M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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XII. p. 23. armament made in his favour. Every thing being thus
3; ' upon the terms of a pei feci: good underftanding between the

two Princes, the Arnbaffadors acquainted the Duke with
the principal buiinefs of their ambafly. They told him,
the Kins their Matter was extremely defnous, entirely to
extinguish the Fiames of the two factions which had been
fo long kindled in England; that the Earl of Richmond,
Who was in Bretagne, being the only furviving Pel Ion of
the Houfe of Lancajier, he intended to marry him to one
of his daughters, in order to unite ihe two Houfes ; that
therefore he delired him to fend him the Earl, that he
might give him marks of his favour, and thereby mani-
fett to his whole Kingdom his earned delire of procuring
them a happy tranquillity.
rtcDuht The Duke of Bretagne was a good Prince, who judg-

giwiupitt ingot" others by himfelt, and not believing Edward con-
';'. cealed ill-defigns under thefe appearances of moderation,
Mali, ordered the Earl of Richmond to be put into the hands

S!uvv - of the Ambailadors, to be conduced to England. Some

HolUigfh. howcver a gi rrrlj that a large Sum of Money prefented
to the Duke by the Englijh Ambailadors, rendeied their
inftar.ces moie effectual. However this be, they departed
with their prey, to imbark at St. Malos. But whillt they
were on the road, one of the Duke's Counfellors (3) re-
prefented to him, that by this proceeding, he would be
eternally infamous; thatbefides, he could not in confeience
deliver a Prince, who thought himfelf fafe under his pro-
tection, to Lis moft mortal enemy, who demanded him
only to dettroy him, under the falfe pretence of an honor-
able fettlement ; that he would be accountable to God for
this Action, wharever colour he might put upon it in the
eyes oi Men; and conjured him to conhder, what Ho-
nour, Jutlice and Religion required of him on this occafion.
Whether this remonftiance made the Duke fenfible of what
he had not hitherto fully known, or ttung him with re-
morfe of what he had done, he immediately difpatched
Peter Landais his favorite to St. Male's, with orders to
recover the Earl of Richmond out of the hands of the Am-
Htgrts him baffadors, if they were not yet imbarked. Landais ar-
"l lived, juftasthey were enteiing the veflel that was to carry
tkAmbaf- t j )em to £ n gi anc i t He immediately gave private orders to
Hall. help the two Pi ifoners to efcape, whilft himfelf conferred

with the Ambailadors. The conference being ended, the
two Earls were found to have taken fandtuary in a Church,
from whence Landais pretended they could not be removed.
The Ambailadors complained of this fraud ; but, after
fome frivolous excufes, he plainly told them, the Duke his
matter, upon fecond thoughts, believed he could not deliver
the Earl to the King, without an indelible fiain on his
honour ; that however, he would promife to guard him
fo carefully that Edward fhould never receive any damage.
The Arnbaffadors finding themfelves the weakett, were
forced to he content with this promife, which eafed in fome
meafure their vexation to be thus difappointed. Thus, by
a fort of miracle, the Earl of Richmond efcaped the danger
to which he was expofed, Providence having preferved him
<in this occafion, in order to place him one day on the
Throne of England.
jfflimet The reft of the year 1476, affords nothing remarkable

viiib concerning the affairs of England, but a Negotiation to

Denmark- renew the Alliance with Denmark; the death of theArch-
XII. p"icr bifhop of York at G uijnes, where he was Pnfoner; and fome
-7> -9. 39- other inconliderable affairs. But it will be neceffary to
fpeak of thole of the Duke ol Burgundy, which became of
si eat conlequence both to England and France.

The Duke had accepted of the Truce offered by Lewis, 1476.
not fo much out of fear of his Arms, as from a defire to -V-"" °f
carry war into Germany. He wanted to be revenged fif fidretutdv.
the Duke ot Lorrain, the Swifs, and the Duke of Au- Cormrun.
Jfria , but this would have been impoffible, if the War
with France had continued. In Oclober, 147 J, prefently
after ligning the Truce with Lewis XI, he attacked the
Duke ot Lorrain, and fubdued his whole Duchy, without
meeting much rehftance, except at Nanci, which endured
a Siege ot two Months. Lorrain being conquered, he
formed the Project: to humble the Sivifs, who had dared to
declare againlt him, whilft he was imployed in the Siege
of Nuz. He ufed lor pretence the Injury they had done
to' James of Savoy, Earl of Romont, in feizing his Terri-
tories. The Swifs, who made yet no great Figure in
Europe, feeing the Storm approaching, humbly fued for
Peace ; but the Duke was inexorable. So leaving Lorrain
in March 1476, he palled through Burgundy, and threw
himfelf into the Country of Faux, where he took ih ee
or four Towns. Then he laid Siege to Granfon, where
were feven or eight hundred Swifs, bent upon making a
gallant dtence. The Town having at length capitulated,
the Duke broke the Article-, and put the Garrifon to the
fword. Mean while, a Body of Swifs was a.lvancing to
relieve the Beiieged, but came too late. The Duke, crn- H?> Jtfatat
tiary to the opinion of his Council, reflved to meet this Granfon.
body, which was itill in the narrow Paffages of the Moun-
tains. To that end, he detached a hundred Archers to
leize a certain pafs, and prefently after he marched himfelf
to lupport them. Thefe Archers meeting the Swijs coming
out ol the Mountains, haitily retreated towards, the body
wnith was marching after them. Whereupon, the Duke's
Army imagining the Hirfemen were repulfed by the Ene-
my, were leizeJ with a panick, and took to flight, with-
out the Duke's being able to rally them. He loft only
feven Men at arms, but all his baggage became a Prey to
the Enemy.

This ill fuccefs not being capable of difcouraging him, Hhdtfiattt
he afiembled his fcatteied Troops, and foon rendered them Mont \
fit for action. About fifteen days after he took the field,
atuj laid liege to Morat, a fmall Town not far from Bern.
Mean time, the Swifs receiving fuppiies from fome neigh-
bouring Pi inces, marched, to the number of thirty thou-
land Men, to fight him. The Battle was fought three
weeks after the rout of Granfon, and the Duke was en-
tirely deleated, with the lofs of eight thouland Men.

This terrible mislortune fo ftruck the Duke, that he Hia Cmurn
fickened with grief. Philip de Commines even affirms, he "' "'
was fomewhat difordered in mind. He remained fix weeks
at a Town called la Riviere, where he kept himfelf as it
were concealed, and none durft venture to fpeak to him
to comfort him. Mean time, feveral of the Princes who
before were his Friends (4) declared againft him. Then
the Duke ot Lorrain, perceiving it to be a favorable op-
portunity, appeared before Nanci, and took the place upon
terms without the Duke of Burgundy's ftirring to its re-
lief. At length, when it was too late, and the Town fur-
rendered, the Duke of Burgundy approached, and his Enemy
being retired, undertook the Siege, where he met with dif-
ficulties which made him lole a great deal of time, and
proved the occafion of his ruin.

Adean while, the Duke of Lorrain drew together Forces 1477.
from all quarters, Lewis XI finding him Money for their Hhdtjat
fubiiltence. When he thought himfelf fufiiciently ftrong, % d d f" h "
he approached Nanci, and encamped at St. Nicholas, ex- Commia.
pecting the effect ol his correfpondence in the Enemy's
Army, with Campobache, a Neapolitan Captain, in whom
the Duke of Burgundy entirely confided. This City being
now reduced to extremity, the Duke of Lorrain advanced
to join battle. Then Campobache fuddenly deferted his
matter with about two hundred Lances (5), and went over
to his Enemy. He left in the Army fourteen Men whom
he had bribed, who were to alarm the Troops during the
fight, and kill the Duke of Burgundy, if they had an op-
poitunity. The Battle being tought on the 5th ot Ja-
nuary 1477, the Duke 01 Burgundy* Army was routed,
and himlei! (lain in the foity lixth year of his age. He had
reigned nine ) ears and a half, amidft continual troubles,
employed one whiie in defending himfelf againlt the open
or fecret Attacks of Lewis XI, another while, in executing
Projects beyond his lt.ength, which argued more ambition
and ralhnel's, than pru lence and counfel.

The Duke of Burgundy's Death made a great alteration, Alttrathai
not only in the Affairs ol the Low-Countries, but alio in »»)W *y<fa
thofe of the neighbouring Princes. Nay, it may be laid to ^Lj
be the firft and principal foiuce 01 mult 01 the Wars, Burgundy.
wherewith Europe has been troubled ever iince. The

(1) Doftor Stilli'gttn and two cth:rs, with a larje Sum of Money. ITaU, fbl. 137. HM: : 'i.'J, r. 134.9

(i) Hj confirmed it, on 'Jjr.1.^1 -.z, 14.76 ; js Kang EJivurJ a,d on March 16. Bjmer's F"l- Tom. XII. p. s;, 24,,

Ctialtit. Hj! , ll 137.
(4.) The Dukc of Milan, Rtni (ting of Sicily, the Duchei's of Savy, &c. Cummin. '.. 5- c. 2.
(,<0 One hundred and lixty. Idem. c. 8.





Lewis takes
from M-uu
part of her
Com mi a.

1. 6. c. i.

Maria n fy-
run nixed
et'er by the

Matcbn are
prip- fid Jor


Aft. Pub.
XXI. p. *s


r -











f//j Rcafir.i
.fir it.



M ix. ni! an
Lewis grams
tint a Truce*

i 47 8.

Diatb of

tbt Duke of






Duke of Burgundy left but one Daughter, called Maria,
who was Henefs to his large Dominions, and whom he
had in fome meafure promifed to Maximilian of Aujlria,
Son of the Emperor Frederic. This Princefs, about nine-
teen years old, faw herfeif not only foi Taken by all the late
Duke her Father's Friends, but moreover expofed a Prey
to Lewis XI, who immediately deprived her of Burgundy,
with the Towns on the Somme, and even formed the Pro-
ject to difpoflefj her of all the reft of her Dominions.
In this prefling neceflity, her only refuge was the King
of England's alliftance, whofe intereft it was to oppofe
the growth of Lewis\ Power. But Edward's whole Coun-
cil being bribed and corrupted by the King of France's
bounties, Maria obtained from that quarter empty willies
only for her piofperity, and compliments, which ended
in nothing. To complete her misfortune, the young
Princefs faw herfeif alfo expofed to the Tyranny of the
Gantois, who feized her Peifmi, removed all her Coun-
cilors, beheaded two, and gave her anew Council cntiiely
compofed of their Creatures.

Mean time, this Princefs's marriage was thought of.
Some weie for her efpoufing the Dauphin of France.
But Lewis having aheady entered into engagements with
Edward, durft not diloblige him at fuch a juncture.
Others would have her manied to the Duke ol Guelders,
and fome to a German Prince. All but herfeif were con-
fuhed about the choice of a Husband. Mean while Lew;;
continued his conquefts. In May 1477, the Emper >r Fre-
deric fending Ambafladors to Gant, to renew the Treaty
concerning the Marriage of his Son Maximilian with Ma-
ria, the Duchefs Dowager of Burgundy, Mother in-law
of the Princefs, delired her Brother Edward to fend Am-
baffadors i.ito Flanders to affift her in that Affair. Ed-
ward contented, but would not promife to aid Maria
againft the King ol France, though the Flemings and the
Duke of Bretagne ftrongly preiTcd him. On the contrary,
lie agreed to prolong the (even years Truce concluded at
Amiens, till a year after the death of one of the two
Kings. Thus Edward acted directly contrary to the inte-
refts of England, in fullering the advancement ol France,
and the ruin of the Houfe of Burgundy. Three principal
reafons hindered his quarelling with France. The firft,
that being grown corpulent and heavy, he was no longer
fit to bear the hardfhips of War. The fecond, that his
chief Counfellors were Penhoners to France. The third,
that having promifed his Daughter Elizabeth to the Dau-
phin, he was unwilling by any proceeding to obftruct the
marriage. Mean while, Lewis was extremely careful to
keep him in thefe difpofitions, by punctually paving him
the Penhon of filty thoufand Crowns, and ten thoufaud
yearly for Queen Margaret's ranfom.

Thus Maria of Burgundy feeing herfeif forfaken by all
whofe intereft it was to fupport her, had no other refuge
than to marry Prince Maximilian, from whom however
file could expect no great alliftance. The Nuptials being
celebrated in "July, Lewis XI, out of regard to the Em-
peror, granted the new Duke of Burgundy a Truce for a
year, and reftored him fome Towns in Haynault which
he had feized. Shortly after, he received AmbaiTadois from
England^ 1 ), who were come to fettle the arbitration agreed
on, concerning the differences between the two Crowns.
But he had then other Affairs, which hindered him from
thinking of this, and obliged him to defer it to a more
proper feafon (z).

The beginning of the year 1478 was very quiet, with
refpect to the general Affairs I have been fpeaking of. But
at the fame time, there puffed at the Court of England,
things which wholly ingroffed the attention of the publico:
I mean the tragical death of the Duke of Clarence, which
it will be neceflary to inhft upon a moment. This Prince
was haughty and ambitious, of ungovernable Pailions, of
an inconftant Temper, taking no care to conceal his Sen-
timents ; in a word, ot a very mean Genius. Whilft
the King his Brother lived unmarried, he could not help
entertaining the hopes ot fitting one day on the Throne,
though it was very unlikely, Edward would always re-
main in a ftate of Celibacy. The Kind's Matnage de-
ilroying thefe hopes, he was difpleafed with the King him-
felf, and efpecially with the Queen and her family. As
he was not caieful to hide his difcontent, he drew on
himfelf the averfion of the Queen and her Creatures,
who did not fail to do him ill offices. So Edward be-
gan by degrees to neglect him, and took no care to pro-
cure him advantages, which may eafily be procured by a
King for his Brothers. The Duke ib lefenttd this con-

tempt, that he fcrupled not to join with the Earl of War-
wick, to dethrone his own Brother. He repented it af-
terwards, and his repentance, as hath been feen, proved
Edward's prefervation. He was in hopes a reward would
quickly follow fo iignal a Service, reflecting only upon
what he had done for the King, without conlidering the
clanger to which he had expofed him. But Edward, pre-
judiced againft him, thought, on the contrary, the bare
pardon of the injury to be a fufficient recompence for the
fervice he had received. Thefe Sentiments were inftilled
into him by his Queen, who having loft the Earl of Ri-
vers her Father duiing the Rebellion, could not forbear
looking upon the Authors of it, as the objects of her ven-
geance. On the other hand, the Duke ot Glonjler, to the
utmoft of his power, privately fowed dillenfion between his
Brothers. He was a Prince of greater ambition than the
Duke of Clarence, but withal of a very different Chaiac-
ter, pioceeding to his ends by deep and artful Contri-
vances which rendered his ways imperceptible. He always
thought before he fpoke, whereas the Duke of Clarinet
ruined himfelf by too freely difcovering his Sentiments.
It was di/ricult for two Brothers of (a contrary Tempers
to love one another. But in their diford, the Duke of
Clarence ufed no Ceremony with his Brother, whilft:
Gloccjler ftrove never to give him pubhckly any advantage.
Mean while, he gave him fecret ihbs, the more unavoid-
able, as they came from an unfufpected hand. All the
Hiftorians agree, that from this time, the Duke of Glo-
ce/ler thought of fecuring the Crown after the King's
death, and therefore the Duke (f Clarence could not but
veiy much incommode him. This was however an un-
dei taking, the execution whereof feemed very difficult,
lince his two elder Brotheis had Children. But his Am-
bition made him think it not impracticable, in proceeding
by degrees. The firft ftep was, to difpatch the Duke of
Clarence. To that end, he endeavoured to render him
odious to the King, and caufe him to conlider him as a
fecret enemy, who was privately labouring to fupplant his
Children. The Duke ot Clarence's ralh expreffions were
extremely fubfervient to his defign. On the other hand,
the Queen, who had a great Influence over the King,
failed not to confirm his fu r picions.

Matters ftanding thus, the K.ng, as he was hunting in
a Park belonging to Thomas Burdet (3), Confident of the
Duke of Clarence, chanced to kill a white Buck, in
which that Gentleman greatly delighted. Burdet was fo
concerned for the death of his favorite Buck, that in the
firft tranfports of his paffion, he fwore, he wiihed the
horns in the belly of him that killed it. Whereupon he
was accufed of High-Treafon, condemned, and executed,
within the fpace of two days. Some fay, his Imprecation
concerned only the Perfon that advifed the King to hunt
in his Park. Be this as it will, the defign, no doubt, of
thole who Co hotly profecuted that unfortunate Gentleman,
was, to induce the Duke of Clarence to expofe himfelf
by fome rafh proceeding; of which his inconliderate, im-
petuous, and haughty Temper, afforded great affurance.
Accordingly, the Duke, who was then in Ireland, being
returned to Court, talked very boldly to the King of his
Friend's death, and bitterly complained of his difregard for
a Brother, to whom he owed his reftoration to the Throne.
In fine, he was fo far tranfported with anger, that he
threatened to be revenged. Neither was this all. After
leaving the King, he dropped fome farther no lefs impru-
dent expreffions, intimating, his Brother was a Ballatd,
and confequently had no Right to the Crown. Nothing
bemg more agreeable to the denies of his enemies, than
to fee him thus run into their Snaie, they fo exafperatei
the King aaainft him, that he refolved to dellroy him.
For that purpofe, he held a Council, entirely confuting of
the Duke ot Clarence's enemies, where it was refolved to
apprehend him, accufe him of High-Treafon, and bring
the Acculation before the Parliament, then aflembled. All
this was immediately executed, that the Duke might not
have leifure to repent, and beg the King's Pardon. For
had he been allowed time to come to himfelf, and implor-
ed the King's Mercy, his rafh expreffions muff have been
ou.h.'ered only as the effect ot a fudden Paffion, which
defer ved not the rigorous puniihment intended him. His
affair being brought before the Parliament (4), he was ac-
cufed of feveial Crimes, under the eight following Articles.
I. By his feuiticus difcourfes, he had endeavoured to draw
upon the King the hatred ol his Subjects, by accuiing him
ot unjuitiy putting Burdet to death. II. He had bribed
fome ol his duir.eiticks and others to fpread fuch a report.





p. 430.

(1) Edward's Ambafftdors were, Sir Jcbn Vonrt, John C,k Djftor of Laws, and Lewis B retell, Eiq; Rymtr's pad Tom. XII. p- 4?.

(2) This year, on "January 16, a Parliament met at Wejiminfier t In which nothing remaikabie w as done, but the creating Rict/ard, tnc King's fecond
Son, Duke of T^rk, Ac bee below, Cotton's jibridg- p. 701, 702.

(3) Oi Arrow in 11 afwickjbire. Stoitr. p. 430.

(41 The Parliament laft rmntoncd, which met en January 16. Stew, p. 4^0. ■ Whoever obfervrc, what hurry the Duke's Enemies were in to

take him oft', and the general Indignation of the People againft the King as a Fratricide, aui(l be of Sir William Du^Jaas Opinion, That the Duke was
r, i condemned and attainted in Faiiiament till after his death. Baron, Vol. II. p. 164.

1 III. He


I47 8 «


Vol. I.

III. He had faid the King made ufe of Necromancy to the Term agreed upon, to decide the differences by Arbi- 147s,
know the future. IV. He had taxed the King with poi- trators, and to promife for Lewis and his Succeffors, to
fcning innocent perfons, whom he thought he could not prolong it every third year, till all things were fettled
legally deftioy. V. He had affirmed, the King was not
Son of the Duke of York, but of an adulterer admitted by
the Duchefs their Mother to her bed. VI. Inferring from

thence, that the Crown was fallen to him, he had difco-
vered his defign to feize it, by requiring many perfons to
fwear to be true to him and his Heirs, without any excep-
tion of their Allegiance to the King. VII. He had ac

The Ambaffador being arrived at London, Edward ap-
pointed Commiffioners to treat with him, and at length
the Treaty was concluded as propofed by Lewis, though
not till February the 1 5th, 1479 (7).

What retarded a little this Negotiation was, Edward's Lt-.-.U ?■?:■
defire to fecure, firft, his Daughter Elizabeth's Marriage "JF'k D \
with the Dauphin. To that end, he fent two Amballa- 1,,)"/^.,


cwis, it is lilcel v, found fome excufe °' * 9,


of betrothing

to defer it. Mean while, he made the fecond Payment of

ten thoufand Crowns for Queen Margaret's Ranfom.

Thus Edward, contrary to his own, and the King- Lew

11, 1, [ugh

catcd • ■' j
Butt of
Hall." '

HU IJfuc.


cufed the King ofufing Magick to take away his Life, by dors (8) into France, with power to perform the Ceremony Eliza

cauling him to confume away like a Taper. VIII. Laftly,

He had openly fhewn his defign to dethrone the King,

in procuring an authentick Copy of the act of Parliament

pafled during the Earl of IVarwick's Ufurpation, whereby

the Crown was adjudged to him, after the death of Henry

VI, and his Iffue-Male.

All the Hiftorians agree, it would have been very diffi-
cult to prove all thefe Articles of Impeachment, if the
King had not declared himfelf a Party, and the Queen and
the Duke of Glocejler acted underhand to have him found
guilty. Be this as it will, he was condemned to die. But
there is in this Sentence a very remarkable Circum fiance.
One of the chief reafons of his Condemnation was, his
affirming, the King not to be the Duke of York's Son,
and that very thing ferved afterwards for foundation to the
Duke of Gloce/ler to mount the Throne, in prejudice of
Edward's Children. Herein mull be admired the blind-
nefs of Men, and the Juilice of God. Edward makes
ufe of a falfc Accufation to put his Brother to death, and
thereby gives occafion to fufpicions, which are to ferve
hereafter to ruin his own Children. The Duke of da-

le Daw




dnm's Interefh, fuffered himfelf to be managed by the*^ WM *
King of France, or rather by his own Minifters, bribed Habi'ngton.
by that Prince. Lewis not content with diverting him by Biondi
his Intrigues from affifting the Duchefs of Burgundy, fent Hul ' in i n »"
him alio a Propofal to divide betwixt them that Princefs's
Dominions, offering him for his part Flanders and Bra-
bant (9). Edward clofed with the Propofal, but upon this
condition, that in exchange for the Towns conquered in
Flanders, Lewis fhould give him others in Picardv, and
particularly Boulogne (10). But Lewis was tooapprehenfive
of the neighbourhood of the Englijh, to accept that con-
dition. If he propofed to him the Conqueft of Flanders,
it was only to engage him in a war with Maximilian and
Maria, for fear he fhould one time or other repent his
deferting them.

But Edward was far from fuch a thought. Inflead 1479.
of meditating War, he entirely* abandoned himfelf to his Edwj|d

gives himjtlf

rence being condemned, all the favor he could obtain of pleafures, with intention to pals the refidue of his days^^^S
the King his Brother, was, to chufe the manner of his
death. To avoid appearing on a Scaftold, he defired (1),
to be drowned in a butt of Matmfey (2). He left one Son
named Edward, who inherited from his Grandfather, by
the Mother's Side (3), the Title of Earl of Warwick, and
a Daughter called Margaret, who was Countefs of Salis-
bury. As the death of the Duke of Clarence raifed among
the People a general Indignation, and murmurs againft the
King, it was defigned to put a flop thereunto, by expofing
his body in St. Paul's Church, and giving out he died
of immoderate Grief. But this Artifice was not capable
of amufing the People, who too plainly faw, in the Con-
demnation of that Prince, the terrible effects of his enemy's
malice (4).

About three Months before, the King had created Ed-

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