englijh called Eajlerlings, from
their Country lying Eaftward of England. Immediately
thefe Corfairs gave chace to the three Ships, but as thefe
were the more light, they had time to get into Alcmar
Road at low-Water, which hindered the Corfairs from
purfuing them any farther, becaufe they durll not come
fo near the Shore. Mean while they anchored in light,
defigning to attack them at high-Water. In this extre-
mity, Edward had no other refuge than to make Signals
to implore the protection of the Country. Happily for
him, the Lord Grutbuyfe, of whom I have before I'poken,
being then Governor of Holland, chanced to be at Alc-
}nar. When he was told, thefe Ships defired affiftance,
he fent a Sloop to know what they were. As foon as he
heard the King of England was there, he fent an order
to the Corfairs not to approach, on pain of incurring the
Duke his mailer's indignation. Thefe people, though lb
near their prey, not durft difobey. They too often wanted
the Governor's protection, to difpleafe him. So, Gruthyfe
went himfelf in a Sloop to wait on the King, and paid
him all the refpedl due to him. Edward not having money
to reward the mafterof the velTel that brought him over,
made him a prefent of a rich robe lined with Sables. Af-
ter that he was conducted to the Hague, where Grutbuyfe
bore his Expences, till he had received the Duke of Bur-
gundy's orders.



Cummin.



Mean while, the Queen, who was at tendon, hearing of 1470
the King's flight, took fanfluary in Wejtmin/hr Abbey (1), *>*££„»
where Die was followed by a great number of TTorhYiiA'ff
There fhe was delivered (3) of a Prince called Edward, hX'°
born Heir of a noble Kingdom, at the very time it was Stow -
loll by his Father (4). Whilft Edward's friends were in w*££f*
the utmoft conftcrnation, the Duke of Clarence and the «m< /"Lon-
Earl of Warwick, victorious without drawing their don and f r «
Swords, were marching to London, where they "entered Hdjtarffc*
in triumph the beginning of Oilobcr. On the 6th of the
fame month (5) the Earl of Warwick, attended by feve-
ral Lords and a great crowd of people, went to the
Tower and freed King Henry, who had been Prifoncr fix
Years.

Whilfl thefe things were tranfacling, the populace of Sedition in
Kent flocking together marched dire&ly to London, with Ijf
defign to inrich themfelves with the plunder of the City. HolUngJJ j
But the Earl of Warwick meeting them with part of his
Troops, eafily repulfed this multitude, and ordered themoft
mutinous to be executed. He could not however prevent
their plundering Southwark, parted from the City by the
Thames.

The Tumult being appeared, Henry was folemnly Henry.,
proclaimed, as remounting the Throne. Next day there "P"" 1 "" 1 '
was a Proceifion, at which the new King, aflifted with HaT'
his Crown on his head (6), and followed by an innu- hollingfh.
merable crowd of people, who by their Acclamations
fhewed their Approbation of the late Revolution. Thus
the Earl of Warwick had the Honour of reftoring Henry
to the Throne, after having depofed him, and of pulling
down Edward, who had been raifed entirely by his
means. Wherefore, he was commonly called, The King-
Maker.



HENRY VI. Reftored.



Montague is
made Preji-

ident o/'tbe
UerTb.

Art. Pub.
XI. p. 665.
Hall.



JUmare up-
on t fi Par-
Isametis.



Edward de-
clared a
"Traitor and
Ujurper.

An extraor-
dinary AS
to fettle tit
Sueeejjion.
Hall.
Hollingfli.



TH E new King's firft care, or rather the Earl
of Warwick's, who governed in his name, was
to reftore the Marquefs of Montague to the Go-
vernment of the northern Counties, which
Edward had taken from him, and given to the Duke of
Glouct/ler his Brother. Then, a Parliament was called
for the 26th of November, to confirm the new Revolution.
This was a necefiary Formality to fatisfy the people,
though the Parliament's Confirmation was of no great
weight in an Affair tranfatted without it, and in which
it could make no alteration. The fame thing happened
when Edward mounted the Throne. The contrary Re-
folutions of the Parliaments, in regard to the Quarrel be-
tween the Houfes of Lancajier and York, clearly fhew,
thefe Affemblies a<5ted not with freedom, but were fwayed
by the Events which happened before their deliberations.
It is in vain therefore to urge the Authority of the Parlia-
ments in fupport of the Rights of either Houfe. Their
Determinations are properly of no force, fince they had
not the liberty to judge according to their Undeftanding ;
unlefs it is faid, their Underftanding directed them always
to fide with the ftrongeft.

Be this as it will, the Parliament voted Edward a Trai-
tor and Ufurper of the Crown, confifcated all his paternal
Eftate, and annulled all the Statutes made in his Reign, as
wanting a lawful Authority.

By another A£l, the Crown was confirmed upon Henry
VI, and his Male-Heirs. But in default of fuch Heirs,
the Crown was to defcend to the Houfe of York, that is,
to the Duke of Clarence and his Heirs ; Edward, eldefl
Son of the late Duke of York, being excluded for his
Rebellion. Here would be a large field to expatiate upon
the unlimited Authority of the Parliaments, if the Statute
had been made with freedom, and after mature delibera-



tion. But it is eafy to fee the little Freedom there was
in this Parliament, if it is confidered, this AcT: was only
a bare Confirmation of the Earl of Warwick's Engage-
ments. Moreover, out of pure condefcenfion for the
Earl, or rathet by his direction, and contrary to the Laws
and Cuftomsof the Realm, it was not fcrupled to deprive
the Daughters of the Houfe of Lancajier, of a Right en-
joyed by the Princeffes of the Royal Family, ever iince the
Norman Conqueft. Thus, by a hafty Refolution, was
eftablifhed in England a kind of Salic Law, which the
Engli/hhad fo much cenfured and derided, whenEdward III,
and Philip de Valois were contending for the Crown of
France. This fame Parliament reftored to all their Honours
and Rights, Jafper Tudor Earl of Pembroke, Half-Brother
to Henry, and John Earl of Oxford, who were attainted
under Edward.

Moreover, in confequence of Queen Margaret's En- ' rtc Dult
gagements at Amboife, the Duke of Clarence and the Earl ^'',f r °f
of Warwick were declared and appointed Governors of Governors of
the Kingdom. By this, the Parliament manifeftly fup- ,ke Kir I^" ! '
pofed Henry's Inability, who indeed was confidered only Hal:!" 6
as the Shadow of a King. A Pardon was likewife
granted to the Marquefs of Montague, for his crime in
ferving Edward^ fince by deferring him at fo critical a
time, he was the principal Caufe of his Flight. But this
was not all. To give the Earl of Warwick a plaufiblc
pretence to be revenged on his private Enemies, all that
had born arms in defence of Edward's pretended Richt,
were declared Tray tors and Rebels (7). By virtue of
this A£l, John Tiptoft Earl of Wo'cejier, Governor of
Ireland, and High-Conftable of England, having been
found hid in a hollow Tree (S), was brought to London
and beheaded (9). By thefe Acls of private revenge,
the Nobles of the oppofite Party were forced, as one may



f :) Thus, as Half ahttrves, King Edward embarked (on OBober 3.) without Bag or Baggage, without Cloth, Sack, or Mail, and perchar.ce with a great
Purfe, and little Treafure, fol. 208. St.tu, p. 422.

(2) On Odder z. She went thither privately frorh the Tower, by Water. St:w, p. 422.

(3) November 4. Sandford, p. 42s»

(4) His Godfather* were, the Abbot, and Prior of Wefiminfier , and the Lady Scrope flood Godmother. Hall, fol. 210. Hollingjheed.
{s) The I2th, according to Hall, fol. 210, and Helling Jlead, p. 1325. Stonv lays, itwasthe6th, p.422.

(6) Cn October 25. He came from the Tower, dreflid in a long Gown of blue Velvet, to St. Pours Church ; attended by the Duke of Clarence, the Tarht
ef IVarti-ick and Shrew/bury, the Lord Stanley, &c. and from thence went to the Biihop of London's Palace, where he kept his Court. Halt, fol. 210.
Hollingjljead, p. 1 32 5.

(7) And it was enaflcd, That extreme Punifhmcnt fhould be done without delay, on fuch of King Edward's Adherents, as were apprehended, and were
either in Captivity, cr went at large upon truft of their Sureties. Hall, 210.

(iJ) In the Forert of Waibridge in Hunti'-gdonjbire. Stcut, p. 423,
(9) On lovjer-Hill, and buried at the Blaok-Jriers, Hid.



No. 31. Vol. I



7 P



%>



lie HISTORY of ENGLAND.



14-0. fay, to feek for fafety in Arms. Perhaps this is one of
the principal caufes of fevcral Revolutions which had al-
ready, and which afterwards happened.
TbtEarhf Shortly after the breaking up of the Parliament, the
Richmond g ar ] j- Ptmlnki went for Henry Earl of Richmond his
^bfiXing.' Nephew, who had concealed himfelf in Wales (1), and
Henry'i brought him to the King. It is pretended, Henry rted-
fntenitd f ^]y fi x ; n g his Eyes upon that young Prince, foretold,
iwf. ^ he fhould one Day mount the Throne, and put an end to
Hullmgih. the Quarrel of the two Houfes. But I do not know whe-
ther this fad be fo well proved, as Come Hiftorians affirm.
There feems to be reafon to prefume, it was invented in
the Reign of Henry VII, whilft the Canonization of
Henry VI was folliciting at Rome. For, the chief caufe
of the Pope's oppofition, was, that though he was willing
to own Henry VI for a good Man, lie could not fee in
his Life any proof of an eminent Sanctity. So, this pre-
tended Prophecy, if it had been well attefted, would have
been very proper to remove the Objection.
A Grant rs Ths Earl of Warwick having forgiven the Archbifhop
the Anh- f York his Brother, for letting Edward efcape, procured
York/' him a Grant of IVoodf.ock Park, and many other Ma-
Ad. Pub- nors (z), with the confifcation of the Eftates of fevcral Per-
XI. p. 669. fo m condemned for Rebellion, that is, for having ferved

Edward.
The Duh of I left Edward at the Hague in a very melancholy State,
Burgundy'i deprived of his Kingdom, and living at the expence of
?dward J * " thc Lord Gruthuy/e, till the Duke of Burgundy was in-
Commia. formed of his cafe. The news of thc King his Brother-
Hal1 - in-law's arrival in his Dominions, was by no means

pleal'ing to the Duke. Philip de Commines affirms, he
would have been lefs uneafy at the news of his Death.
For, in that cafe, he would have had but one courfe to
take ; namely, to approve of Henry's Reftoration. But
Edward being alive and in Holland, could not but throw
him into great perplexity. He had made an Alliance
with him not out of Affection, but folely for reafons of
State. He had facrificed to his Intereft his Averfion for
the Houle of York ; an Averfion wherein he had been
educated by Mother, Daughter of a Princefs of the
Houfe of Lancajler. Mean while, he was reduced to the
fad Neceffity cither of deferting his Brother-in-law, who
was come for refuge into his Dominions, or of expofing
himfelf, in protecting him, to the danger of drawing upon
him the united Forces of France and England. On the
other hand, the Dukes of Exeter and Somerfet, who made
a different fort of figure at his Court from what they did
before this Revolution, earneffly preffed him to abandon
Edward, and threatned him, in cafe of Refufal, with the
Indignation of England. Moreover, the Earl of War-
wick had now fent to Calais a Body of Troops, which
only waited for orders to join the French, and invade fome
Province of the Low-Countries. Vauclair had not only
received thefe Tooops into the Town, but by many other
Steps had (hewn, that he was far from being unfaithful to
L. j. c. 6. the Earl of Warwick. Philip de Commines relates, that
thc Duke his Maftcr having fent him to Calais, for a
Confirmation of the Truce of Commerce between that
Place and the Low-Countries, found the Governor, Garri-
fon, and Townfmen entirely for Henry (3). He adds, that
he faw no other way to fucceed in his Negotiation than
to tell the Inhabitants of Calais, that the Truce being
made with England, and not with Edward's Perfon (4),
the change of King was not a fufficient motive to break
it. By that, he intimated his Mailer difliked not the
Revolution.
Pcjlun of It is certain, it greatly concerned that Prince to keep fair
the Duke of with t he Englijh. But thc better to undcrftand his em-
SwjiV^'' haraffment caufed by Edward's retreat into his Dominions,
it will be neceffary to know the Situation of his Affairs.
By the Treaty, Lewis XI figned at Peronne, he promifed



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 257 of 360)