M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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of the firft to the Duke of Glocejler his younger Brother,
and headed the fecond himfclf with the Duke of Cla-
rence. The Duke of Somerjet ranged his Army behind
the intrenchments, in three bodies, of which he command-
ed the foremoft himfclf (1), in order to fuftain the full



with an undaunted countenance, without debafing himfclf'
by fubmiilions unbecoming his birth. Edward was fur-
prized, and ftill more, when, asking him how he came
to be fo rafh thus to enter his Kingdom in arms; the
Prince replied, That he was come to recover his nun in-
heritance, which had been unjujlly ufurped. Edward, full '
of indignation at this boldnefs, (buck him on the mouth"
with his gantlet, and turned from him. This was, as it Hall.
lhock. Wenlock (2) conducted the fecond, under Prince were, the fignal to take away the life of that unfortunate •
Edward, who was confidered as the Commander in chief. Prince. It is [aid, immediately upon the King's with-
The Earl of Devonjhire (3) was placed at the head of the drawing, the Dukes of Clarence and Glocejler hia Bra-
third. Edward taking a clofer view of the intrenchments, there, the Earl of Dorjet (7), and the 'Lord Hayings, fell
perceived an opening to be left to go out upon occafion. like wild hearts upon the young Prince, and ftabbed him
This made him think, the Duke of Somerjet hoped to re- with their daggers. It is certain, he was murdered that
pel the firft charge, and if he obferved any diforder among inftant, and probably, the King had sjiven orders before-
the allailants, i»? J refolved to fally out and improve the hand for that barbarous execution. But I do not know
advantage. So, the more eafily to draw him out of his whether the Hiftetians are to be credited, who affirm,
lines, he ordered the Duke of Glocejler who was to begin thefe four Lords killed him with their own hands. This Remark of-
the fight, to retreat with fome precipitation, in cafe he might be an eftedt of the prejudice of thofe that wrote"'
met with too ftrong a refinance; and, if he was purfued, the hiftery, alter the reiteration of the houfe of Laneajler,
to face about, and vigoroufly attack his purfuers, in the fmce it is certain they have forgot nothing to render the
affurance of being fupported by all the reft of the army, houfe of York odious. It is likely however, the murder

was committed in the prefence of the fore-mentioned
Lords. Some fay, the Prince efcaping out of the Battle, Hail
the King offered a penfion of five hundred pounds Ster- """''"S*-
ling, to any Perfon that fhould bring him dead or alive,
promifing, if he was alive, not to put him to death :
That upon this promife Sir Richard Crofts, in whofe hands
he was fallen, brought him to the King, who performed
not his word. This Prince loft his life at eighteen vears
of age (8). Next day the Duke of Somerjet, and' theSomcrfet
grand Prior of the order of St. John were beheaded (9). {j£y**
Queen Margaret was confined in the Tower, where fliestow.
remained a Prifoner till 147;, when Lnvis XI ranfomed Hoilingfl..
her for fifty thoufand crowns (10). Such was the fad ca- 6f { ' '' u 2 b ;
taftrophe of this Princefs, who, for attempting to rule -z



Hullin£/h.



This order was founded upon Edward's knowledge of the
Duke of Somcrfet's intrepidity, and good opinion of him-
felf.
•The Battle of Every thing being thus difpofed, the Duke of Glocejler
Hall kegan the attack of the intrenchment with great vigour.

But finding, the enemies flood their ground, and appear-
ed every where ready to fuftain his aflaults, he retreated
toward the fecond line, with a precipitation that made
the Duke of Somerfct believe the whole Body to be en-
F„/r, Step entirely difheartened. Then it was that the Duke, not be-
eh Duh 0/ ing able to curb the impetuofity of his Courage, and think-
Hill. m g be ought to improve the prefent Advantage, (allied

Hollinglh. out of his intrenchments to prefs the enemy's army,
which he imagined to be now in confufion. At the



fame time, he fent Wenlock word to come immediately to England with an abfolute fway, caufed a great efflifion of

his fupport. Mean while, the Duke of Glocejler, who Englijh blood, and wrought her own as well as the ruin

was again drawn up at a good diftance from the intrench- of the King her Spoufe, of the Prince her Son, and of

ments, feeing the Duke of Somerjet advancing towards all the houfe of Laneajler, of which there remained but a

him in good order, faved him fome part of the way. fingle branch in the Perfon of the Earl of Richmond. There

As he was fure of being fupported by the King his Bro- was, it feems, a fort of fatality with regard to the Kings

ther, who was not far oft", he furioufty fell upon the of England, that married the Daughters of France. Ed-

Troops that were marching againft him, and by this vigo- ward 11, Richard 11, Henry VI and Charles 1, were the

rous and unexpected attack, fo aftonifhed them, that they only Kings that efpoufed French Princefles ( 1 1 ), and thev

faw no other refuge than to fly in diforder to their Camp, all four underwent the fame fate, three of them by the



The Duke of Somerjet was in a fury when he perceived
himfelf unfupported. He had depended upon Wenlock,
and inftead of finding him without the intrenchments with
the fecond line, to oppofe the Duke of Glocejler, he faw
him motionlefs in the very place where he firft drew up
his Men. Not being able at this fight, to bridle his rage,
he furioufly rode up to him, and clove his skull with a
Battle- Axe.
The Duke cf Mean time, the Duke of Glocejler entering the enemy's
f r l °^ s a " Camp together with the run-a-ways, made a terrible



Hall.
Hollingih.



He Hilt'

Wenlock



£ncmy'l
Camp.
Hall.
Ho/lingfh.



Tie %m

it taken.
Hall.



I Hollingfli.



felf obeyed.



army, and the King,



Thus confufion inftantly fpreading in the
who clofely followed the Duke his
Brother, entering likewife the Camp, the Queen's
Troops thought only of faving themfelves by flight, with-
out making any farther refiftance. It is faid, the Queen
was found in a Chariot, half dead with grief at the fight
of her forlorn affairs, without knowing what was become



fault of their Queens.

The Battle of Tcwksbury fought on the 4th of May (1 z), Hollingfli.
eighteen days after that of Barnet, was the twelfth lince St0W "
the beginning of the quarrel between the two Rofes. But
it was not the laft, though followed by no other in the reft
of this reign.

Whilft Edward was employed in puifuing the Queen,
there arofe a frefli enemy againft him. Thomas Mevil, kyjjJJ^JE
known by the name of the baftard of Fauconbridge, be- ai-awfl ite
caufe he was natural Son to the Lord of that name, had *■***■
Slaughter." Wenlock being dead, the young Prince knew been made Vice-Admiral of the Channel, during the Earl Hul ' ng /],.
not what to do, and the Duke of Somerjet tranfported with of Warwick's Adminiftration, to whom he adhered. The
paiTion, was incapable of giving orders, and making him- Earl being dead, and King Edward re-inthroned, the Ba-
ftard had loft his place. As he was a Man of ill morals
and without means, he faw no other way to fublift than
turning Pirate. When he found the King employed in
the Weft in purfuit of the Queen, he aflembled fome
Ships, and many Perfons of defperate fortunes, with whom
he came upon the Coaft of Kent, not imagining the War,
newly kindled, would fo quick! v end. His delign was to'/<
of the Prince her Son, and was brought in that condition furprize London, and inrich himfelf with the plunder of the'.'-''"'" 3
to King Edward. A Hiftorian however affirms, it was City. Accordingly, lie began his march towards Lon- Hollin-ft.
not till a day or two after the Battle, that fhe was taken don (it,), giving out, that he only intended to free King Stow,
out of a Nunnery where fhe had fled for refuge, and Henry from captivity. On this pretence, drawing in
cond u£ted to the King then at Worcejler. In this Battle, many adherents of the houfe of Laneajler, he formed an
by which the Crown was entirely fecured to Edward, there army of feventeen thoufand Men. He prefently became
fell on the Queen's fide but three thoufand, becaufe the mafter of Southwark. At the fame time, he ordered
two laft lines ran away without fighting. Among the part of his Troops (14) to pais the Thames, and aflault
flain were found the Earl of DevonJInre and Sir John two of the City gates ( 1 5 ), whilft himfelf attempted to
Beaufort Brother of the Duke of Somerjet (4). The force the bridge. But the Citizens having had notice of/;

pulfed,

(I) W ith his Brother the Lord Join Beaufort. Hall, fol. 120. (1) And the Lord St. J.bn. U,m. fol. 211. 11 ; :d, r. 1338.
(3J 75 mas Courtney.

(4) An, i alio Sir John Delves, Sir Edward Hampden, Sir Robert Ifbytingbam, Sir Join Lnvkentr, i-c. Hail, fol. 221.

(5) EJt. mud Beaufort. (6) jfobn Langftrotbcr.

(7) 'Tbon -as Grey, Marquifs of Doift. Hall, fol. 221. Hcllingfeead, p. 1340.

(8) He u ■'■is buried without any S.Jeranky, among lome mean Perfons, in the Church of the Black-FrUrs in levVjhury. Hali, fol. 221.

(9) They w'ere beheaded, May 6. Hail, ibid. ShW, p. 424. Hollingjhead lays, it was the 7th, p. 134.0.

(10) Her i^ather ranlomcd her for that Sum, whith he borrowed of Lco-ii XI, and mortgaged to him for it the Kingdoms of Aapis and Sicify, and -.he
County of Br, iienee. Hall, fol. 221.

(II) Raput forgot Henry V: But of this fee more in the Note on his P.eflefiicns at the end of '.he Reign of Richard ll\,

(12) Hall fl ys it was the 3d, fol. 221. (131 May 12. HoUingfirld, p. 1341,

(14) Confiftj ng of EjJ'tx Men. Ibid, (15) rildgaUsmi Btjbepfeatt,

his



6i6



fhe HISTORY of ENG LAND.



Vol. I.



77, i;:-

f ■ ■ ■■' ■ ■'




1 s~ i. flis rtlarch, were upon their guard, and refilled him on
""all fides. In the mean while, the Ballard hearing of the
fuccefs of the Battle of Tewksbury, and knowing the Kiiu r
was diligently marching to London ( i ), retired in good or-
der to Sandwich, where he fortified himfelf. Edwardbe-
ing come to London, palled through the City without flay-
ing, and marched to Canterbury, where the Baftard fent
him word he was ready to iubmit, .upon certain terms
which were immediately granted him. The King even
knighted him, and made him Vice-Admiral of the Chan-
, .-, nel as before. But he did not long enjoy thefe favours.
cf Hi head. Shortly after, he was beheaded, either for new, or the
old, crimes.

Edward arriving at London the 21ft of May, after two
,, ""•',' Victories in lefs than three weeks, granted an abfolute par-
Ad [ J ub. don to Tl'illiam IVainfleet Bifliop of IVinchcflcr (2), a zea-
xi. p. 711. j ou3 L anca jlrian. B u t l ie h a J not the fame sjenerofity for
King Henry, head of that houfe. The innocent lile of
that unhappy Prince, feemed to fcreen him from the
cruelty of his victorious enemy. It was doubtlels upon
that account, Edward had twice before fpared his Life.
Nay, it is very probable, he would have fuftered him to
die a natural death, had he believed it confident with his
fafety. But he was afraid he mould never enjoy a fettled
repofe, fo long as that Prince was alive ; and this confi-
deration made him refolve to difpatch him. It was pro-
perly Queen Margaret that haftened her Husband's death
by her laft attempt to re-inthrone him. If (he had won
the Battle of Tewkibury, and taken Edward prifoner, it is
fcarce to be doubted, that fhe would have put him to
death on the Scaffold. She ought not therefore to think
it very ftrange, that the ill fuccefs of her enterprize fell
upon the heads of her Husband and Son. It is even very
ptobable, fhe was herfelf indebted to her Sex for her own
life. However this be, Edward refolving to facrifice
Henry to his fafety, ordered the Duke of Glocejler, to
whom all the Hiftorians unanimoufly give the character
of a brutifh and bloody Prince, to put him to death in
Prifon. It is pretended, this Prince would be the Father's,
as he had been the Son's executioner, and that entering
his room he himfelf ftabbed him to the heart. But as I
ob'erved, it is neceffary to receive with fome caution
what the Hiftorians fay of the Princes of the Houfe of
York^).

Thus died Henry VI, in the fiftieth year of his age,
after a reign of thirty eight years before he was dethroned,
and of feven months only after his reftoration. Never
had Prince been the occahon, though innocently, of more
bloody Tragedies, or caufed more blood to be fpilt in his
quarrel. Though his natural weaknefs rendered him un-
fit to govern his Kingdom, and for that reafon, he al-
ways gave himfelf up to the guidance of others, he had
fome good qualities, which after his death, were extolled
for virtues of the firft clafs, on purpofe to render the more
odious the perfon that deprived him of his Crown and
Lite. All that can truly be faid of this Prince, is, that
confidering him in his private capacity, his life was inno-
cent, or at leaff, free from the crimes but too common
in the world. But if he is confidered as a Sovereign he
will appear in his whole life, to have acted neither good
nor bad. He founded Eaton College near IVindfor, and
King's College in Cambridge, for the benefit of Eaton
Scholars. Thefe two foundations are ftill in being. Af-
ter his death, his body was brought to St. Paul's, where
it was fome time expofed to publick view ; after which it
was interred without any pomp, in a Village near Lon-
don (4).

The twelve Battles, fought fince the year 1455, and
' ' '< ' - J the confequent barbaious executions, had reduced the Houfe



Dea-b of
Henry VI

Hail.

S I . X



rn/h.



h'a Charac-
ter.



Hii Fourda*

Act. Pub.
XI. p. 36.
Hollingin.
Hall.



«47».



17>e Remains



La



ley, but had Children by neither. I mention not Charles
Somcr/et, from whom the Earls of Worcejler were derived,
becaule being only natural Son of the Besufort-Somerfet Fa-
mily (5), he could have no Title to the Crown.

Jafper Tudor Earl of Pembroke, Uncle of the young 7* F «* '/
Earl of Richmond, not having been fpeedy enough to be p ' ,"! ; e
prelent at the battle oiTnuisbury, was not a little tm-Zta'rHl.
barrah'ed. As he found himfelf too weak to lupport alone'"" Wa.ti.
the Interefts of the Houfe of Lanca/ier, lie di (miffed his Hali -
Troops, and kept with the Earl of Richmond his Nephew
in Wales, where he had many friends and great credit.
Edward paffionately delired to have in his power the'b
two Lords, the only perfons that could give him any far-
ther difturbance. To accomplifh this defign, it was by
no means proper to march his Troops again)! them. Be- Edward ,
fides that this would warn them to leave the Kingdom, '"" " ''
it was noteafy even to feize their perfons, in a Country ',,'117'
where they had as many friends as there were Inhabitants. Hall.
So believing policy to be more ferviceable than force, he HM ' n t<"-
fent into thofe parts Roger Vaughan, with orders to ufe
all ways to feize or kill them. I'aughan not having beep They emhari
fo fecret as he ought, the Earl of Ptmbrniu, who had no-/- rFraA «>
tice of his delign, pretending to fall into the Villain's
Snare, flew him, and retired to Pembroke Caftle(6),
from whence he departed with Henry his Nephew, and
imbarked in a Veffel which was to carry them to France.
Mean while, the winds driving them upon the coaft of
Bretagne, they were forced to put into a Poit of that
Country. Their defign was to go to Paris, but as they a - d ar,i ' : ,
could not be excufed waiting on the Duke of Bretagne,'^"
when they would have taken their leave, they were told,
they were not at liberty to purfue their Voyage. The
Duke judging thefe two Lords might be of fome advan-
tage to him, affigned them the Town of Vannes for their
habitation, with an honorable allowance. Mean while,
though they outwardly received all the refped due to their
Birth and Quality, they were, however, very narrowly
watched. '

Edward feeing himfelf perfectly reftored, without any Edward gets
appearance of being again difturbed, in the poffeffion of 2."' L °, ,d ' *
Crown acquired with fo much pains, affembled the Lords',' hi', L
Spiritual and Temporal at JVeJlminJler (7); There, in a Art - ''■*•
ltudied Speech, wherein he endeavoured to difplay the XI ' p ' 7I4 "
Title of the Houfe of York to the Crown, and forgot not
his Vi&ories, he expreiled his defire, that they would
take the Oath to Prince Edward his Son, as to his appa-
rent Succeilbr, to which he found them all inclined.
The two Archbifhops, eight Bifhops, five Dukes, witli
all the Earls and Lords there prefent took this Oath on
the 3d of Jufy, Many former examples had demonftra-
ted the little ufe of fuch a precaution, and without going
any farther, Edward might have remembred his Father's
Oath to Henry VI, as well as his own at York. He was
perfuaded however, that people would be more fcrupulous
to him. But after his death, his Children unhappily ex-
perienced how little fuch affurances are to be depended
upon.

Shortly after, Edward granted a pardon to feven Bi- Pardon
f hops (8), who had declared againft him in the late revo- £'•""«< «
lution. From the beginning of his reign to the end, he^jf^'
always endeavoured to carry it fair with the Clergy. The 7*8, "729, '
reft of the year was fpent in fundry Negotiations, which I 73 +< " 6 -
fhall briefly mention.

The firft was with the King of Scotland. During the Nidation,
troubles in England, the Truce between the Englijh and "'* ,bc
Scots had been frequently violated, contrary to the Inten- S^Jj
tion of the two Kings. After Edward's reftoration, the p™ 10" 7 17,
King of Scotland fending Ambaffadors to him, it was 733. 74*-
agreed, to hold a Congreis at Alnwick, the 24th of Sep-
tember, for a mutual reparation of the outrages committed



of Lancajhr to two perfons only, namely, Margaret,

(Daughter of John Duke of Somcrfet, Wife of Edmund by the' two Nations upon one another. The two Kim

Tudor Earl of Richmond, halt-brotlier of Henry VI,) and were equally defirous to preferve the Truce, and even to

Henry Earl of Richmond her Son. Margaret had two conclude a final Peace. This Negotiation however, was

other Husbands, Henry Earl of Stafford, and Thomas Stan- not ended till 1473. It appears in the Collcclion of the

(1) H. msaWwctficr, in his march acainlt fome Rebels in the North, when he received the News of this Infurreaion ; whereupon he altered his court
and cinu t" (.;.;.,, yi/ay 11. Rollingjhead, p. 1341.

(2) The Founder of Magdalen- College in Oxford.

13) Some lay that when he heard what' Lolles had happened to his Friends, and how not only his Son, but alfo his other chief Adherents were
dead, and dnpatdicd cot ot the way, he took it fo to heart, that out of pure dilpleafure, indignation, and melancholy, he died on May 23. Hediingjbtad,

i+. Hi< Body was brought, in an open Coffin, on May 29, through Combill, with a great Company of armed Men, to St. Pauls Church, where it was

eipofed, tor one whole day, to publick view. The next day it was removed to the Black-Fncri ; and thence, without Pneft or Clerk, Torch or Taper

... or Saying, conveyed to the Monafteqr of CBert/ey in burrey; but it was afterwards removed by Ed-ward IV, or, according toothers by Rubard III'

in thelccond year of his Reign, to Wtr.df,., and there buried. A Monument was erected for him, of which there are, at prefent, no remains. Hall fol 11,.

o'/" w, p. 424- oandford, p. 306. ' •>

(c) He was Son 01 f^iY.^, Duke of W/tf, by Joan Hill. T^Henry was eldefl Son of Edmund, who was third Son of Join, the elded. Son of

, ,1 Gaunt, by Catherine Swinfird. See aboie, p. 535, Note(S). Sandftrd, p. 33T.
(6) He ■v-.s belieged in it by Mc^ar. TUmai, and relieved by David, Brother of the faid Morgan ; he was, bv the fame Da-v:d\ means, conveyed to
., ,. v here he emoaa-ked. Halt, toi. 222. Hcllingjhtad, p. 134.3. ^

" (7) This Parliament met on the 6th of Oflohr, (fo it is in Cctton ; but by RymcrS F*d. Tom. XI. p. 714, it feems to have been fitting Jul, ,.) The
I . mmons granted that fourteen thooland Auhers mould lerve the King, at their own charge, to be levred out of all Mens lands, according to a certain pro-
portion: And the Lords Spiritual and Tempo, al granted towards the turniture aforefaid, the tenth part ofone whole year's Revenue, ot all and fingular their
lMielhons. On Number 30, the Parliament was prorogued to Feb. 8. 1472, when it met again; and jif.il S, the Commons granted the King one Tenth,
• nd "r,e filteenth. Cotton s jibridg. p. 6Sb 691. b '

(S) The Kftops of Undon, Lichfield and Coventry, Hereford, St. jififb, Landaff, Bath and 0W* ; that is, only to f,x. For there are no Pardons for more.
Kymer 1. 1 «..'. Tom. XI. p. 713, 710, 7:8, 729, 734, 730,



Publick



Book Xiii.



16. EDWARD IV.



6 J



1471. PbhUck A:';, th.it Edward empowered his Ambafladors
to propofe a Marriage between the King of Scotland,
aiui an Eyglijh Priticefe. I Shall fpeak clfewhere of the
fequcl of tins Negotiation.

On tl;c 30th of September, the thirty years Truce With
r.ienc. rati. Bretagne was confirmed. This confirmation was necef-
-• :• fary, as the Truce, during the Earl of Warwick's Ad-

»'' : zz >'i°> ministration, had been often violated.

Lewis XI was very fenlible Edward had no reafon to
' fp " bl he pleafed with him ; but however he offered him a
(>.7zi )7 azj Truce, Tliat with Henry VI being of no force, now Ed-
ward was reftorcd. In the prefent fituation of the En-
gl: jh Affairs, it was by no means proper for Edward to
renew the war with France. His Kingdom was too
mncb exhausted, to think fo early of fuch an under-
taking. So, without much intrcaty, he agreed to con-
tinue the Truce, from the ift of September this year, to
the iff of May following. This was only whilft he pre-
pared to be revenged of Lewis, for affifting Queen Mar-
garet.
1472- The year 1472 abounded not with fo many important

and remarkable events as the laff. It was almoft wholly
("pent in divers Negotiations, tending to fecure the Tran-
quillity of the King and Kingdom, by Truces or Alliances
with foreign Princes.
. -,j. The Negotiation with Scotland ftill continued, though

fiowly, by reafon of the obftacles which occurred in the
. reparations demanded by each King.
Donnas r t appears in federal papers of the Colletlion of the Pub-
rn'ji^W lick Ads, that fomc difpute arofe concerning the Truce
Ileminfs'" of Commerce for thirty years, between England and the
t- 737.73 s - Duke of Burgundy s Dominions. Probably, during the
Earl of Warwick'* Adminiftration, the Englijh had injured
the Duke's trading Subjects. Theft laft demanded repa-
ration for fundry damages fuftained, affirming, the Truce
was to be confidered as made with England, and not with
the perfon of the reigning King. Edward on his part did
not think himfelf obliged to repair the damages done to
the Fletnings, during the Earl of JVarwick's Miniftry.
But thefe differences properly concerned only the Mer-
chants of the two Nations. As for the two Princes, it
was for both their Interefts to live in a good understand-
ing. Wherefore in treating of the outrages committed
againft the Truce, they did not fail to negotiate a final
Peace.
HemtiatiiM An affair of much the fame nature with the Hanfe
viitbtic Towns (1), created the King likewife fome trouble.
Hanfe Thefe Towns, whereof Lubcck, Hamburgh, and Dant-

.Tl", %ick, were the three principal, had obtained of the Kings
of England feveral Privileges for their Merchants, hecauie
their Commerce was very advantagious to the Englijh.
But under the frequent changes of the Government during
the Civil War, the Englijh had injured the Merchants of
thefe Towns, and violated their Privileges feveral ways.
Whereupon, thefe laft had obtained of their Magistrates
Letters of Mart, which had turned thefe differences into
an open War, deitmftive to both Sides. At length, the
troubles in England being ended, the Hanfe Towns fent
Ambaffadors to the King, to demand fatisfa&ion for their
loffes, and to propofe a renewal of Alliance, to confirm
their Privileges, and fecure the Trade and Navigation of
the Englijh in the northern Seas. Edward received the
Ambafladors very civilly, and appointed Commiffioners,
who after feveral Conferences, agreed with them, that a
Congrefs mould be held at Utrecht, to fettle all things to
the Satisfaction of both parties. But this affair was fo full
of difficulties, that it could not be ended till 1 474-

Some time after, Edward, by his Letters Patents con-
•IrtPortu- firmed the antient Alliance between Richard II, and John



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 260 of 360)