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debated, whether they fhould attack the Earl of Warwick marches
in his Intrenchments, or march directly to London ; and T' 1 '"^'
the laft was deemed moft convenient. Firft, becaufe Ed- Hall.
ward having many friends in the City, it was likely, that HoUingih%
feeing him approach with a powerful army, they would
ufe their endeavours to procure him admittance, and the
Earl of Warwick's diftance would greatly facilitate their
attempt. Secondly, nothing could be more for Edward's
advantage than to have London on his fide. He wanted
Money, and could not eafily find it elfewhere. More-
over he could not abfolutely rely upon his Reftoration,
fo long as he was not matter of the Metropolis. Laftly,
it was of the utmoft importance to have Henry in his power.
He began therefore his march to London (7), leaving the
Earl of Warwick behind him, not without danger of being
reduced to great ftraits, in cafe the Londoners refuted to
receive him.

When the news reached London, that the two Brothers j% f ton .
were joined, and approaching the City, the Earl of War- doners are
%uick was given over for loft. This belief infpired the de " r " : ' nci
People with a terror which Edward's Friends carefully Edw'ard.
cherifhed, by aggravating the City's danger of being ex- Hall,
pofed to Edward's Indignation, unlefs it was averted by a HolJ " , 3 <1 "
fpeedy fubmiflion. At the fame time, they, that after Ed-
ivareTs flight had taken Sanctuary in Wejfminjler-t\bbej y
came out and fupported that Prince's Intereft. On the
other hand, thofe that were againft him durft hardly open
their mouth, for fear their endeavours fhould turn to their
ruin. So, without waiting the Refolution of the Magi-
ftrates, the People were ready to open the gates to Ed-
ward, and run out to meet him (8). In vain did the
Duke of Somerfet and the Archbifhop of York oppofe this
refolution ; they were not heard. In vain did they pro-
mife the People, that the Earl of Warwick would come to
their relief in three days : Edward's army, which was
now at the gates of the City, wrought a contrary effect.
In fine, Edward's Party prevailing, the People went out
in crowds to receive him with acclamations, which, whe-
ther real or feigned, were to him of great fervice. Whilft

( 1) Stew fays, he had received Letters from the Duke of Clarence, that he (Iiould not fight until he came, p. 4.23.

(2) March 1%. Hollingjh. p. 132&

(3) In his March from York to London, infte3d of going through Pontfracl, where the Marquefs of Montague lay encamped, he took a Compafs of about
four miles, and came to Nottingham, where Sir Thomas Parre, Sir James Harrington, Sir William Stanley, Sir Thomas Burgh, Sir Thomas Montgomery,
Sir William Morris, &c. repaired to him- Here they perfu.idcd him to iffue out a Proclamation, as KJig, under the name of Edward IV, laying, they
Would fervenoMan but a King. Hall, fol. 215. ITHmgjh. p. 1329. Stnv, p. 423.

(4.) Where he came March 29, Hollingjh. p. 1329.

(5) Edmund 'Beaufort. (6) George KcviH.

(7) On April 6. Hollingjh. p. 1331.

(S) Which they did u; on thete three Accounts : 1. They were induced thereto by the many Friends of his that had takef Sanctuary, and plrticuhrly
thc Qu_een his Wife. 2. Becaufe heowed feveral Merchants great Sums, which would have otherwife been loft. And 3dly, Edward having been familiar
with the Wives of the Chief Citizens, they pcrfurukd their Huibinds and Relations to declare for him..- Cmminei, i. 3. c. 7.

2 Edivard

Book XIII.

1 6, ED W A R D IV,


* 4~ i • Edward was thus received, Henrfs friends withdrew from
the City, without any one's thinking to help that unfor-
tunate Prince to make his efcape.
Edward en- Edward entered London the i ith of April, and imme-
£'',[*' ' C "- v '- diately thanked the People for their Affection, and pro-
hollmg/h. mifed to have it in everlafting remembrance. He feconded

this promifc with fever,] act.- of Clemency, •, which en
lircly won him the hearts of the Citizens, Mean while,
Henry, who had not found means to efcape, nor perhaps
fo much as thought of it(l), was again imprifoncd In the
Tower, from whence he had been taken feven months bo-
fore to re-mount the Throne.

; 4 -i

Continuation of the Reign of Edward IV.

tefoliici to



D IV A R D had not time to make a long ftay at a General on iucH perilous occafions, ordered a bod"* A

referve to advance, who falling upon the victorious
Enemies in the Flank, put them in extreme diforder
The fmall number of the Earl of Warwick's Trooi I
fufFeted him not to make a detachment to oppofe t>
that body. At the fame time, the Earl of Oxford, wh >
had beat back Edward's Troops, confidcring he had left
the line where he was ported, too much expofed, wheeled
about, to return to his Poll. This precaution, thou h
prudent, occafioned the Earl of Warwick's Defeat. The '


ours was a stow.

fje marcbei

Tbe Battle
of Barnet.
and Monta-
gue defeated
and [lain.

London. Two days after his arrival, he departed
to put himfelf at the head of his Army, hear-
■" ing the Earl of Warwick was advanced to St.
Albans. Undoubtedly the Earl was extremely embarrafl-
ed. He had decamped from Coventry, and marched with
great diligence, in expectation that the City of London
would keep Edward at leaft a few days before the Walls,
and the news of his approach hinder the Inhabitants from
receiving him. But he law the Metropolis loft, King Hen-
ry in prifon, and the whole Kingdom, as it were, ready Earl of Oxford's Badge upon his arms and col
to declare for his Enemy. In this extremity there was Star with Streams, and Edward's device was a S
no other lefuge, but to fight and vanquifh Edward. A fmall Mift, which arofe during the Battle hinderin'o- the
Victory was the only means of reftoring his Affairs. But Earl of Warwick's Troops from difcerniii"- the difference
On the other hand, though he had a good Army, it was they furioufly charged thefe Squadrons as° they were ie-
far from being fo ftrong as Edward's, which too conti- turning to their Poft, and put them to rout before ths
nually increafed, fince his being mafter of London. Be- Earl of Oxford had time to remove their miftake. This
fides, the Conduct of the Marquifs of Montague his Bro- bred an extreme confufion in the Arm v. Some imaeinino-
ther was fo myfterious, he could not tell what to think of they were betrayed, becaufe attacked by their own men^
it. He remembred he entered with reluctance into the ran away to the Enemies. Others feeing them fly that
Project of dethroning Edward, and had lately twice neg- way, thought themfelves attacked in the rear, and knew
letted to fight him, upon occafions where all hazards were not what courfe to take. Mean while Edward im-
to be run. It is true, he was come to join him, but proving this miftake, cut in pieces the Troops that were
this farther increafed his fufpicions. The Duke of Cla- flying towards him. The Earl of Warwick per'ceivin"-
rence his Son-in-law's example, made him apprehenlive, the diforder, did his utmoft to remedy it but it was to
his own Brother was corrupted. In this ftate of fear and no purpofe. At laft, willing to animate his Troops by
uncertainty, he would willingly have difmiffed him, if he his Example, he rufhed, tho' on foot, among the thick-
had not been afraid of difcouraging his army. In fhort, eft of his' Enemies, where he quickly fell, covered with
after many reflections upon the pofture of his affairs, flight wounds; The Marquifs of Montague his Brother defirous
being difficult and difhonourable, and the fuccefs of the to refcue him, perifhed in the attempt a few moments
Battle yet uncertain, he concluded, his only way was to after him. Thus ended the Battle about Noon by the Hal!,
venture a Battle, and die honorably, if Victory declared entire defeat of Warwick's Army, ten thoufand 'whereof
for his enemy. But withal, he refolved fo to order it, were flain on the fpot (4). It is faid, Edward, who in all Coi-imin,
that the Marquifs his Brother fhould run the fame fortune the other Battles was wont to publifh before the fi^ht that
with him, fince it was the event only that could affure the common Soldiers fhould be fpared, and the Officers put
him of his fidelity. In this refolution, he marched from to the fword, had ordered now that no quarter fhould be
St. Albans, and advancing to Barnet, which is but ten given. The Earl of Oxford and the Duke of Sbmerfet OxfM and
miles from London, met Edward, who was likewife ad- fled into Wales, to the Earl of Pembroke who was ]evv- s " merfct
vancing to fight. There, upon the 1 4th of April, being ing Troops for the Earl of Warwick. ' The Duke of 'iZ£u it
Eq/fer-Day, a terrible Battle was fought, which decided Exeter was left for dead among the flain, but coming to v£mdj.'
the fate of the two Competitors. Edward had brought life again, he crawled to the next houfc from whence Ha "'
Henry with him , not daring to commit him to any one's 'he found means to be carried to London where he took Ho ' i "^ !b '
cuftody. Thus, that unfortunate Prince feemed born on- fanctuary in We/hni/i/fer Abbey.

Such was the fuccefs of this bloody Day, and fuch the
end of the famous Earl of Warwick, who fince the be-
ginning of the quarrel between the Houfes of Lancajler
and York, had made in England the greateft Figure any
fubject had ever done before him. In a wordt he had
made and unmade Kings as he pleafed. Nothing more
fidering himfelf as a Rebel in cafe the Enemy was victo- glorious could be faid of a private Man if true Glory
rious, no favour was expected. The barbarity ufually confifted in excels of Power (5).

practifed in civil Wars was well known, and more efpe- Edward having thus obtained a complete victory which EJward'
cially in this, where fundry revolutions in favour of both feemed to fecure him the Crown, returned to London (6) '
parties, had carried animofity to the higheft degree. This where he was triumphantly received. The Inhabitants h
probably was the true caufe of the continuance of the Bat- could not fufficiently expreis their Tov, to fee themfelves

freed from the danger to which' they would have

been expofed, had the Earl of Warwick been conqueror.

The King's firft care was to return God thanks for the

had even reafon to hope, for fome time, that victory victory at St. Paul's Church; after which, he ordered

]y to be the fport of fortune. Happy in being, by his
natural weaknefs of mind, lei's fenhble of his misfortunes
than any other would have been (2).

The Battle began early in the morning, and lafted till
Noon; Never perhaps had two Armies been feen to
fight with more bravery and obftinacy. Every one con

re urr.s tl
1 Lonion.

tie. The Earl of Wartvick's Troops, though inferior in
number (3), fought defperately; being determined, by the
example of their General, either to conquer or die. They


was going to declare in their favour. Some Squadrons
detached by the Earl of JVarwick from the third line,
gained fo much ground upon their Enemies, that feveral
pofted to London with the news of their defeat. But
Edward not loling the prefence of Mind fo neceffary to

the unfortunate Henry to be fent to his old prifon.

few days after, he granted a Pardon to the Archbifhop The Arcb.

of Fork, probably not to incenfe the Clergy by the pu-

nifhment of one of their principal Members. Befittes, '
he remembered the great fervice that Prelate had done Ae^Pub.

xr. ?. 709.

(1) He was delivered to Edward by the Archbifhop of Turk, who had made bis Peace with him. Hollinrjh. p. 1332;

(a) In Edward's Army, the Front was led by Ri.bard Duke of Ghttjler; Edward himfelf, and G.erge Duke or Clare-.;- commanded the main B h

and William Lord Hajlings the Rear.. In the Earl oi It'a wtck's Army, the right Wing was commanded by Jtbu Neville Marquifs or M nla/u

and Jvbn dt Vere Earl of Oxford j the left by the Earl of Warwick him.elf, and Jcbn Holland Duke of Exeter : and a Body of Archers, which 1
the middle, by Edmund Beaufort Duke of Semo-fet. Half, fol. 217.

(3) The Number of King Edward's Troops did not exceed nine thoufand. Hollingjh. p. 1335.

(4) Hall fays, there were ten thoufand fla.n on both fid.s ; Fabiar. hath but ab >ut liftceti hundred ; and S'.zw fait thoufand. They were buried in the
field of Battle, half a mile from Barnet, where a Chapel was afterwards built in memory of them. The mod conGda-able Perrons /lain on Edward s

fide, were, the Lords Cromwell and Say, the Lord Mmtjoy's Son, Sir Humphrey Bturcbier S6n of the Lord Berr.ers, Sec. Hall fol 218 // n/t pi

Sttrw, p. 4.23. - f " *' J5V

(5) His Body, and that of his Brother, Jcbn Neville Marquifs of Mntagw, after being expofed three Days to all Comers, in St. Paul's Cath.dral were
conveyed to Btfham Abbey in Berkjhirc, and there buried. Hall, fol. 2rS. Stouu, p. 413.

(6; On Ea/iir-Diy, in the Afternoon j he went immediately to St. Paul's Church, where he offered his Standard. Halt, fo!. arS;

No. 31. Vol. I.

7 0,


.. i

6 1 Og.


Vol. I.

1471. him, though perhaps more out of negligence than affec-
tion, in fuffenng him to efcape from his confinement at
S^itn Mar- Whilft thsfe things pafTed, Queen Margaret who was
gjrct arW<u«j u fl. anivcJ from Francs in Dorfdtjhire (1) , faw herfelf
in a ftate worthy of pity. She had fcarce time to re-
ii,:i. ' frefh hcrfelf two Days, when fhe received the fatal news
Hullingfli. ot ' t | ie d e f ea t and death of the Earl of Warwick. Though
"j*<fhe had hitherto bravely withftood all the attacks ot for-
:/ tune, ihe was fo affected with this new difgrace, that
the Defeat, ^ ^,j .^^ a Swoon, out of which (he recovered with
great difficulty. She faw in an inftant all the confe-
quences, and perceiving no refuge, file gave way to
her Grief, and loll upon this occafion that wonderful
Firmnels, by which fhe liad ever been fo glorioufly dif-
e»d («in tinguifhed. Thus yielding to her unhappy Lot, and
Sanduary. thinking only of faving the Prince her Son, fhe took
Hoillnelh. San&uary in the Abbey of Bcaulieu in Hamfjhire. She
was ftill in the mortal agonies, caufed by this fatal Ac-
cident, when fhe faw arrive the Duke of Somerfet, John
Beaufort his Brother, the Earls of Pembroke and Devon-
fhire', and the Lord IVenlock. The two laft had been for
Edward, and unhappily for them had deferted him. The
Queen had a!fo with her the Grand Prior of St. John's,
11, Friends fent into France to conduct her to England. All thefe
cme u bar, L oraS5 w ith fcveral other Officers of diftinction, ftrove
"het'^be, to comfort her and revive her hopes. They reprefented
Fortune met to her, " That fhe had no reafon yet to defpair ; That
" indeed Edward was victorious, but might be vanquifhed
" a<*ain ; That the Kingdom ftill abounding with friends
" to King Henry, it was not fo difficult as fhe imagin-
*• ed to form a new Army capable of flopping the Ufur-
" per's progrefs : That as the gaining of one battle had
" reflored him to the Throne, fo the lofs of another
" might caft him down : That the fundry revolu-
" tions for and againft the two Houfes, fince the quar-
" rel began, ought to teach her, that there was ftill hope,
" provided fhe would not by an unfeafonable fear relin-
" quifh her own interefts, with thofe of the King her Huf-
" band and the Prince her Son : That her Armies had
" been frequently victorious under her condu£t, and it was
*' by no means impoflible that victory .fhould once more
" incline to her fide. Laftly, That all the world con-
" fidered the Prince of Wales as undoubted Heir of the
" Crown, and by fetting him at the head of the Ar-
" my, there was ftill room to expecl: a happy revolu-
" tion."
Si. mould If Margaret was afraid to expofe herfelf once more to
put btr Son the viciffitude of fortune, it was not upon her own ac-
»'•/<<««£«•■ C ount. The Prince her Son was the caufe of all her
Hullingfli. uneafinefs. Her tendernefs for him made her fee all the
fetal confluences of the undertaking propofed to her, in
cafe it was not crowned with fuccefs. She plainly per-
ceived, he could not attempt to recover the Crown of his
Anceftors, without hazarding at the fame time his own
life, and that confideration was fo grievous to her, as to
hinder her coming to any refolution. In this perplexity,
fhe propofed fending the Prince into France, that in cafe
the enterprize fucceeded, he might reap the benefit, and
The DuU of [{ it mifcarried, might at leatt be in fefety. But the
Somerfet is j) a ke f Somerfet reprefented to her, that it was chiefly
ag*,*fi it. u ^ the Prefence of the Prince that her hopes could be
founded, which alone would be capable of drawing mul-
titudes into his fervice, and induce the Troops to fight
She yUIds valiantly for him. At length the Queen, after enduring
to him. a violent conflict in her Soul, between the fear of lofing
her Son, and the defire of procuring him a Crown which
fhe believed his lawful right, confented to follow the ad-
vice of her friends.
•The speed This refolution being taken, it was agreed, that the
■wherewith Queen and Prince fhould retire to Bath, and the reft go
iv L "/ Ca " fl ana aflemble their friends, with the remains of the Earl
("p^Arly. oi Warwick's Army (2). The Earl of Pembroke under-
took to levy an Army in Wales, where his intereft was
great, and immediately departed, only defiring the Duke
of Somerfet, who was to command in chief under the
Prince of Wales, to run no hazard till joined by the
Weljb. The fuddennefs wherewith all thefe Lords levied
or afTembled their Troops, would be moil furprifing,
if in the firft place, the aftonifhing effeds ufually produ-
ced by hatred and revenge, efpecially in civil Wars, were

not confidered. Secondly, it muft be remembered, that 1 +7 * =
the remains of the Earl of Warwick'% Army having
difperfed thcmfelves after the Battle of Barnet, wanted
only a Leader to head them. Laftly, as it was but a
few days fince the Battle, it was not yet known how
the Conqueror would behave to the vanquifhed. So moll
having greater reafon to expecit feverity than mercy, chofe
rather to venture again their Lives in a Battle, than run
the risk of dying on the Gibbet and Scaffold. Be this
as it will, it appears in the Collection of the Publick Acts,
that the 27th of April, thirteen days after the Battle of
Barnet, the Lancajhian Lords had now re-affembled an

Upon the fame day, as appears by the date, Edward if- Pnchmaiit*
fued out a Proclamation, fetting forth, that his title to the '1,^'j, '
Crown was unqueftionable : Firft, by Reafon : Secondly, Act. Hub.
by Authority of Parliament : Thirdly, by his Victories, xl - V- 7°9-
and particularly the laft, where the Marquis of Montague
and the Earl of Warwick were (lain. That notwithftand-
ing thefe three moil firm Foundations, namely, Reafon,
parliamentary Authority, and Vidtory, fundry Perfons had
taken Arms againft him : But to avoid the effufion of
more blood, he had thought proper to give his People a
lift of the names of thofe Perfons who were pronounced
Traitors and Rebels, that their incouragers might not
complain if any mifchief befel them. The Perfons pro-
fcribed were, Margaret, (tiling herfelf Queen of England,
Edward her Son, the Duke of Exeter, the Duke of So-
merfet, John Earl of Oxford, John Courtney Earl of De-
von/hire, JFilliam Vifcount de Beaumont, John Beaufort
Brother to the Duke of Somerfet, Hugh Courtney, with
eleven others.

Mean while, Edward loft not a moment. As theE^'d
Troops were ready to march, he put himfelf at •JtpfZ^Lf' 'her.
head (3), to give his Enemies battle, before the Earl of Hall.
Pernbrske joined them with Weljhmen. How diligent fo- HJiingfli.
ever the Lords in league with the Quean had been, they
were far from being in fo good pofture as the King, be-
caufe of their want of Arms and Ammunition. So, Sit vnuli
knowing that Edward was marching in queft of them, 2?™ ""'
they refolved to retire into Wales, where the fituation of Hall.
the Country would help them to avoid fighting as long as
they pleafed. Befides, they expected to be joined very
foon by the Earl of Pembroke, and then fhould be in con-
dition to give battle. The point was to pafs the Severn
before the King overtook them , and for that purpofe
they marched to Glocejler (4). But that City refufing her
gates (5), and there being no likelihood of taking it at
the firft Aflault, much lefs of befieging it in form, they
refolved to pafs the Severn at Tewksbury. Mean time, * "'trtata
Edward fo clofely purfued them, that upon their Arri- TeJksbury.
val at Tewksbury, they confulted, whether they fhould
venture to pafs the River, at the peril of feeing their rear
put to rout, or intrench themfelves in a Park adjoining
to the Town, till the Earl of Pembroke arrived. TheT^"""''
Queen, who thought only of faving the Prince, was for ,\\ Sevan.
paffing. Some others, more out of complaifance to her
than for any good reafon, feconded her opinion. But the
Duke of Somerfet ftrenuoufly oppofed it. He reprefented The D«h of
the Enemy was fo near, that before the Army had all l^lT^'f
pafTed, he would certainly have it in his power to attack Hail.
them, and cut in pieces thofe who fhould have the mis-
fortune to be left behind : That fuch an accident, which
feemed unavoidable, could not but prove very fatal, and
difcourage fuch as were ftill friends to the Houfe of Lan-
cajler : In fine, tho' their Army was inferior in number
to that of the Enemy, that difadvantage might be repair-
ed by intrenching in the Park, and drawing lines which
would balance the fuperiority of his Troops. After mature
deliberation, this opinion was thought moft advifeable,
confidering the circumftances of time and place. Hifto-
rians, of whom few underftand the art of War, have
taxed the Duke of Somerfet with imprudence and rafhnefs,
folely becaufe they confidered not the difficulty of paffing
a River like the Severn, with the Enemy in the rear.
But if that General had been guilty of no other fault, per-
haps the Queen's Affairs would have taken another turn.
At leaft fhe might have waited the Earl of Pembroke's
arrival (6), and by fighting upon equal terms, caufed her
Enemy to run his fhare of the peril. This the Sequel will

fl) She embarked, March 24, and landed at Weymouth on April 13 or 14. Hollingjh. p. 1331, 133;.

(2) And fo, they foon drew together a large Army out of the Counties of Somerfet, Doifet, Wills, Devon, and Ccrnwal. Idem. p. I336.

(3) He fee out, April 19, with fuch Forces as he had got together about London, and came to If^mdjor j rr<m whence he departed on the 24th, and
the 27th came to Abingdon, where he waited the 28th for tbe coming of fome Troops- The 29th, he advanced towards Ciren.cjhr, and thence t*
Malnifbury, and afterwards to Sodbury, on May 1, where ke was informed the Enemies intended to meet him. Idem. p. 1336, 1337.

(4.) Queen Margaret removed from Bath (where Ihe was) in great hafte to B'ijlol; from whence Ihe frm a few Horfcmen to difcover whether flie
could fately pals the Severn at Gtuejler; and foon after advanced towards that City, and thrnce went Co VeVJkspttry. ibid.

(0 Richard, Son of the Lord Beauehamp of Pcrwykc, was Governor of this Town, which was under the Obedience of Richard the King's Brother,
HUl, fol. 220. Hollirgfh. p. 1337.

(6) This was what feveral of the Officers advifed her to Jo. Hall, fol. 220.


Book XIII.

*6. E D W A R D IV.


The Refolution being taken of expecting Edward, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Somerjet (;), and the grand 1471.
whole night was fpent in making intrenchments round Prior of St. John's (6) were made Pnfoners. But it

i'",'"irl' h " wno ' e n 'S nt was fp ent '" making intrenchments round Prior of St. John's (6)

Tewicftury. tne P irk > which Were finifhed before day ; fo ardently would have been more happy for them to have died irl
Edward re- was it laboured to be fccured from furpri/.e. Edward the Battle, fince they faved their lives only to lofe them
^"kbim" a PP roacmn g to view them, judged it abfolutely neceflary in a lefs honorable manner. The young' Prince being Hall

brought into the King's prefence, appeared before him "

to attack them, before they were rendered more impene-
Uullingfh. trable, and before the Arrival of the Earl of Pembroke,
who was hourly expected. So, without lofs of time, he
drew up his Army in two lines. He gave the command

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