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gal. King of Portugal, for them and their Succeffors. Alphonfo

P- 7 + 1- King of that Country fent him the like Letters, dated

the 30th of Aug:: ft.
ThEartrr Whilft Edward was endeavoring to fecure his Peace,
Oxfoi/ufc* by renewing the Truces or Alliances with foreign Princes,
and impri- t ) lc return f the Earl of Oxford into England, gave him
h" mm'i ,rem caufe ot uneafmefs. The Earl, great favourer of
HaV - the Houfe of Lancajler, had retired into France, after the
Honing- battle of Tevjksbun. But as he was not very favourably
received by Lewis XI, he was returned into England (2)
with feventy five Men, and had taken by furprize St. Mi-
chaels Mount in Cornwall. Edward, ever apprehenfwe
that the leaft fpark might re-kindle the flames io happily



B.undi.



extinguished, ordered fome Troops to march immediately 1:
into the Weft, and invelt tin Earl of Oxford in the

Mount. But as the Earl had not time to provide ag
a Siege, he furrendered (3) before he was reduced to ex
tremity. All he could obtain, was his Life only ; but he
loft his Liberty and Ellate, which was all GORfifcateda.
without any allowance to his Gunnel's, Siffer of the Earl
of IFarwick, for her Subfiftcnce. Erom St. M'aha
Mount, he was conducted to the Caille of Hanuncs rieai
Calais, where he remained I'rifoner twelve years.

The Archbifhop of York had much the fame fate. „. ;.■
Though the King had pardoned him, and received his -'•
Oath at London the day before the battle of Bitnet ; bi
was Brother of the Earl of Warwick, mid that was fuffi- h
cient to render him fufpected. So, notwithstanding the H
Pardon, he was confined in the Caftle of Guifnes t where
he died fnon after (4).

The King had no confiderahle enemy left in the Ktingfi /> ...
dom but Henry i Loliand Duke ot Exeter, wl 1 had taken '>■ Dai
Sanctuary at IVcJlminJler after the battle of Burnet. Grow- S?"
ing weary of lus Confinement, he employed his Wife, Stow.
Edward's S:ltcr, to obtain his pardon. They had li\e.l
leparate, ever fince the beginning of the Civil Wars, be
caufe the Duke, whole Grandmother was Siller of //<«-
ry IV, adhered to the Lancajhian Party, and his Duchefs
had continued with the King her Brother. 'J hi. Prin-
cefs, inftead of fuing for her Husband's Pardon, dfifired, on
the contrary, to be legally divorced, and though fhe had
no lawful reafon, obtained her define. Probably, the
King's Sollicitation was very ferviceable to her. Thus the
Duke of Exeter law himfelf forced to remain in his Sanc-
tuary, without any hopes of pardon, or any thing to fiib-
filt upon, but what was privately fent him by his friend .
At laft, not bearing to live thus immured, he left the
place, without its being known how or when. It is only
known, that in 1474, he was found dead upon the Sea-
fhore in the County of Kent.

Edward having nothing more to fear, after the death, F. v.- ri
imprifonment, or exile, of all the principal friends dff-
the Houfe of Lancajler, gave too great a loofe to his re- - c ','ii M -n»
venge, upon perfons of an inferior rank, whom he ought
not to have dreaded. Some were put to death, and others
fined immoderately, as a punifhment for taking Arms a-
gainft him. But what troubled him moft, was the efcape
of the Earls of Pembroke and Richmond. He f'eemed to
forefee the evil that was to befall his family from that
quarter. The Earl of Richmond was, as I fi.id, tlie 1
remaining branch of the Houfe of Lancajler, at rather,
the only perfon that could pretend to di'pute the Crown
with Edward, as being Son of a Princefs of that Houfe.
He had with him the Earl of Pembroke his Uncle; who
was a Lord of great Merit, and very capable ! > direct
him. Though they were both ablcnt, and as Priioners
in Bretagne, they made the King very uneal'y, who vvifh-
ed to fee the quarrel between the two Houfes entii
ended, by the death of the young Earl, to whom all the
Rights of the Houfe of Lancajler, were fallen. For that //•.- r /.
purpofe, he lent Ambafladors to the Duke of Brete. -?,,," ■ /■
intreating him to deliver the two Englilh Lords he had in R '.
his power; but the Duke very civily defired to be exculed. .,-<., -._.•,,.
He promiled however to guard them fo carefully, that ••'
they fliould never be able to hurt him. L'pon this conli- ff":,
deration Edward paid him yearly a large Penfion, under
colour of B maintenance for the two Priioners.

All this while the Negotiation with Scotland was con- 7n,ce viti
tinued, and as great difficulties occurred, it was agreed s '•
between the Plenipotentiaries of the two Kings, that the ^j
Truce fhould fubfift till July 14",.

After Edward had fettled his affairs to his mind, he Grathnyte
remembred the honorable and hearty reception he had ""*. e '■
met with in Ho/land, from Lewis de Bruges Lord of fhcii!-"."
Gruthmfe, and refolved to make him an 'acknowledgment, p
To that end, having fo managed it, that the Parliament " "
petitioned him to create that foreign Lord a Peer of Eng-
land, he made farm Earl of //' inche/ler, and afterwards by
Letters Patents, allowed him to bear the Arms of Englan,
in his Scutcheon.

Before I finifli what relates to the events of this year, it *';,
will be neceflary briefly to mention how matters flood be
tween Lewis XI, and the Duke of Burgundy. The know- ••'- L*h
ledee of their difputes is very requisite for the understanding ' '
of the Hiftory of England. Lewis, as I faid, at the Inltance y.' j



(il Thefe arc certain Towns in Germany confederate for the Benefit of Trade. They are (0 called from the word !&»/«, ligmrying Alliance. Br,,
mm in ta„.J«»«,, is laid to hive been the Founder of this Confederacy, about the year 1164. How many Towns wen ifloaated at nrll i s
not known- But the d-fign fo vifibly profpexed, th.it molt of the chief trading places in Eunpe, to the number ct leyemy two, entered into th-
Cobfedcracy. In the n-uri(hin S ernes ',,1 their Alliance, thefe fl«/i Tosvns had four general Stafla, viz. Lcmbn, Bruge* - i„

WWoay, and Nmtgrod in «,#„. At prefent, the Ha*ft Towns are in a manner reduced to theie fix, Luk ,, H'mburgb, Brm , )«*.

JB/Vi, and Cologne.

iz\ September -ti. I 4-7 I * Stow. „ . , . ... . ,

[V February 15 147a. Stow fays, he had fo great plenty of Provifions, that he could have held out a good While longer, p. 4:6.

ll) One day as he was hunting with the King at WW/ir, the King told him. he would come ani bunt with Mm at his sea- called tb, Wk-e
V, HatfirJIbire. Accordingly the Archbifhap made great preparations, and borrowed a good deal of Plate trom Ms 1 Friends : But the ttj
ward was to come, the Archbifhop was apprehended, and all his Coods and Eftetls, valued at twenty thou and Powids, feued to the King s ule.

So ji. Vol. I, ' R ol



6i8



1472.



7l>e HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



P. Daniel.



Cemmin.



'4-3.
Miftjia of
lie Englifli
Bifleriotu,



Agreement
•with Por-
tugal.
Afl. Pub.
XI. p.76:-
766, 767-
769.



of the Duke of Bretagne, and the Conflable it St. Pol,
who fought only to deceive him, had begun the war with
the Duke of Burgundy, and taken from him Amiens, and
St. Shientin. As he did not want good Spies, he difco-
vered at length, that he was ingaged in that war, folely
for the accomplishment of the projected Marriage between
the Duke of Guienne his Brother, and the Duke of Bur-
gundy's Daughter. In order therefore to free himfelf at
once from the troubles that were defigned to be raifed
by means of his Brother, he caufed a poifon to be given
him, which was to operate (lowly, that his death might
be alcribed to a common diftemper. Mean while, for
fear the Duke of Burgundy, finding himfelf too much
prelled, fhould take new meafures with the Duke of Bre-
tagne and the Conftable, he fent to offer him a Truce.
The Duke could wilh for nothing more advantagious in
his prefent Circumlrances. But as he had reafon to fear,
the offer was defigned only to amufe him, Lewis gave
the Duke of Bretagne full power to conclude the Truce
in his name. As this laft could not refufe to undertake
this affair, without discovering himfelf, he fent the Bifhop
of Leon in quality of Mediator, to Cambray, where the
Treaty was to be negotiated. Both Parties were fo wil-
ling to agree, that it was not poifible for the Bifhop to
find any way to hinder the figning of a Truce for thirteen
Months, from the firft of April 1472, to the firft of May
1473. About fix weeks after the conclufion of the
Truce, the Duke of Guienne died, and Lewis took polTef-
fion of that Duchy without oppofition.

The Duke of Burgundy perceived then, that Lewis had
granted him a Truce only to have time to fecure Guienne,
and that, upon all occafions, he fhould be that Prince's
Dupe, when their affairs were determined by way of Ne-
gotiation. So, being highly provoked to fee himfelf thus
fnufed, and finding, that with fuch enemies, the fureft
way is to a£t with open force, and make them at leaft
run an equal fhare of the danger, he entered France, and
deftroyed whatever he met in his way with fire and
fword. The Duke of Bretagne feeing his projects vanifh-
ed by the death of the Duke of Guienne, refolved feri-
oufly to join with the Duke of Burgundy, being perfwaded
that the preservation of Both depended upon their ftri£t
Union. Mean while, Lewis perceiving the Duke of Bre-
tagne would not fail to take that courfe, had already fent
Troops into Anjou, to keep him in awe.

Whilft Lewis was ftill employed in Guienne, the Duke
of Burgundy made fome progrefs in Picardy, and took
Nefle and Roye. But unfortunately, he loft two whole
months- before Beauvais, without taking the place.
This accident was the caufe, that Lewis not perceiving
himfelf much preffed left his Troops in Anjou. So, the
Duke of Bretagne not daring to ftir from his Country,
was prevented from joining his Ally according to agree-
ment. At length, the Duke of Burgundy railing the
Siege of Beauvais, came into Normandy, in expectation
of the Duke of Bretagne. Mean time, Lewis was a
little imbarafled. By leaving his Troops in Anjou, he
expofed Picardy and Normandy to the Duke of Burgundy's
attacks, and if he marched to the affiftance of thefe two
Provinces, he left the Duke of Bretagne free to make a
powerful diverfion in his neighbourhood. But he foon
freed himfelf from this difficulty. By the help of the
Duke of Bretagne's Minifters, whom he gained to his in-
tereft, he found means to make a Truce with that
Prince (1), and perfwade him to renounce the Duke of
Burgundy's alliance. This unexpected defection obliged
the Duke of Burgundy to accept of a Truce offered
him by Lewis, and which was frequently prolonged.

Before we enter upon the events of the year 1473, it
muft be obferved, that all the Englijh Hiftorians are mif-
taken in a whole year, placing in this what happened in
the next. Biondi, the Italian author I have fometimes
quoted, owns, the French place in the year 1475, what
the Englijh fix to the year 1474, and adds, that he chufes
to follow the Englijh, and fo is guilty of their mif-
take. The Collection of the Publick Acls fhows it fo
plainly, that there is no reafon to queftion it. Indeed,
the year 1473 was ^ barren of events, that it is not
very ftrange if it was unfounded or joined with the fol-
lowing. The affairs which ought to be affigned to the
year 147"- though they are of little moment in them-
felves, they ferre to diftinguifh thefe two years and rec-
tify the Chronology.

The King of Portugal demanding the reftitution of
certain Portuguese Veflels taken by the Englijh, enquiry
was made, whereby it appeared that thefe Ships were
plundered by the Baftard of Fauconbridge during his revolt



againft Ed/ward. For which reafon the King of Portugal 14-;.
defifted from his demand.

The affairs with Scotland employed Edward good part Cmfinmum
of this year. At length by a Treaty concluded at Aln- °f' h ' Tna
wick the 28th of September, it was agreed, the Truce £"* Szot -
of Newcajlle fhould be inviolably obferved by both the p! 776,788.
Nations.

The differences Edward had with the Hanfe Towns p- 779,780,
were alfo decided, at the congrefs of Utrecht the 19th of 793,
September (2).

There were Iikewife fome negotiations, concerning the Ntgctutiaa
thirty years Truce of Commerce between England and the ™' < * '*'
Duke of Burgundy's Dominions ; but it does not appear g"*' J A
that any thing was concluded in the affair, which, pro- p^jjajftt
bably, was only a pretence for more fecret and important
Negotiations, as will be feen prefently.

The Alliance between England and Denmark being often jm
violated during the confufion of the Civil Wars in England, toitbDur-
the two Sovereigns were equally defirous to renew it. To mark-
that end they agreed, that without inquiring into the mu- p ' 775 * 7 **'
tual damages, the Englijh and Danes had done one ano-
ther, the Alliance fhould remain upon the fame foot as
before the violation.

This is all worth notice in the Collection of the Publick
Acls for the Year 1473. Let us proceed now to the
following year, which will afford us more plenty of
Matter.

The Duke of Burgundy, as I faid, obtained a Truce 1474.
which was afterwards prolonged two or three times till Defigm if
1475. During this Truce, he employed his time in con- '*' Dut ' °f
qucring the Duchy of Gueldres. Arnold Duke of that Com^"
name, being difpleafed with Adolphus his Son, who had
for fome time kept him in Prifon (3), made a grant of
his Duchy to the Duke of Burgundy. Upon this pretence
entering Gueldres, he defeated Adolphus, and taking him
Pnloner feized upon the Duchy.

This acquifition exciting him to new conquefts, he Mezerai.
confidered how to enlarge his Dominions on the fide of Commia '
Germany, and formed projects too vaft, and too difficult
to be performed. Mezerai fays, he promifed his Daugh-
ter in maniage to Maximilian Son of the Emperor
Frederic, upon condition his Dominions fhould be erec-
ted into a Kingdom. He adds, this affair mifcarried,
becaufe the Duke would have the condition performed
before the marriage, in order to fign the contract as
King ; but the Emperor would have the marriage con-
fummated firft. Be this as it will, the Duke forming
the project of extending his Dominions in Germany, em-
braced the firft opportunity to carry his arms into that
Country. A difpute concerning the Archbifhop of Cologn
arifing between Robert of Bavaria, and the Brother of
the Landgrave of Hejfe, furnifhed him with the wanted
pretence. He immediately took the Prince of Bavaria's Commin.
part, and laid Siege to Nuz, a ftrong Town in the Arch-
bifhoprick of Cologne. He reckoned, the taking of that
place would promote the execution of his other defigns.

The Truce with the King of France being to laft till
June 1475, the Duke of Burgundy hoped to be matter of
Nuz before it was expired. But Lewis put fuch obftacles
in his way, that he could not execute his defigns fo foon
as he imagined: Lewis fo managed by his intrigues,
that the Emperor Frederic drew together a ftrong Army,
to oblige the Duke to raife the Siege. The Duke of Lor-
rain, the Duke of Aujlria, the Switzers, entered into a
league againft him ; fo that finding himfelf extremely em-
baraffed to refift ib many enemies , he remained ten
months before Nuz, without being able to take it. Whilft
he was employed in the Siege, he faw no other way to
free himfelf from the perfections of his enemy, than to
ingage the King of England to make a powerful diver-
fion in France. For that purpofe, he fent Ambafladors to Btag^a
Edward, to perfwade him to make War upon their com- f d * ard " c
mon enemy. I he better to ingage him in this underta- bin, aga,nji
king, he promifed to join him with all his forces, the mo- F ""d.
ment he landed in Picardy. He made him hope Iikewife, £;""""'
that the Conftable dc St. Pol would deliver him St. ^uen- Habikgton.
tin, the Duke of Bretagne league with them, and by the Stow>
help of that Prince's adherents in France, he would put
the Kingdom in fuch confufion, that the conqueft of it
would be rendered much eafier than in the rei»n of
Charles VI.

This was precifely the opportunity impatiently expected
by Edivard, to be revenged of Lewis XL Every thing
feemed to confpire to the downfal of that reftlefs and tur-
bulent Prince, fince he was going to be attacked by three
formidable powers, without reckoning his danger from his
own Subjects. And indeed, if all his enemies had acted



(1) By granting him a Pcnfion of forty thoufand Livres, the half of Guienne, and other plates. Cuamnir, I. 3.

(2) Or rarher in February 1474. See Rymer'i Feed. Tom. 11. p. 793,
(3; Six Months. Ccmmnel, 1. 4. c. Ii



tviih



Book XIII.



16. EDWARDIV.



619



1474. with the fame ardour as Edward, he would doubtlefs have The fixth ahd M A& xni in for* of Lettei : ,,-

run the hazard of feeing his affairs in great diforder. But, whereby the Duke of Burgundy agreed that Bdwa, '

in all appearance, the Duke of Burgundy only intended to his Succeffors Kings of France, fliould have (ice Liberi

ihgage Edward to make a diverfion in France, in order enter Rheims in order to be crowned, and depart with,

to prevent Lewis from difturbing him in Germany. How- any impediment. This Act wis neceflary becaufe

ever this be, acting as if he really defigned to undertake Champagne was included in the grant.

This wni properly felling tfo



the conqucft of France jointly with the King of England,
he gave very ample powers to his Ambafladors to treat
with him upon that head. The Plenipotentiaries of the
two Princes having fettled all the Articles, figned about
the end of July feveral Treaties concerning this important
undertaking.

The firlt was a Treaty of Amity, Alliance, and Confe-
deracy between the King of England and Duke of Bur-
gundy, mutually promiiing to aflift one another to the ut-

n" r u"d' ° f moft of the ' r P ower -

Aft. Pub. The fecond contained certain private conventions con-

XI. p. 804, cerning the War they were to carry into France^ com-

prifed in the eight following Articles :



Several
'Treatiet be-
livten Ed-
ward and



Sod.



j>. SoS-



812.



ie Bear's 'Lin before l.rr was 7 '
killed. However, it is not very difficult to difcover the ' '
Motives of the conduft of thefe two Prirlces, fince it i
certain they both intended to deceive one another. Tl
werwboth too wife, to expett to conquei Franc* wit\
ftipulated Forces. But the Duke ol BUrgund n n
ingage Edward to make a powerful di '■'■ ■ ion . that
Kingdom, by perfbading him, it would be ,.-iv eafj td
conquer it. Edward feigned on his part to be aliured
with thefe hopes, the better to ingage the Duke ol Bur-
gundy to lend him a fufficicnt fupply, to recover Guienne
and Normandy. This is neither the firlt nor the laft
time that Princes have played Counterfeits in their Trea-
ties.

Edward having figned all thefe Treaties began ferioufly Sut/lJj
to make preparations for the intended War. His firfl £""•"*'
i Parliament (,), which readily Coif'nV
Since the Reign of Edward III, Abri*g,
the Parliaments feldom wanted much follicitation to grant "*,"'„ ft
money for a War with France. As foon as Edward faw S '■'. "» " ,
himfelf fupported by his Parliament, he iflued out Com- ■"'/'".'



/ ': War.



I. That Edward fhould pafs into France at the head
of ten thoufand Men at leaft, all well armed and well-
appointed, before the ift of July, 147;, to recover the care was to aflemble
Duchies of Guienne and Normandy, and the whole King- granted him a fubfidy.
dom of France.

II. That the Duke of Burgundy fhould aflift him in
Perfon with all his forces.

III. That the King fhould hearken to no propofal of miffions to levy a much greater number of Tioops, t..„
Peace or Truce without the Duke's confent. what he had promiied to fupply by his Treaty with Bur-

IV. The Duke of Burgundy promifed likewife the fame gundy. Indeed as the War was upon his account;, it was
thing. his part to exert himfelf anfwerablv to the greatnefs of

V. That the two Princes fhould caufe the War to be the undertaking. Whilft he was haftening his prepara- ■
proclaimed, each in his Dominions, againft Lewis as their tions, he fent ambafladors to divers Courts, as well to vjn
common enemy. make alliances with feveral Princes, as to endeavour to XI ,. 816,

VI. That immediately after the War was begun or pro- hinder their union with his Enemy. We find 111 the"*3 6 -
claimed, the two Allies fhould attack the common enemy, Collection of the Publick Ails, that he fent to the Empe-
ror Frederick, to Ferdinand King of Sicily, to the King
of Hungary, and fome others, to ingage them to enter
into the League.

At the fame time, he fecured himfelf againft any di- "' <•



ralBm-



in the moft convenient places, in fuch manner however as
to be within diftance to aflift one another.

VII. That in cafe one of the two Princes fhould be
fiege fome Town^ or be forced to give Battle, the other



ge •/'c.c-



fhould be obliged to join him with all hi* forces, and at verfions from the Scots, by concluding a marriage between '*"
his own charges, that both might run the fame hazard. Cecily his fecond Daughter, and the^ing of Scotland's "ay 1.
That their Lieutenants fhould be bound to the fame eldeftSon. The firft overture concerning this Marriage was Oa^w

made in the beginning of the year, and is was afterwards ne- "';'" ,',%"



thing.



VIII. That when the War was once commenced, nei- gotiated in divers conferences between the plenipotentiaries of Scotland'



ther fhould defift fo long as the other fhould defire to
continue it. That if one was abfent, his Lieutenant
fhould be obliged to obey the other, in whatever concer-
ned the common good of the two Allies,



the two Kings. At length, it was concluded' the 30th of p-*'4,*3 6 -
July, and Ottober the 1 8th the young Prince and Prin-
cefs were affianced by Proxies. Some days after (4), the
Truce of Newcajlle, which was to laft till 1 51 9, was
again ratified at Edinburgh. As the affianced Couple were Ih pj ,, t
The third Treaty contained an explication of one of yet too young, it was agreed the Marriage fhould be ac- /
the Articles of the firft, where it was faid that each of complifhed as foon as they were both of fit aae and in/*"
the two Allies fhould aflift the other with all his Forces, the mean while, Edward fhould pay at feveral times his
As this expreflion was too general, they agreed upon the Daughter's Dowry, confifting of twenty thouland Marks
Number (i)and Pay of the Troops they were to fupply (2). Sterling.

Edward having thus fecured himfelf againft the diver- 14.75.
fions his Enemy might have caufed, continued his Prepa- «••'.'
rations, with great hopes of fucceeding in his deficits, Th



The fourth was a grant from Edward to the Duke of
Burgundy of feveral Provinces of France, in confideration
of the future fervices of that Prince, in aiding him to re-
cover the whole Kingdom. This grant included the
Duchy of Bar, the Earldoms of Champagne, Nevers,
Retel, Ett, Guife, the Barony of Doufy, with all the rowed Money of all his Subjects that were known to be H " b '" s ' c



Subhdy granted by the Parliament not feeming fufneient, »«
or part of it perhaps being applied toother ufes, he bor- Hil



Towns on both fides the Somme ; and laftly, all the Lands
pofTefled by the Earl of St. Pol and held of Guienne,
Normandy, or the Crown of France. Moreover, he re-
nounced the Homage of all thefe Provinces, as well as of
Burgundy, the Earldoms of Charolois and Macon, of Flan-
ders, Artois, and in general of all the Territories the
Duke was actually poffefTed of, or acquired by this grant.
Finally, he added, his intent was, that this grant or con-
veyance fhould be as firm as if confented to by the Eftates,
promifing to procure their confirmation of the whole,
as foon as he was in pofTeffion of the Crown of France.



rich. Some contributed chearfully ; others were gained by
the King's Flatteries ; and fome feared to incur his dif-
pleafure, and perhaps fome Violence in cafe they refilled.
In general, there were but few who dared to difbbey.
This fort of Aid levied after this manner was called by
the new Name of Benevolence , intimating that private
Perfons had granted it freely and of their own accord.
Mean while, thefe Loans raifed without Authority of
Parliament, were of a very dangercu confequence : But as
it was to make war upon France, there was no murmurs.
It is reported, the King himfelf asking a rich Widow (till.



The fifth was an agreement, whereby the Duke of what fhe would lend him, lhe replied, She could not refufe



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