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ward his eldefl Son Prince of Wales (;), and his fecond
Son Richard, Duke of York. The rejoicings at Court



Edward

creates bit
lld-ft Son
Prince of

■Wales, ani upon this occafion, exprefled not fo much Joy of the
dLw"^ Favorites, for the two Princes Promotion, as their fatis-
Yurk. faction to fee the Project of the Duke of Clarence's Ruin
Sandford. f ne ar accomplished. Edward did not forefee that his
unjuil Plot againft his Brother, was the fir ft ftep towards



in effeminate Sloth. Mean while, thefe pleafures whichfrres.
he fo eagerly purfued, coll him more than the moft bur-
denfome War. And therefore, his Coffers being empty, He raifei,
he ufed divers illegal means to extort Money from his ')f r V **
Subjects. The mod terrible was, that of caufing the Hail.
rich to be acrufed ot High-Treafon, in order to confifcate >tow.
their Eftates, or exact large Sums for their pardon. In the HolIin S*'
mean time, he continued, with feveral Princes, negotiati-
ons, tending to fecure him the continuance of that repofe
he fo paffionately loved.

The firft of thefe negotiations was with the King of Negotiation
Denmark, their Alliance not having been well obferved on' 1 '" 6 Den "
either fide. At lalt, that Prince fending Ambaffadors to "ft. Pub.
London, the Alliance was confirmed and renewed, and a XII. p. ico.
congrefs appointed at Hamburgh, to decide all their diffe-
rences. One of the conditions of the Treaty was, that
the Englijh fhould not fet foot in Ifeland, without a PaiT-
port from the King of Denmark.

Two days after the conclufion of this Treaty, the Treaty he.
French Ambaffador and the King's Commiffioners fieried ''""!" , L<fW i s

1 1 r 1 i_ 1 r vt -r 1 r ana Edward.

that betore-mentioned, whereby Lewis XI promiled, for„. 97 , ]0 i,
himfelf and Succeffors, to pay to the King of England ic>i>



the ruin of "his own Sons. Had the Duke of Clarence fifty thoufand Crowns every year, as well during the life
lived, the Duke of Glocejler would never have thought of of the two Kings' as a hundred years after, to commence



facrificing them, as he did, to his ambition
Aa. Pub. Shortly after the death of the Duke of Clarence, the

XII. p. 52, Term taken by Lewis XI, and Edivard, to decide their
differences by arbitration, was further prolonged, and the
Duke of Glocejler appointed by Edward one of the Arbi-
trators (6), in the room of the Duke of Clarence.
Emhaffyfrm Whilll thefe things palled in England, the Truce be-
FH*' 5 a " ' ween Lewis and Maximilian being expired, Maximilian
p. 67—86. entered Burgundy, and took feveral places with great eafe,
by reafon of the People's affection to the Houfe of Bur-
gundy. Probably, he would then have taken poffeffion of



at the death of the furvivor. Next day was alfo figned
another Treaty , prolonging the Truce, Friendship and
good underflanding between the two Kings during their
life, and between their Succeffors, for the fpace of a
hundred years, with promife of mutual affiitance againft
their rebellious Subjects. The other Articles were, that if
one of the two Princes was driven out of his Kingdom,
the other fhould be obliged to receive him, and affift him
with all his Forces: That they fhould make no Alliance
without a mutual confent : That the King of France
fhould ratify this Treaty, and caufe it to be confirmed



86.



the two Burgundies, if he had received from the Emperor and ratified by the States: And that Edward fhould like

his Father, a fupply anfwerable to his occafions. This wife procure the Parliament's approbation. Laftly, that

Lewis very much feared, and as he knew it to be Ed- the Dauphin's Marriage with the Princefs Elizab.'th fhould

ward's Intereft to join forces with Maximilian, he forgot be accomplished, according to the agreement at Amiens,

nothing to divert him therefrom. In July this year, he and this new Treaty not be derogatory to the former. It

fent a full power to prolong the Truce, till a hundred does not appear that Lewis XI ever ratified this Treaty,



years after the death of the two Kings, and oblige him
to the payment of the annual Penfion of fifty theufand
Crowns, fo long as the Truce fhould lalt. Moreover the
Amballador was empowered, to prolong for three years



which, probably, was made only to amuk Edivard. Lewis
knew, he was bound to nothing without a formal ratifica-
tion, which doubtlefs he was refolved not to grant, tho' the
Treaty contained only fuch Articles as were propofed by



(1) That it was done at bis own defire Hems to be a miftake. Hall, fol. 139, and Hollmgjbead, p. 1350. fay, he was privily drowned in a Butt of
Malmfcy, on March 1 I, or rather February 18. See DugdaUi Baron. Vol. II. p. 164. •

(2) It feems that King Edivard was alterwards very forry for his death ; iniomuch, that when any one fucd to him for the Pardon of a condemned Ma-
lefaftor, he would break out into thefe words: Oh, unfortunate Brother, for whole Life not one Creature would make interceflion ! Halt, fol. 239.

(3) Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. ..,«•„

(4.) His Body was buried at Uiukefcury in Ghc/flcrfhirc, by that of his Duchefs, Ijabella, Daughter and Coheir of Ricaard Neville, the great Earl of War-
■wick. She being with Child, is faid to die of Poifoll a little before. Sand/ird, p. 438. Cotton's Alri.ig. p. 703.

(5) Edward was created Prince of Wales, July 26, 147J. and his Brother Richard was created Duke ot York, May 2?, 1474, Earl of Nottingham,
January 12, 1475. and Duke of Norfolk and Eail of Warren, February 7. the fame year; and alio Earl-MaifliaJ. On "January 15, 147;, he married Ann,
the only Daughter of John Molubray, Duke of Norfolk ; by whom he left no illue. Saitdfcrd, p. 41c, 425.

(6) The others were, Thomas Bourchicr Archbiflvp of Canterbury, Her.ry Staff-id Duke of Buckingham, Thomas Rtberlam Bifhop of Lincoln 2nd Ch - .
cellor, and Astbcr.y Earl of Rivers. Rymer's Feed. Tom. XII. p. 64.

(7) >n July, this Year, a Treaty of Trade and Commerce was alfo concluded between King Ettamrd and p- rgurjy. V.J. p. ti 92, 95.

(8) Sir Riclard TurJIali, and Dr. Thomas Langton. Ibid. p. 90.

■ (9) And to pay ten thoufand Angels towards his Charges. Halt, ibid.
(10) Monfirevillt and Abbeville, Ctmmin, 1. 6. c, 7. Hall, foil. 241.

» himfelf.



Book XIII.



1 6. EDWARD IV.



625



14-9. himfelf. This was one of Lauis's Artifices, againft
which it is very difficult to be prepared. With Princes
of this character the fhorteft and mod fecure way, would
be never to enter into a negotiation.
projiS of * As Lewis amufed Edward with the Marriage of Eliza-
i '""& beth to the Dauphin, Maximilian tiled the fame means to
Philip of gain him to his interefts. Though Philip his Son was
Auftria, and but a j'ear old, he offered Edward to marry him to Anne
t'™v'i Ed n ' s l ''' r ^ Daughter. Edward accepted the offer, and
Daughter, wliilft the Marriage- Articles were fettling, the two
r- no- Princes fent one another Letters Patents, promifing not
to marry their Children without a mutual confent, du-
ring the fpace of three years.
and of bit About the fame time, Edward had thoughts of marrying
Daughter Catherine his fourth Daughter to John, Infante of Cajlile
mitt tic ' an d Arragon, Son of King Ferdinand, and Ijabella of Caf-
Infantc of tile. Nay, it appears in the Collection of the Publick Ails,
Spain. t) la t Ambafladors were fent into Spain to haften the Trea-

p ' ' ty, which however came to nothing.
Lemsdu/y Mean while, Lewis duly paid the Pcnfion of fifty
faystbc thoufand Crowns, as appears by feveral acquittances in the
p/45, 65, Collection of the Publick Ails. We find there likewife,
in.&c. that in March 1480, he compleated the Payment of
P. 112. Margaret's ranfom.

W amif.s Lewis readily performed all the Articles of the Treaty

Edwaid, r yf m j ens ^ except the Dauphin's Marriage, for which he
Stow. ftill found fome frefh excufe, though he ftill perfiffed in

Hblling/h. his promife to fulfil that engagement. Edward, furprized
v>bo /"">' a£ k n thefe delays, called an extraordinary Council, where
L-d.it. !t was refolved to fend Ambafladors to Lewis , pe-

Ad. rub. remptorily to demand the performance of his promife and
XII. P.J13. t j ie ratification of the late Treaty at London. The Lord
Howard and Thomas Langton Treafurer of the Church of
Exeter, were chofen for this Embafly. Howard, who
was one of Edward's Confidents, was, very likely, the
chief of thofe that fufFered themfelves to be corrupted by
the King of France's favours.
Lewis nn- Mean time, Lewis was not a little embarrafled. He
""'"/-' i° had given his word for the Marriage, and even bound
hJj' ' himfelf by a Treaty, though he had never any thoughts
of accomplishing it. On the other hand, his Ambafladors
at London had figned another Treaty upon the foot pro-
pofed by himfelf, and yet he was refolved not to ratify it.
His fole Aim had been to amufe Edward, for fear of his
Hi flirt ap joining with the Arch-Duke. To free himfelf from thefe
JjL^y °* difficulties, he refolved to diflemble and continue to pro-
gamfl him. m 'fe the compleating of the marriage, whilft, by Am-
bafladors fent into Scotland, he tried to perfwade James III
to break the Truce with England. This Negotiation fuc-
ceeded to his wifh. King James fufFered himfelf to be
governed by three Favorites, raifed from the Duff, with-
out advifing with any Lord of his Realm. It was very
eafy, for the King of France to bribe thofe mercenary
Souls, who promifed to induce their Mafter to break the
Truce with the Englijh. And indeed, prefently after,
James made preparations which plainly difcovered his de-
iign. Edivard, furprized at the impending rupture be-
tween the King of Scotland and him, readily guefled the
Aft. Pub. Author. He diflembled however his refentment, and only
XII. p.115. or dered an Army to be raifed, the command whereof he
refolved to give to his Brother the Duke of Glocejler.
Edward be- i*hen it was, that he began to open his eyes, and perceive
iileynf the King of France's infincerity, who, ever fince Burgun-
p. 117. dy's death, had amufed him with falfe promifes. Mean
while, though he had loft all the favorable Opportunities,
he turned his thoughts, though too late, to revenge.
1480. This appears in feveral pieces of the Colleilion of the Pub-
lick Ads, all dated the Year 1480, before the Scots had
actually broke the Truce.
Embafly to Firft, he fent ambafladors (1) to Cajlile to make repa-
CafiMe. ration for certain Outrages committed by the EngUJl), du-
f' " 9 ' ring the Earl of Warwick's administration, contrary to the
Alliance between Cajlile and England. When a Prince
offers of himfelf to repair the damages, his Subjects have
done to another Nation, there is reafon to preiume it is
with a view to fome other defign. Edward's aim was to
engage the King of Cajlile to make war upon France, or
at leaft, to hinder his aflifting Lewis.
Inaty <witb In the fecond place, he ratified the Treaty concluded
Denmark, by his Ambafladors at Hamburgh, with the King of
p. 119,121. Denmark.

Edward/.™- Thirdly, he confirmed his Treaty of Alliance with the

mf ci ,<,a,d t ate DuJo; of Burgundy, and promifed to fend Maximi-

p. 113.114.. l' an ar >d Maria an aid of fix thoufand Men, purfuant to

p. 126,147- the Treaty. The Archduke promifed on his part to pay

him fifty thoufand Crowns yearly, in cafe the King of

France difcontinued his Penfion, and a War enfued upon

that account.



Stow.
Hollingfh



Laftly, the Marriage of Philip Earl of Choroids Son of 1480.
Maximilian and Maria, with Ann Daughter of Edward He «»<W«
was concluded, with promife on both fides to caufe it to '£ Ma '-
be confummated as foon as the Parties were of age. B)
this Treaty Edward gave with his Daughter a hundred
thoufand Crowns. But by a fubfequent Treaty, the P '^ ',
Dower was fet againft the yearly Penfion of fifty thou-
find Crowns , to be paid by the Archduke inftead of
the King of France , and they mutually forgave one-
another.

By another Treaty, Edward promifed to ufe his En- Befirmfy,
deavours to procure Maximilian a Truce with the Kiri" '" '
of France ; to offer to be arbitrator himfelf between Lewi K-'wf -n,
and him ; to try to be received as fuch ; and if Lewis re- " »«'""*
fufed, ingaged to declare againft him. This Proceeding Um >"''-
was not very fair, but probably, he did not think himfelr ' U '
obliged to act more lincerely than Lnvis had done.

Edward having thus fettled his matters with Maximi- Eml 'B "
lian and Maria, fent again Ambafladors to France , to '
prefs the Marriage of his Daughter Elizabeth with the ""
Dauphin. If Lewis had complied, very likely he Wou 1
not have fcrupled to relinquifh the Archduke. ' /Jut Lewi '
according to cuftom, ufing fome ill excufe, he equipped
fleet, and gave the command to John Middleton, to ec
to the afhftance of his new Allies.

_ Mean time, the King of Scotland continued his prepara- '
tions with intention to break with England. But be
I fpeak of the fuccefs of this War fo little expefted by
Edward, it will be proper briefly to relate what palled
then in Scotland, with the fituation of the Affairs ol that " '
Kingdom. ' "' ■ - '"

James III. who came to the Ciown at kven Years of .-?■'•
age, being out of his Minority, had fuffered himfell to be s
fo corrupted by Flatterers, that he made his will the fole "'" ''
rule of his actions. Without entering into a needleis d I
tail of the outrages he commited upon his Subjects, it v,
fuffice to fay in a word, he was deemed a real Tyrant. He H
had three Miniflers or Favorites (2), Men of mean birth
who governed him entirely and whole fole view was to'"'"' ""
render him independent of the Laws, that they them-"
felves might rule in his name with an arbitrary power
The King had two Brothers, namely, Alexander Duke oi /•■■. =«
Albany, and John. The laft (peaking too freely ol the r " '"''
King his Brother's conduct, was thrown into Prifon and ""''''• ""'
there put to death by having his Veins opened, a's the Sk"
Favorites were afraid, Alexander would revenge his death
they peifwadeil the King to confine him in% Caffle.

At this Juncture it was that James, hated by his People, E<iward/>r,-
and particularly by the Nobility, undertook, 'without the fer " '" b "
leaft pretence, to break the Truce with the Englijh. Ed- D ' J! ° K "
ward was vexed to fee the approaches of a rupture that
would divert him from the War with France, to which
he was much more inclined. Mean while, 'not to neg- Aft. pub.
left all neceflary precautions, he gave orders for the de- X11 P '39.
fence of the borders, and at the fame time committed to ' 4 ~'
certain Perfons of Ireland, the care of making an Alliance
in his Name, with the Earl of Rofs Lord of the Ijles to
give his Enemy a diverfion from that quarter.

In June 1481, the Scots made an irruption into the J amc; "-
borders before Edward's Army was read;'. They carried '{" Ers >
away fome booty, and that was all thefe mighty prepara- c.rri t ,'"ff
tions came to. Edivard made no haftc to lend an Army l° m Bm ^
againft Scotland, as well becaufe he ftill hoped to end this 5? 7 d

a il" ' '1.1 L r 1 1 r »-•»« mis tbirtt mire

Attair amicably, as becaufe he knew King James's cir- <f F.arw
cumftances to be fuch, that he could not do him much hurt '*"" bc0 '*
His grand defign was to be revenged of Lewis. XI. For ^^
though that Prince, with his ufual diffimulation, ftill put
him in hopes, he would perform his promife with refpec~l
to the Marriage, and though he punctually paid twenty
five thoufand Crowns every fix Months, Edward plainly
perceived, he intended not to call in his word with re-
gard to the firft Article, and that a rupture was unavoid-
able.

For this reafon he renewed his Alliance with the Duke /v. •? <
of Bretagne, and concluded the Marriage of the Prince of *'' -
IVales his Son, with Ann eldeft Daughter of that Duke **"■""• ,bt
or in cafe Ihe died before confummation, v:i:h Tfabella her Wife £j
youngeft Sifter, upon thefe conditions : That if there A
fhould be feveral Sons, the fecond, or next to the Her of Bk "'
the Crown of England, mould be Duke of Bretagne, Xtt jJL
and rehde in the Country ; That if the Duke fhould here-
after have a Son born in wedlock, he fhould efpoufe her
of Edward's Daughters that was moft fuitable to his a ee ,
That if Edward had no Daughter to give him, the Duke
fhould not marry his Son without the King's content"
Laftly, it was agreed betwixt them that if the King f
France made war upon the Duke of Bretagne, B award
fhould fend the Duke three thoufand Men at his own



(I) John Coh lecondary in the Privy-Seal Office, and Dr. John Fox. Ryntr't Ford. Tom. 15. p.
(ij .boma: Prtjton, Robin Cockrain i Merchant, and William Rogers i Mufician. Buekan. 1. 12.

No. 32. V o l, I. 7 T



119,



char



626



tte HISTORTcf ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



14SL
1482.

Alliance
with Por-
tugal,
f' '4



charge The Duke promifed the fame thing in cafe of a quarters of Edthiurgb, thar. if, before September, the King 148J,

War between England and France. of Scotland did not obferve the Treaties made with the

In the beginning of the year 1482, Edward renewed King of England, he would deftroy the whole Kingdom

his Alliance with Portugal. Shortly after, he fent Am- with fire and fword. King James's engagement were

baiTadors to Cqjlile; to conclude the marriage of his Daugh- chiefly to keep the Truce, and return the Money reeeiv-

ter Catherine with the Infante. But that affair did not ed for the dower of the Princefs Cecily, affianced to the

'•'"•• fucceed to his wifh. All thefe Treaties, thefe renewings Prince his Son. To this the Duke of Glocejler added, that

" lJ " of Alliances, thefe projects of marriages, fhow, Edward he mould recall the Duke of Albany and reftore him to

Tiag '' intended to carry War into France ( 1 ). his eftate and honours. James equally unable to refill

r: D t r Whilft Edward was intent upon every thing conducive his enemies and to perform his engagements, made no anf-

AltanyV- to the good fuccefs of his undertaking, Alexander Duke of wer. Mean while, the Nobles being afTembled at Hading- J'

iafa mo j^ att y Brother of the King of Scotland, efcaped out of ton, fent Deputies (4) to the Duke of Glocejler, to acquaint ' t!l ,hbim

Buchanan pril'on,' and came by Sea into England, to implore the him, it was their earned defire, the intended marriage Hall.

Ad. Pub." Kin"'' protection. Befides the general reafons which all fhould be confummated, and that neither they nor the^^*?^

XH.p. 154. £ j le \ ots i laf j t0 complain of their Sovereign, Alexander States were to be blamed, that the Truce was not punc-

had very particular ones. The Death of the Duke his tually obferved. The Duke of Glocejler replied, the

Brother, and his own imprifonment, violently inclined him marriage being projected only to maintain a good under*

to feek ' means to be revenged, and doubtlefs, ambition Handing between the two Nation?, and King James ha-



greatly conduced to inflame his paflion. The Englijh and
Scotch Hiftorians have limited his defire of revenge, to
fome general views of reclaiming the King his Brother,
and procuring to himfelf the reftitution of his eftate. But
the Collection of the Publick Acls furnifhes authentick proofs,
that Alexander's defign was to be poiTefled of the Throne.
Treaty oj We find there his Treaty with Edward, wherein he af-
ibiDukt if f um es the Title of King of Scotland, and promifes to do
f^"L m ' b homage for that Kingdom to the Crown of England. He
incages moreover to break the antient Alliance of France
with Scotland, and make one with Edward againft Lew-
is XI ; to deliver Berwick to England, and marry Cecily,
Edward's Daughter, affianced to Prince James his Nep-
hew, in cafe, by the judgement of the Church, he could
be divorced from his Wife. That if he could not fucceed,
he promifes to marry his Son only to a Princefs of Eng-
rd obliges himfelf on his part, to aflift him



Edward
June 10
F



It6.



ving wantonly broke it without any provocation, he did
not know whether the King his Brother defired the
marriage to be confummated : That however he had orders
to receive the fums that were paid in part of the Princefs's
dower : That as for the Truce, it would be allured ly ob-
ferved by England, provided the King his Brother was
put in poffeffion of the Caftle of Berwick, or at leail, the
Scots would promife not to aflift the Befieged,

Matters {landing thus, the Duke of Albany demanded of 72* Ouh ef
the Scotch Lords a Safe-Conducl, and obtaining it, he went A,ban J f' : '

_ ' P cure* a

and conferred with them. In the conference it was agreed, p c „.i,
That the Duke of Albany fhould be made Regent of Scot- Att - Pub -
land : That the Citizens of Edinburgh fhould be obliged * I . I ' 1 f 4 ' 6 *
to pay the King of England the money received by Hill.
James, in cafe the projected marriage did not take effedl : Stov "
Laflly, That the Caftle of Berwick fhould be furrendered n » m ^
to the Duke of Glocejler. For the Duke of Albany's private



land. Ediva, ..

with all his power to take pofTeflion of the Throne of fecurity, the Archbifhop of St. Andrew's, the Bifhop of

•jle Dulc of § cet i an £ This Treaty being figned, Edward fent an Dunkeld, the High-Chancellor, the Earl of Argyle, pro-

',.»Army againft Scotland (2), under the command of the mifed to procure him a general pardon for ali crimes

Scotland, Duke of Glocejler his Brother, whom the Duke of Alba- whatever, even for attempting to dethrone the King; and

*' ' i7 ' ny would accompany, but without taking however the to caufe him to be reftored to his whole eftate. On the

title of Kin"-. Probably, this Treaty was a fecret known other hand, the Duke promifed to acknowledge the King

to few Perfons. At the fame time, Edward gave the his Brother for his lawful Sovereign, and to ("wear Allegi

command of a Fleet to Robert Ratcliff, to ad againft

Scotland. The Duke of Glocejler advancing to the borders

of the two Kingdoms, took the Town of Berwick, and

being unwilling to lofe time in befieging the Caftle, left it

inverted (3) and marched directly to Edinburgh.

Whilft the Duke of Glocejler was advancing at the

head of his Army, King James who had wantonly un-
Buthanan. fextakm this War without concerting meafures to profe-
Habin'gton. cute li vigoroufly, was greatly embarrailed. The only

means he had to refill the Englijh was to allemble the



:

Berwick.

Hall.
Stow.
HolKnefli.

Troubles in
Scotland.



Duh of
fclocefier
becomes

m.ijier of

Edinburgh.

Buchanan.

Hall.

Stow.

Huliingfh.



ance to him. This gives oCcaiion to prefume, his Treat/
with Edward was known in Scotland, or the Duke thought
proper to difcover it, that this claufe might be included
in the pardon. This agreement being made (5), the Duke
of Albany, either out of pure generofity, or becaufe he
thought he mould meet with too many obftacles, relin-
quifhed his project of placing himfelf on the Throne. On
the other hand, the Duke of Glocejler fpent fome time
at Nexueajlle, till the King his Brother fhould acquaint
him with his pleafure, concerning his Daughter's marri-
Nobility ; but he durft not attempt it, knowing how much age (6).
they were difpleafed with him and his Minifters. He The Duke of Albany feeing himfelf thus imfter of j 3m „ i. ; . ;
was forced however to refolve it, or cafl himfelf upon the the Kingdom, reftored the King his Brother to his former reftoredetif'
mercy of the Englifl). So, the Lords being fummoned, Mate, referving to himfelf only his own eftate, and the , '

came with their Troops to Louth er, where they were ex- glory of his generofity. James pleafedj as may be im- g

agined, that his fear was his only punifhment, feemed at Hall,
firll to behave very differently from what he had done
before. Prefently after, he refolved to go to Amiens and
vifit the relicks of St. John, or perhaps to take new mea-
fures with Lewis XI. But I do not know whether he
executed this defign, though there is in the Collection of ^fl. p u t>.
the Publick Ads a Safe-Conduct for him and a thoufanu' XII. p, i;d)
attendants. Be this as it will, his diflimulation lafted not
long. He refumed his formed courfe of life, as well as He „„„„.,
his enmity to his Brother, and refolved to difpatch him. bit Srotier'i
to the Arm)', where they caufed them to be immediately This defign was kept fo private, that when the Duke was L !f'> « ,4 »
hanged. James, extremely terrified, dreading alfo an told of it, he had but juft time to throw himfelf into a u^bJ?



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