M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Burgundy ingaged to furniftl for the War, an Army of be- twenty Pound Sterling to a Prince who borroived with fo

tween ten and twenty thoufand Men. The King pro- gooda Grace. The King, as much pleafed with the Lad v's

mifed on his part, to aflign him yearly the pay of thefe Politenefs as her prefent, very courteoufly gave her a Kifs,

Troops upon the Provinces included in the foregoing grant, which fhe took as fuch an honour, that lhe doubled the

in cafe they were conquered, and if not, upon other De-
mefns of the Crown, in proportion to what fhould be
wanted : That if the aflignment of the pay was not made
before the end of every year, he agreed, the Duke fhould
not be obliged to find any Troops the Year following.

fum fhe had promifed:

Amongft the new-raifed Troops there were three thou- Bcitfipn
fand Men defigned for the Duke of Bretagne, purfuant to < hr " '**"-
a fecret Treaty between him and Edward. That Prince %* M
however had lately changed into a perpetual Peace the Aa


. Pub.

(1) Which was to be fix thoufand Men

(i) If either Party wanted Tra ps for his own Defence, he was to pay two thoufand four hundred Men out of Chafe fi:< thoufand, and he that
fumtlhed them was to p*y the remaining three thoufand fix hundred. But if they were, wanted ioi any o'.her cccalkn, he .P.:: employed them was
to pay them al< ne. Rymer ■ s Feed. T(m. II. p. $09.

(31 This was no new Parliament, but the lame as firft met on O&ober 6, in the 12th year of this King's Reign, and is mentioned alove. It
was by fundty Prorogations continued to the 6th of June, 1473, when it granted the King one Tenth, and ore Fiftecn'h ; and fifty one thnifaud
one hundred 2nd feventy Pounds, four Shillings and Seven-pence three Farthings, in tull payment of the Wages of the fourteen Lboa&nd Arch-rs
granted before; towards the payment whereof every County, City, and Town, Was feverally taxed. This Parliament was connmied till Abfrcb 14.
1474, when :t was dilTolved. See Ccttoni Abridg. p. 638.-.-700.

;4) On.b;r 26. Rjmtr'i Fxd Ton). 11. p. $24,



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p 13.
■ m
H, II.

i. 4. c. 5.

?7js # / S T R T of E N G L A N D, Vol. I.


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Truce made with Lcwh. And yet 3 wlien he was in-
formed of the League between Edward and the Duke of
Burgundy, he defired to be included, but privately, for
fear of being opprefied before his Allies were ready. The
Lords Audley and Duras (1) were to command the Suc-
cours intended for Bretagne.

Every thing being ready for the Army's departure, .£</-
ward embarked at Sandwich the 20th oi~ June {z), ha-
ving appointed the Prince of Wales his Son,, but five
years old, Guardian of the Realm in his abfence. A
Hiftorian affirms he found at Dover five hundred trans-
ports fent by the Duke of Burgundy, which is not very
likely. Mezerai fays, on the contrary, that the Englijh
Troops fpent three' weeks in paffing to Calais, which is a
fi<rn, there were but few Veffels, or a very great number
of Troops. Philip dc Csmmines allures, never did King of
England lead into France fo ftrong an Army. But this is
fpeaking hyperbolicallv, or not exactly according to truth.
It is certain, this Army was not comparable for number,
to that, led by Edward III into France a little before
the Treaty of Bretigny (3). However, it is not eafy to
know the precife number of the Troops, fince the His-
torians only mention the number of the Horfe, without
fpeaking of the Foot. But if we judge by the ufual pro-
portion in thole days, when the Cavalry was much more
relied on than the Infantry, this Army was not fo nume-
rous as it is pretended, fince there were but fifteen hun-
dred Aden at arms, and fifteen thoufand Archers on Horfe-
h.ick. Befides, by Edward's Treaty with the Duke of
Burgundy, he was obliged to find but ten thoufand Men.
In fine, it will be feen in tiie fequel, that he made peace
with Lewis without opening the Campain, when he found
he could not depend upon the Duke of Burgundy's affift-
ance, which doubtlefs he would not have done, before he
had rendered himfelf formidable by fome exploit, had he
been i'o fuperior as he is reprefented.
»• Upon Edward's arrival at Calais (4), he fent a Herald
to Lewis to fummon him to reftore the whole Kingdom
of France, and in cafe of refufal, to proclaim War againlt
him. Lewis hearing the Herald in private, told him, he
' was vcrv well informed, Ed-ward was not come ot his
own inclination to make war, but by the inftigation of the
Duke of Burgundy, and the Confhble de St. Pot (5),
who, he might allure his Mafter, would both deceive
him. Then after asking him fome queftions, which gave

' 4 J '•

:s the

and ?' lent

rctbe Herald the Herald occafion to fay, that when he made any of-
Hj ' ; ' fers of Peace, he fhould apply to the Lords Howard

and Stanley , he prefented him with three hundred
Crowns (6), and thirty yards of Velvet, to make him
a Robe. He did not expect, doubtlefs, to reap great ad-
vantages from the Herald by this liberality, fince the Man
was a ftranger to his Matter's inward relblutions ; but meant
to fliow Edward's Courtiers, what they might expeit
from him for mere important Services. The Herald
failed not to magnify his Prefent, and relate to the
Lord Howard, who held the chief place in the King's
Favour, what pafled between Lewis and him.

Mean while, Edward advancing into Picardy, where he
expected to meet the Duke of Burgundy, found nnt fo
much as a fingle Man from him. Surprifed at fo feem-
i 1 ly ftrange a Proceeding, he fent to the Duke (7),
who was {till before A r uz, to know the reafon. But be-
fore I proceed, it will be ncceffary briefly to mention the
Duke of Burgundy's affairs.
State u' the The Duke was intent upon the Siege of Nuz, in
hopes of taking that Place, and Cologn too, before Ed-
trefs arrival in France. But the Emperor approaching
the Siege with an army tour times as ftrong as the
Duke's, without however offering him Battle, the Be-
fiegers were fo harraffed, that the Siege, inftead of ad-
vancing, was retarded. And yet, the Duke, from a mo-
tive of Vain-glory, obftinately continued it, to fhow that
the Emperor with all his forces was not able to raife it.
Nothing could be more advantagious to the King of
. or more prejudicial to the Duke's affairs, than
this unfeafonable obftinacy. In the firft place, it hinde-
red his joining the King of England. 2. In the mean
time, Sigifmund Duke of Aujlria took from him the
Earldom of Ferette (8), and the Duke of Lorrain ra-
vaged Luxemburg!}. 3. As foon as his Truce with
France was expired, Lewis made himfelf mafter of Roye,
Corbie, and Montdidier. In fine, when it was too late,
and he was within eight days of being mafter of the Place,

prefled by Edward's inftances, he agreed, it fhould be de-
livered to a Legate, to be difpofed of according to the
Pope's pleafure. After the railing of the Siege, the Duke's r ; e qu-.i
Army was lo little able to march, that inftead of 'peedily S"g'-
joining the Eitg/ijh, it was put into Summer quarters.
Then he went himfelf with a very fmall Train, to make u c g, !S >„
his excufes to Edward. It was difficult for the King to tiward
digeft fuch a negligence, in fo important an affair. He be- ^l^'
gan from that time to open his eyes, and perceive, he Commin.
was engaged in the War for the intereft of others, whereas Hal j;
he had imagined, it was for his own. On the other " in ^
hand, the Duke of Burgundy's precaution, not to admit
but few Englijh at a time into Peroune, confirmed the
King's fufpicions. At laft, he was quite undeceived by
the behaviour of the Conftable de St. Pol, who com-
manded in St. Quentin. The Conftable, who was one of //,.,, &1
the chief promoters of the War, becaufe lie founded his .t/Wty
gr.eatnefs folely upon the diftention between the King ot : '*f £""p*j'
France and the Duke of Burgundy, had poiitively promifed, Commin.
to deliver St. Hhtcntin to the King of England. Upon
this affurance, the Duke of Burgundy would have con-
dueled Edward into the place, that having fogooda Pledge
in his hands, he might be patient. But upon their ap-
proach, they were fired upon from the Town. At the
fame time, a body of Horfe fallying out, killed fome En-
glijli Soldiers, who were moft eager to enter, expecting to
be admitted without difficulty. Very probablv, the Duke
of Burgundy himfelf was deceived, upon this occafion, by
the Conftable. For it is not likely, he fhould defipned'y
caufe fuch an affront to be put upon a Prince whom he
yet wanted, and who had him in his power. He d:d ail
lie could however to excufe the Conftable, and feed the
King's hopes. But finding Edward gave no credit to his iu : m -.
words, but on the contrary bitterly reproached him, he EiiwarJ.
left him next day, under pretence of haftening his Troops.
It may be, he was not without fame apprehenfioii, that
Edward might purfue his refentment.

Edward feeing himfelf thus deferted by the Duke of «* "
Burgundy and the Conftable, and not hearing that thefj..
Duke of Bretagne made any motion, or there was any Commin.
appearance of the Infurrections in France, he had been H - ,ll ' n f' 1 '-
made to expect, found himfelf extremely embarraffed. In ' SKW ,
the mean time, a French Prifoner, the only one taken
fince the Englijh Army's arrival, being releafed by the
King's order, the Lords Hrward and Stanley charged him,
to prefent their refpedts to the King his mafter. The
Prifoner difcharging his Commiffion, Lewis began to
think it was not without defign, that this Compliment
was made him, remembring what the Englijh Herald told
him concerning thefe Lords. He perceived, the Court
of England defired to enter into Treaty, but would not
make the firft Advances. For his part, who was not fo I* 1

teal i no

A - '■-' ■ / '



H ::.



< bent to

.: toe




C immin-


fcrupulous, he refolved to improve this foit of fverture.

offers a

Peifon of little Commin.

Philip de Commines fays, he caufed a certain

note, but of good Senfe, to be drefled like a Herald, and

fully inftructing him, fent him to the Englijl) army, to

demand a Safe-Conduct for Aiiibaffadors, and addrefs

himfelf for that purpofe to the Lords Howard and Stanley.

The pretended Herald being admitted into the King's

prefence, told him, " That he was ordered by the King 77.,, «, r<I y,

" his mafter to reprefent to him, that the war between Speech to

" their two Kingdoms could not but be deftructive to both, Edward.

" and the mutual Trade of the two Nations was on the

" contrary a manifeft advantage, which ought to be che-

" rifhed. Then, he excufed the King his mailer's coun-

"• tenanting the Earl of Warwick, alluring, it was not

" out of ill-will to Edward, but on the account of the

" Duke of Burgundy his ineconcileablc enemy. He

" added, that the Duke of Burgundy's and the Conftable's

" infincerity was fo evident, that it was needlefs to meu-

" tion it, fince he was very fenfible of the effects. That

" he was come in arms into a Country where he had

" neither Caflles, nor Friends, and he left it to him to

" judge, whether the Conquell of France was fo esfy as

" he had been made to believe : That however, the

" King his mafter, knowing fo great an Armament

" could not be made without vaft expence, was very

" willing fo to make him amends, as he fhould have rea-

" fon to be fatisfied : That therefore he demanded a

" Safe-Conduct for Ambaffadors, with a Train of one

" hundred Horfe, that they might treat in a proper place,

" with thofe of England, concerning a firm and lading

" Peace, between the two Kings and their Subjects."

flj GaBiard de Durefbrl, Lord of Duras. Rjmer's'Fasd. Tom- 12. p. 12.
Z) There arc in Ryir.cr's FvJ. Tom. jz. p. J2 - -14, two Papers witnetlid by the King at WaJIminfler, Jut.:
the lame day: which makes it probable that he might embark that day. But Hall, lol. 126, Hdhn^jhead,
July 4.

Edtaard the Thtrd'r Army was a hurdred thoufand Men. Rjpin.
i.;i Cotnminet (ays, he fent him before his departure from Dzv.r, ]. 4. c. ;.

Vnd the Commons* of England. Ibia.
(tij And promifed to give him a thoufand Crowns more, in cafe matters were adiufted. Ibid.
Cv I he I. Md Sca'es, Commines. Halt.

1 l i had mortgaged to him for a hunc*:;d tboura. r :i Florins. Ctmmin. 1. ^.- <"• -■

; and three dated at S.:rd.
1346. fay, it was not tul


Book XIII.



1475. In Edward's circumftances, the King of France's pro- Pequigny Bridge, with a Bar [or Grate] between them. r+75.

Edward ca//j pofal was very acceptable. Accordingly, the Herald was Lewis came firft to the place, attended with the Cardinal'" ■/"'■-'

of Bourbon, and five other Lords. £Vwar^ arrived after- \"

* Council
Angult .3,
Ad Pub.

xn. P . i 4


offered to tit
King of

difmiifed with a Prefent (1 ), and the defi red Safe- Conduct.
The fame day, or the next, Edward called a Council (2),
at which were prefent all the Lords in the Army, to the
number of eighteen. It was refplved, almoft unani-
moufly, that the Lord Howard 3.sld three others (3) fhould
confer with the King of France's Ambaffadors, and a

Kx ogs at

wards, accompanied likewife with a fmall number ofPeqnifny
Lords(;). After they had both fwore to obferve the hue <•» '
Treaty, Lewis inviting Edward to Paris, told him, he HoUingfi,
would procure him agreeable diverfions with the fair La-
dies of that City, and if he chanced to trefpafs upon his

full power was giyen them to conclude a Peace upon thefe chaftity, the Cardinal of Bourbon fhould be his Confeflbr,

terms: 1. That Lewis fhould pay the King, within a
fortnight, the Sum of feventy five thoufand Crowns, and
from thencefoi ward fifty thoufand Crowns yearly,
at two payments, during the Life of the two Kings.

2. That the King of Fi

fhould promile to marry

the Dauphin his Son to the King's eldeft or fecond
Daughter, and allow his Daughter-in-law fixty thoufand
Livrcs a year. Upon thefe two conditions, the Ambaila-
dors were empowered to pioniifein (he King's name, that
he would return into England with his Troops, imme-
diately after the receipt of the feventy five thoufand Crowns;
To conclude a Treaty of Amity and Alliance hetween the
two Kings, with promife of mutual affirmance againft their
rebellious Subjects; And laftly, to fign a Truce for feven

The Plenipotentiaries of the two Kings (4) meeting
near Amiens, at almoft an equal diftance from the two
Armies, the Treaty was concluded the 28th or 29th of
Augujl, as Edward delired, without any confiderable al-
teration. Every thing being thus fettled, feparate writ-
ings were drawn, on each particular Article of the

who would eafily abfolve him. After fome other raille-
ries, Lewis made a fign to the Lords that were with him
to retire, and the Englijh likewife did the fame. When
the two Kings were alone, they talked a good while to-
gether, and it was afterwards known, that the Conftable,
and the Dukes of Burgundy and Brttagne were the fub-
jeiff. of their converfation. As to the Conftable, Edward
would not be concerned for him. As for Burgundy,
Lewis asking him, what he fhould do if that Prince re-
filled to be included in the Truce, Edward replied, he
might do as he pleafed, if, after another offer, the Duke
fhould lefufe. But as for the Duke of Brctagne he plainly
told him, that lie would aftift him to the utmoft of his
power, if attacked. Lewis thought proper to infill no far-
ther upon that fubjetSr, and in line, they parted very well
fatisfied with each other (6).

The interview being ended, Lewis repaired to Amiens,^; •
where the Lord Howard followed him as Hoftaze. Whuff

Truly of
Amiens or
P- "5 :

Lewis was wafhing his hands before (upper
whifpered him in the ear, that lie would undertake toper
fuade the King his mafter to take a journey to Paris ;
to which Lewis returned no anfwer. Howard frequently

refuted Ed-
■ rd'i Vijit.
Howard Comaiin.

P . 17.

p. 19.

By the firft, the two Kings promifed to decide all their hinted the fame thing at table, without the King's feenung
differences by arbitrators, namely, the Archbifhop o(Can- to hear him. However, he caufed him to be afterwards
terbury, and the Duke of Clarence for the King of Eng- told, that the War he was going to wage with the Duke
land, and for the King of France, the Archbifhop of of Burgundy not permitting him to go to Paris, he was
Lyons, and the Earl of Dunois. Moreover, Edward in- ve ry forry he could not enjoy the honour the King in-
gaged to quit the French territories, upon the receipt of tended to do him. Philip de Commines remarks upon 1< 4- c. 10.
the feventy five thoufand Crowns, without doing any this occafion, that there wa, noihing more feared b. Lewis,
damage, and to leave Hoftages for the performance of his than to fee Ediuard relifti France, nor any thing m ire
word. paffionately defned by him, than to fee him return into

The fecond concerned the feven years Truce, in which England. He was under fuch apprehenlion that Edward He rives
were included all the Allies of both the Kings, and exprefly would repent of the Truce, that he ptivately bellowed ^'^'"'.'Ji
the Dukes of Burgundy and Bretagne, if they defired penfions upon his principal Counfellors, to induce them to Commin.
it. keep him in the relblution to obferve it. Commines could

The third contained a mutual engagement of brotherly fpeak of thefe things with certainty, fince he was then in
friendfhip between the two Kings, and exprefs articles con- Lewis's fervice and confidence. He adds moreover, that
cerning the Dauphin's marriage with Elizabeth Daughter the Duke of Glocejler, who was againft the Truce, wait-
of Edward. ing upon the King of France, was received with extra-

The fourth was inform of Letters Patents, whereby ordinary refpect, and that the King forgot nothing to
Lewis promifed to pay annually to Edward, during their gain to his intereft fuch of Edward's Courtiers as were
lives, the Sum of fifty thoufand Crowns. This the En- in any credit. The Englijh Army approaching Amiens,

Lewis caufed the gates to be kept open, and fent orders
to the publick Inns, to entertain at free coft all the En-
glijh that came there. Moreover, he fent to the King of
England a prefent of three hundred waggon-loads of wine,
for the ufe of his army ; (o defirous was he to gain the
hearts of the Englijh, for fear fome one of them fhould make
Edward fenfible of his error. This prefent gave occafion
to fay, that he found means to fend home the Englijh with
cart-loads of wine. At length, all Lewis's feais vanifhed Cnmnvn.
with the departure of the Englijh, who went away, fays Ha ".
a Hiftorian, extremely well pleafed with the French gold
and wine ; adding, the penfions affigned to Edward's
principal courtiers, amounted to fixteen thoufand Crowns

glijl) Authors call a Tribute, though the Letters Patents ex-
prefs not under what title this yearly penfion was to be paid.
Some fay, it was limited to nine years. But no other li-
mitation appears than the lives of the two Kings,
p. f,u Laftly, Edward promifed to releafe Queen Margaret,

for a ranfom ot fifty thoufand Crowns, which the Kingof
France was to pay for her, within five years. Wefindin
the Collection of the Publick Alts, that Margaret was ac-
cordingly releafed the beginning of November this year, and
Lewis XI punctually paid the Sum promifed.
Tie Dale of The Duke of Burgundy having notice that the two
Burgundy Kings were beginning to treat, departed immediately from
fedwaro.' " ™ s Army, to which he was returned, and made all pof-




fible hafte, in expectation of preventing this blow, but a year (7)


The Duke of Burgundy not bearing the thoughts of de- "The Di.lt J
firing to be included in the Truce, made by Edward^'J-^l
without his knowledge, flood out for fome time, and at Truce.
laft accepted of a feparate Truce (S) offered him by Commin.
Lewis. As for the Conftable, who had deceived the three JHJk-ft.
Princes, and been the principal author of their divifion,
he faw himfelf in the end forfaken by all, and forced to
retire into the Duke of Burgundy's Dominions, upon the
faith of a Safe-conduct. But notwithftanding that fecu- The ConfiMt
rity, he was delivered by the Duke to the King of'££J£!* t
France, who commanded his head to be ftruck off. A
notable leffon for fuch as labour to fow difcord among
Princes !

Lewis would have been glad the Duke of Bretagne had The Rtafcn of
been thus facrificed to him. But that Prince had in his ?J '^j" A
that the two Kings fhould confer together upon hands a pledge which obliged Ediuard to protect him; fix Duke of


(1) Of four Nobles. Commines, 1. 4. c. 7. (:) At Seyttn near Pcro-.ne. Rynter's Fxi. Tom XII. p. 14.

(jj Dr. J-J>n Morton, Matter of the Rolls, William Dudley, Dean of the King's Chapel, and JSawas Stlynger. Ibid, and p. 17.

(4) H\\t.Evglifi Plenipotentiaries were, John LnAH/zvard, Sir Thomas Saint Leger, and Dr. John Morton, Mafter ot the Rolls. The French King's were,
the Bjftard ot Bourbon, Admiral of France, the Lord of St. Pierre, and the Bilhop of Eiireux. Hall, fol. 130. HUUngJbead, p. 1547.

(5) His Brother Ciirge Duke of Clarence, Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, William Lord Haftings the Chamberlain, the Buhup of Lin., in Lord Chan-
ce] ior, t£?c. Ibid.

(6) This Conference was on Augufl 20. Commines, 1. 4. c. 1Q.

(7) The chief Men who had Penfions, were, the Chancellor, Thomas Rotberham, Bilhop of Lincoln, Dr. John Morton, Mafler of the Roils, William Lord
Baitings, the King's Chamberlain, and John Lord Howard; Sir John Cheney, Sir Anthony Saint Ltgtr, Sir Thomas Montg ■•-'_>'. f/.™.n Grey, Mara . 6 of

Dorf :, cVr. Commines, 1. 6. c. 2. Hailj fol; 23 5, King Edward returned to London, September 28, and was met on Btttek-Meatb by the Mayor and

Aldermen of London, and abcut live hundred Pcrlons more, by whom he was conducted in great triumph to Wfflmin/ler. lis.., fol. 236. Hollingjhsad,
p. 1349.

(S) For nine years. Commines, 1.4. c. 11,

found the Truce was already figned. He fell upon Ed-
ward with bitter reproaches ; to which Edward returned
a fuitable anfwer, telling him however he had taken care
to include him in the Truce. But the Duke fiercely re-
plied, he wanted not his mediation, and valued it fo little,
that if he treated for himfelf it fhould not be till three
months after his arrival in England. Thus parting ex-
tremely angry with each other, the Duke retired into
his Country. The Conftable de St. Pol did all that lay
in his power, to perfuade Edward to break the Truce,
offering to deliver St. .Qicntin, and lend him fifty thoufand
Crowns. But Edward was far from renewing the War
for his fake, and trufting to his promifes after having been
fo manifeftly deceived.

Before Edward's departure for England, it was thought

No. XXXII. Vol. I.





Vol I.

1473. otherwife he would have regarded him no more than the
Duke of Burgundy. This was the Earl of Richmond, who,
tho' abfent, made the Englijh Mona.ch extremely uneafy.
If the Duke of Bretagne had fuffered that Prince, with the
Earl of Pembroke his Uncle, to efcape, they might in time
have revived the Lancajirian party, and thereby expofed
Edward perhaps to the hazard of a thirteenth Battle, to
Aft. Pub. maintain himfelf in the Throne. This was the true reafon
Xil. p. "■ of guard's importing the Duke o( Bretagne, and telling
lewis, who earneftty prefl'ed him feveral times to defer't
that Prince, that on the contiary, he would defend him
to the utmoft of his power.
14-6 This open demonftration of friendfhip for the Duke of

Edward' Bretagne, diuf'ng Edward to imagine the Duke would

* be glad of an opportunity to fhew his acknowledgment,
r ', li-' ,„■ he lent Amball'adors (1 ) to him, under colour of renewing
<; ti Dukt /"their Truce. There were but few difficulties in this ne-
: gotiation. The Duke readily agreed to confirm the

I,"' . Truce (2), though often violated on the part of the En-
Hollingm. „i;jh. He even de fitted from his demand of fifty thouland
: n ' Crowns, for the damages fuftained by his Subjects. The

Acfp'u'b. King on his fide, quitted his demands -upon him for the

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