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to give in Appennage to thc Duke of Berry his Brother,
Champagne and Brie in lieu of Normandy, which he had
taken from him. He was not a little embarraffed by this
Ingagement. He plainly perceived, the Duke of Bur-
gundy's Aim was to have Prince Charles for neighbour,
to be able by his means to ftir up Commotions in
France whenever lie pleafed. But for the fame reafon he
himfelf wanted to keep his Brother at a diftance from the
Duke. For that purpofe, he tried to perfuade the Duke
of Berry to accept of Guienne and Rochclle, inifead of
Champagne, and, to (uccced in this Project, bribed all thole
who had any influence upon him. The Duke of Bur-
gundy being informed of this dtfign, oppofed it to the ut-

Vol. I.

moil of his power, by reprefenting to the Duke of Berry, 1470.
how much that Exchange would be to his prejudice. But
perceiving thefe Reafons to be ineffectual, he inlinuated to
him, by private Emiflaries, that, if he demanded his only
Daughter in Marriage, he would certainly obtain her, and
mighty to prevent his Brother's Oppofition, retire into Eng-
land till the Marriage was concluded. This Negotiation Aft. Pub.
had been carried fo far, that Edward, at the Duke of Bur- x: - P- 6 +^ !
gundy's Inftance, had ordered a Safe-Conduct to be dif-
patched for that Prince. But thefe meafures were broken,
becaufe the Duke of Berry, perfuaded by his treacherous
Counfellors, determined at lafl to accept of the Exchange
offered by the King his Brother.

Upon this thc Duke of Burgundy liftened but coldly to
the propofal of the Marriage, which could no longer be
fubfervicnt to his Defigns. Meanwhile, the Duke ofCommin.
Bretagne and the Conftable de St. Pol, who were deeply A, i cntrfc
concerned in the Negotiation (5), were extremely defirous
of its Succefs. As they loved not the King, they confi-
dered, this Marriage would bean infallible means to keep
up, between the two Brothers, a Diffenfion from which
they hoped to reap great Advantages. There was nothing
wanting but the Duke of Burgundy's Confent, and :<•
they faw he had no Inclination, they undertook to obtain
it by an extraordinary method. They pretended to be
diflatisfied with the Duke, and advifed the King of France
to make War upon him, promiling to affift him to the
utmoft of their power. Their Aim was to offer the
Duke, when he fhould come to be preffed, to efpoufe his
Quarrel, on condition he would give his Daughter to thc
Duke of Guienne. Lewis XI defired nothing more than
to fee the Dukes of Burgundy and Bretagne at variance.
Befides, he mod paffionately wifhed to take from thc
Duke of Burgundy, the Towns upon the Somme, deli-
vered to him by the Treaty of Conflans. He would not
however have attempted to make war upon him, for fear
the Duke of Bretagne and the Conftable mould have raifed
Disturbances in thc Kingdom, whilft he was elfewhere em-
ployed. But when he thought himfelf fafe from that quar-
ter, he immediately refolved upon the War, as having
no Intelligence of their Plot. Before he declared himfelf,
he fent private Emiflaries to the Towns he wanted to
recover, to win the principal Burghers to his Intereft.
It mart be obferved, that the Duke of Burgundy kept^n,,,^.
but (lender Garriibns in his Towns, and upon the Peace,
difbanded his Troops to eafe his Subjects.

Lewis having laid all his Plots, affembled the Eftatss at Lewis XT.
Tours in Marsh 1470, where, upon frivolous Complaints iatartiWn
brought by the Earl of Eu againft the Duke of Burgun- g^undy.
dy, he was fummoned before the Court of Peers, and the Mczcrai.
Citation was fent by a Summoner of the Parliament. The
Duke not appearing, War was proclaimed againft him,
and St. ^uentin taken, where the Conftable de St. Pol
entered without oppofition. Amiens opened her Gates to
the King by the like Practices, and the Duke was alfo
very near lofing Abbeville.

Such was the Situation of the Duke of Burgundy's Af- lie DUe .:-
fairs, when Edward came for refuge into his Country. He "f r "' d c f'"~
faw himfelf unexpectedly attacked by the King of France, 'j.' a !. : if *
and prefently after the Earl of Warwick lent (6) four Warwick,
thoufand Men to Calais to join the French, or make a c " mnlin -
Diverlion. So, the Duke could do nothing more prejudi-
cial to his Intereft, than exafperate the Earl of Warwick
by protecting Edward. It is not therefore ftrange, if Ed-
ward endured fome mortifications during his retreat. It
was neceffary tor the Duke ot Burgundy 's intereft, that it
fhould be thought in England, he wasforry to fee him, and
had no inclination to protect him. But in private, he
promifed to give him alliftance as foon as he could do it
with fafety.

This policy did not ferve Edivard's turn. He could
have wifhed, thc Duke of Burgundy would have openly
declared for him, imagining fuch a declaration would have
greatly conduced to the fupport of his party in England.
At laft, finding the Duke remained firm to his lefolu-Cjmmin.
tion, and his Duchefs's follicitations made no impreffion
upon him, he demanded a private Audience. As the Duke
could not refufe it, he reprefented to him, " That a Edward's
" longer delay was extremely prejudicial to him : That P'T^fi
" he loft his friends and creatures in England, whilft the ^,. 'J
" Earl of Wai-ivick was daily ftrengthning himfelf in his Burgundy.
" ufurped power : That therefore there was no medium be-
" tween aflifting him fpecdily, and abandoning him to his
" ill-fortune. Then he imparted to him his Brother the

(0 He went into Walci to v' fit his County of Pembroke, where he found tfaay, then between nine and ten Years old, who was kept in a manner like s
Captive, but well and honouraby educated by'thc l*Ay Herbert, Rc!i£t of IVilliam Earl of Pembroke . Hall, fol-211.
(a) tianbur^b, IVotf.n, arAStmnftld. Ryder's Fred. Tom. XI. p. 6K9.

(3) He found they all wore the Earl of Warwick's Bad^c, and on eveiy Djor were fet white Crolfes and ragged Sores. Cimmiaes, 1. 3. c. 6. Hail,
iol. 112.

(4) Whom he reported to be dead- Sec Ctmmims, I. 3. c. 6.

(5) The Earl of St. Pol hid a yearly Fem'ionof thirty thoufand Lirres from the King of France. P. Uan:el, Tom. VI. p. 420-

(6) He intended to fend them, hut was dilfuaded fiom it by the Merchants of the Staple j who were ti»:n I'crlo.ii »f gr;it Aath-'rity, and hid 1 great la-
fiucacc upon the Affairs of thc Nation. Cmmints, 1. J- c. 0,


Book XIII.

i 5 . HENRY VI.

T'foiict ta
ajijt Ed-

1470. " Duke of Clarence's promifes, adding, it was absolutely
" neceffary to nuke luftc, left that Prince, who was na-
" turally inconftant, fhould alter his mind, or the Earl of
" Warwick difeovering his defign, hinder him from cx-
" ecuting it, by removing him from the Government.
" To thefe reafons, which concerned him in particular,
•• lie added the confidcration of their mutual oath, wherc-
** by they were bound to give each other proofs of a fin-
" cere frlendfhip and a ready affiftance, in cafe of ne-
«* cdfitv. Moreover, he intreated him to reflect, that
" in acting for him, he was alfo labouring for his own
" family, which might one day Hand in need of affiftance j
" not to reckon the honour which would redound to
" him, by reftoring a King his Brother-in-law to the
•■ Throne. Finally, he pofitively promifed to enter into
" a ftrict, alliance with him againft France, the moment
•* he was reftored ; adding, that fuch a league was the
" right way to refill their common enemy. He concluded
" with representing, that diifimulation would never be
" able to produce the effect he intended, fince it would not
" hinder Lewis and the Earl of Wat wick from jointly en-
** deavouring to ruin him."
lit D*h of The Duke of Burgundy was moved with this difcourfe.
Burgundy He perceived, that in effect there was no medium in the
alternative propofed to him by Edward. Above all, he
ferioufly confidercd what that Prince had faid in the laft
place, that lie could not hope to repulfc the attacks of the
King of France, without the aififtance of England, which
could be expected only by Edward's reftoration. That
on the contrary, by deferring him, he would run the risk
of feeing France and England unite all their forces againft
him. But on the other hand, he confidered, he could
give Edward but a very fmall aid, confidering the prefent
pofture of his own affairs. That it was to be feared
this attempt happening to mifcarry, he fhould furnifh the
Earl of Warwick with aplaufible pretence to attack him.
In this perplexity, he devifed an expedient, whereby he
imagined he could at once falve the appearances with
Warwick, and give fome fmall afliftance to the fugitive
King. He equipped four large Ships at Vere, a free Port
in "Zealand, in otlier Perfons names, who were furnifhed
with Money. Moreover, he privately hired fourteen Ships
of the Eajlerlings, to convoy the King into England, and
to keep upon the Coaft a fortnight after his landing, to
conduit him back in cafe of neceffity. Then, giving
Edward a good fum of money (1), he left him in Hol-
land, and went himfclf into Flanders. When all thefe
Ships were ready, Edward difappearing, notice was fent to
the Duke, who immediately ordered Proclamation to be
made, that none of his Subjects fhould affift him directly
or indirectly upon pain of Death. It is likely, if Edward's
attempt had mifcarried, the Earl of JVanuick would not
have been deceived by this Artifice.

Whatever care was taken by Edward and the Duke of
timttkni "f Burgundy to conceal their deligns, the Earl of Warwick
Edward - 1 had received fome intelligence of them. It was too much
for his intcreft to have good Spies in Holland, to neglect fo
neceffary a precaution. It appears in the Colletlion of the
PuLlick ABs, that on the 21ft of December the Marquefs
of Montague had orders to levy Troops in the North, on
pretence of a Rebellion (2), not mentioned by the Hifto-
rians. Probably, it was only a farther precaution taken by
the Earl of Warwick, upon fome general advices of a
Plot forming in Holland.

The 2d ot January 1 47 r , the Earl of Warwick was
made High- Admiral. Doubtlefs, he did not dare to truft
Higb-Admi- (jj ers w ; tn the care of equipping a Fleet, which he fore-
p. 679. faw would be wanted, if the Duke of Burgundy attempted
Clarence to affift Edward with open force. The advices from Hol-
''■"'" n °t"' landht\ng fomething more certain than hitherto, the Duke
of Clarence, who was by no means fufpedted of holding in-
telligence with his Brother, was commiffioned to raife an
army to oppofe his defigns in cafe he fhould return into
the Kingdom.

Thefe meafures being taken, the Earl of Warwick
made hafte to conclude with Lewis XI an alliance, pro-
jected fome time before. But as it was difficult, to make









.Act. Pub.
XI. p. 676


He it made


Truce li-

t'iutcn Eng-
land and
f. 667, 6Si

an alliance with a Prince actually in War with England,
and as a Peace could not be concluded by reafon of
Henrys preteniions to the Crown of France* a long Truce
was refofved upon, almoft equivalent to a Peace. In the
Treaty upon this otcafion, it was agreed the Truce
fhould laft till one of the tv/o parties defired to break it,
in which cafe he was to give the other five years notice,
and the Truce was to continue ten years without being
revocable (3). It was farther agreed, that a place fhould
be appointed to treat of a final Peace. Lewis XI, wasp. •,..
p|caled, I know not for what reafon, that the Duke of
Gutenne his Brother fhould be particularly included in the

The fame day the Treaty was figned, the grand Priorp. 693,
of the Order of St. John of Jerufalem fet out for France,
to bring home Queen Margaret and the Prince of

Shortly after, the Earl of Warwick, out of affection to c««,„,,i,
the Duke of Clarence his Son-in-law, or to attach that zw c f
Prince the more to the King's fide, reftored him the Go-^'"'"'
vernment of Ireland, with fcveral Manors in England, for-p. 693, 700,
feited by Edward's adherents. The Marquefs of Montague,?- 6 99>7 C °-
and J a/per Tudor Earl of Pembroke, had iikewife a fharc"
in the King's favours.

_ Meanwhile, Edward having finifhed all his prepara- Edward fat
tions, failed from the Port of Vere about the middle of-*-" 7 -
March (4), bringing with him two thoufand Men. He»g™f^
difimbarked at Raven/pur (5), where Henry IV had for- Holkngih.'
merly landed when he came to wreft the Crown horn lle lard ""
Richard II. He expected to be received with acclama- l^V
tions; but, contrary to his expectation, found the Inhabi- w««i.
tants of thofe parts extremely difpleafed with his coming, """'"s" 1 -
Some were well affected to the Houfe of Lancajler :"'J,\
Others, feeing Edward fo thinly attended, were afraid
to venture openly to efpoufe his caufe. Mean while, as
there were no regular Troops, he met with no oppofition.
But that was not all he defired. He would have been
glad to be met by the People and fee his army increafe.
This difappointment obliging him to march with circunw/, taJutnfy
fpection, he caufed it to be rumoured, that he was come < hc ?"'"/
only as Duke of York to claim the private inheritance of^^fc
his family, which had been confifcated (6). Henry IV Hall!
had formerly ufed the fame artifice, but more juftly,
fince he was banifhed without legal Caufe. But if Ed-
ward had no Right to the Crown, as he feemed to own*
he muft have been guilty of Ufurpation, and confequently
could not with juftice complain that his Eftate was con-
fifcated. The reafon why he did not carry his pretenfions Tht Rla r n
any farther, upon his arrival in the Kingdom, Teems to be»/.r.
this : He was ftrongly perfuaded, that the people in ge-
neral were much more inclined to him than to his
Rival, but that the Magiftrates were againft him. Indeed,
as foon as the Earl of Warwick had the Government in
his hands, after Henry's Reftoration, his firft care was to
fill all the offices with his creatures. It was therefore con-
venient, that Edward fhould furnifh the People with a
pretence to favour him, how flight foever it might be,
thereby to oppofe the authority of the Magiftrates, who
would have had too great an advantage, could thev have
affirmed, he was come in arms to dethrone the reiening
King. Whereas by demanding only his private patri-
mony, he moved the People's compaffion, and infpired them
with hopes that the quarrel between the two Houfes
might at length be ended, by reftoring his Inheritance.
Be this as it will, Edward, though little pleafed with the//, „„ r ,.t,.
People's coldnefs, marched towards York, giving Henry" York. '
every where the title of King, and ftiling himfelf only Hllu
Duke (7).

The News of Edward's landing having reached the Warwick.
Court, the Duke of Clarence and the Earl of WarwimP rc f"" '•
departed from London to levy Troops. At the fame tuneT^J
the Magiftrates of the Town were ordered to lliut their Aft. Pub.
Gates upon the Enemy, and the Marquefs of Alontague, xl \ ?• 7°5«
who kept at Pontfracl with a Body of Troops (8), had Hul'nefii,
Orders to fight Edward before his arrival at York (9).
But the Marquefs, for what reafon is unknown, remained
in his Poft without making any Motion to hinder his

(1) Fifty thoufands Florin?;. Cemmina, 1. 3. c. 6.

(2) Tam in refiftcntiam Adverfariorum & inimicorum noftrorum Exterorum, Regnum nortrum Angliae in Partibus Borealibus ut accepimus inv3dere

nirentium, uuam in rcpreftionem diverforum Rebcllium noftrorum. Rymer's Feed. Tom. XI. p. 676.

(3) Re fin has not plainly cxprcflcd the Nature of this Truce: By the Treaty, as it Hands in Rymer'% Fieri. Tom. XI. p. 6S3 690, the Truce wa»

r.ct ta be revoked in five Years, after which, if cither Party thought lit to revoke it, the Rcvocauon was not to take place till five Years more, that is, not
nil ten Years after the Date.

M (4.) He embarked at F/ufhing in Zealand, on March 1 ; but the Wind being contrary, he did not fail till the 1 ith. Hoiiin- ,\:ad, p. 1327.

(;) The rath of MartB, Edtvard cimc before Cromer, in Norfolk, where he fent on Shore Sir Robert Cbambcrteint, Sir divert Debr-bar-, ar.d ethers, to
Sndtrlland how the People flood aflefted ; they found, that by reafon of the Vigilance of John de fere Earl of Oxjerd, and the great Prep-: atinns he had
made, it was unfafe to land in thofe Parts : Wherefore they fleer 'd to the Nor'hward, and, a Storm arifing that night, they -could not land till the I4.th,
which thev did at Raienffur, and places adjoining. The King I. dged that nip hi in a Village two Miles from the Place ot his Landing. The dck day, be-
ing the 1 5th of March, the King's Forces met ar.d jt ned :n a Body, whence they proceeded to Beverly, i-c. /bid.

(6) And fhewen the Earl of Northumberland's Letters under his Seal, wherein he had invited him over. Stew, p. 42 3.

(7) It is incndible, fays //.///, what effect this new imagination (his claiming only the Duchy of Tori) had ujion tic Pwple. Ail Men moved with meref
asa companion, began out of hand either to favour htm, or clfc not to refifl him, fol. 215.

(8) F(.ur thcufand Men. Stew, p. 4^3.

(9j Or cue to hinJtr him from proceeding further, tiU he ihoald come himfelf. Halt, ftl.jij.


6 I 2


Vol. i.

i -f- i . March ( i ). Some aferibe this Conduct to his ignorance of

hi d-.ubtful Edward's Forces. But what likelihood was there of his

Behavior $ want j n g g 00c j Intelligence upon fo important an occafion ?

Others tax him with Cowardice ; hut he was one of the

braveft Lords of the Kingdom. Some believe there was a

good Underftanding between hini and Edward j but the

TJ.r afferent Sequel fhewed the contrary. Thofc that reafon with molt

Rcajm of it. probability, fay, That Montague, imagining Edward would

not return into England without a well-grounded hope

of being reftorcd, defigned to relerve himielf this way,

in order to make his Peace with him. And, though his

Attempt fhould mifcarry, Mountague did not defpair of

appealing the Earl his Brother.

Edward, Meanwhile, Edward approaching York (2), two of the

"'T '"; . Aldermen came and intrcated him, in the name of the

approach ti , 7 ,

York, is de- Magiftrates, to march another way ; reprefenting, that
findto take tncv - could not receive into their City, a Prince that was
jfcBf." come to ta'ce the Crown from their lawful King. Ed-
ik ar.j-. m ; zvard, purfuant to the Plan he had formed, replied, " That
^f''j S '"" " he was not come to take the Crown from the King :
Hall/" ' " That fince the people had declared for Henry, he ac-
H'jJiingih. " knowlcged him for his Sovereign, and had no inten-
" tion to do him any prejudice: That he was come to
" rcqueft the King for the reftitution of his eftate, not
*« with an army to ufe force, but only with a few fol-
" lowers, to fecure him from the malice of his enemies :
" That the Parliament fhould be the Judge of his caufe,
" and delired only to have means to pafs his days quietly,
" in the allegiance becoming a good fubjedt : That how-
" ever, the inhabitants of York fhould of all others be the
" laft to deny him admittance, fince his Lands in the
" County, as well as his Title of Duke of York rendered
" him their Countryman. In fine he prayed them to
" remember the favors which, on feveral occafions, the
" City had received from his Family."
7ii PnpU The Aldermen returned with this anfwer, which was
oblige the not fufEcicnt to fatisfy the Magiftrates, devoted as they
u'adtitb'iL were to the Earl of Warwick ; but Edward's Adherents
Hall.""' in the City, perfuading the People, that it would be very
HoUjigih. cruel to refufe the gates to a Prince, who, fubmitting hini-
felf to the King and Parliament, was only come to de-
mand his Inheritance, there was fuch a Commotion, that
Deputies ^ the Magiftrates were not able to appeafe it. All they
Jem u bim. cou u obtain of the People was, that Deputies fhould be
fent to Edward to make Terms with him, in order to
preferve, as far as poffible, the Rights of the King, and
fave the City from plunder. The Deputies found Ed-
Hckvears to ward ready to promife whatever they defired. He pro-
befatthful tefted he was fincere, and promifed he would do no da-
HonS. mage to the City, and always remain the King's faithful
Subject. Whereupon the gates were opened to him, and
entering the City, he went to the Cathedral, and con-
firmed his engagements with a folemn Oath. Every thing
being thus tranfacted, on his part, with great mildnefs
and moderation, he borrowed fome Money of the Citizens,
and leaving a Garrifon, departed, in order for London.
During his fhort ftay at York, his Army was greatly in-
creafed. He would not however have ventured to march
towards London, had he not expected, it would continue
to increafe in his rout, and the Duke of Clarence perform
his promife ( 3 ).
Chrcncciai' \ n the mean time, the Duke of Clarence and the Earl
Warwick qC iy anmc j, were parted in order to affemble their For-

Conmand sr .... rrt

each an ces. Their delign was afterwards to join their Troops
Amy. j n to one Body, and fet at their head the Prince of Wales,
XI ' "06. Son of Henry, who was expected from France. The
Earl of Warwick thought, he had fufficient time to pre-
pare and join the Duke of Clarence, becaufe he did not
Montague doubt that his Brother Montague would be ftrong enough
*"/j EdWarf t0 ^°P Edward. But contrary to his Expectation, he
Hall heard that Montague had fuffered him to pafs without op-

Hollinglh. polition ; and that his Army continually increafed upon
fiis rout with great numbers of Officers and Soldiers, that
came to him from all Parts of the Kingdom. He was
extremely furprized with this News, and could not tell
Warwick what to think of Montague, who behaved fo remifsly in

encamps at all a ff a i r of fuch Importance. He dillembled however,

Hjl™ and after fending him exprefs Orders to come and join

him, and defiring the Duke of Clarence to advance with

all poffible diligence, refolvcd to encamp near Coventry,

and there e3cpe£t Edward. His-deiign was to follow him

in cafe he had the boldnefs to come between him and the 1471.
Duke of Clarence, or amufe him in thofe parts till his two
other Bodies were arrived. Indeed, Montague began his t/jc Duh
march to join his Brother, and the Duke of Clarence like- poparts tz
wife advancing, kept within diftance, as if he intended the 1 '" "*"
fame thing.

Meanwhile, Edward, who was now about Coventry (4), Edward
approached the Earl of Warwick's Intrcnchments, with a ""■*" <" if
Chew of attacking them. The Earl finding himfclf weak, euaci biiu
fent frequent Expreffes to the Duke of Clarence, to de- Hall,
fire him to advance with all poffible expedition. But the Hollingft-
Duke ftill foundfome excufe to defer the Junction. Whilft •

the two Armies were thus in fight, and ready, in all chrence
appearance, to ingage, the Duke of Gloucejler, with a fmaUjn/u
Train, rode forth from the Camp of Edward his Brother, J^" 1 '
and without demanding a Safe- Conduct, went directly
to the Duke of Clarence. At their firft meeting the two
Brothers tenderly embraced one another. Then, after a
fhort Conference, the Duke of Clarence having gained
the principal Officers, caufed Edward to be proclaimed in
his army. The fame day Edward headed his own Troops,
and joined the Duke of Clarence with all the marks of a
mutual Friendship.

This was a (tunning Blow to the Earl of Warwick, Tl t D*Uef-
who little expected it. However, in fpite of this misfor-/'" .*" M£ -
tune, which would have difcouraged any other Man, he ^"^hl
could not refolve to hearken to any propofals of agree- rgeSt it.
ment, though the Duke of Clarence offered him his medi- £J a jj:
ation. But fuch a mediator, who had fo openly betrayed
him, could not but be fufpected by him. As his army
would be foon reinforced by Montague's Troops, and he
was ftrongly intrenched, he did not think proper, too
haftily to treat of an accommodation, which muft have
been very difadvantagious to him. Befides, he hoped that
London, where he had left the Duke of Somerfet (5), and
the Archbifhop of York (6), would fhut her gates againft
Edward, if he appeared before the City. In that cafe,
he was refolved to follow him, immediately after Monta-
gue's arrival, and force him, either to retire elfewhere, or
join battle at the gates of the Capital, with a manifeft dif-
advange. But thefe meafures proved not very juft.

Presently after the junction of the two Brothers, it was Edward

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