M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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attempt upon his life, promifed to reform his conduct for fifhing-boat, and efcape to the Caftle of Dunbar with
the future; but a few days after, withdrew to the Caftle fome friends. From thence he fent into England the g.
of Edinburgh. So, the army being without a leader, Earl of Angus and fome others (7) to renew with Edward at .1 '"
disbanded themfelves, and the Lords returned to their the Treaty made the lafl year, and which was fet afide b„ Tratf
homes. by the intervening agreement. This Treaty was con- '

The Duke of Glocejl er hearing of this diforder, hallen- firmed February 11. 14S3, with additional articles. But]

peeled by the King. But to what ftreights foever that
Prince was reduced, he altered not his conduit. His three
favorites were his fole Council, and fcarce any dared to
approach him but themfelves or their creatures. The
Nobles, full of indignation at this conduct, refolved to em-
brace fo fair an opportunity to be rid of thofe by whom
the King was befet. After confulting together upon what
was to be done, fome of them well-attended came to the
King's apartment, and carrying away the three favorites
who" had fheltered themfelves in his room, brought them

ed his march to Edinburgh, and entered the City without
oppofition. He would have conferred with the King,
but it was not even poffible to inform him of his defire.
This obflinacy to hearken to nothing, obliged the Duke
of Glocejler to publifh, by found of Trumpet, in all the

<itb 6(.


p. I 7 j.

Edward's death, which happened prefently after, prevented
the execution. Mean while, the Duke of Albany having rjochari*.
now, purfuant to the Treaty, delivered the fortrels of Dun- h. tin :
bar to the Englijh, and feeing no appearance of being re- ~ F ™? S *
lieved, withdrew into France, where he was unfortunate- Hal |

(ll In the beginning of this year, namely, on the 20th of January, a Parliament met at Wejlmwfttr ; wherein the Commons, with the a/Tint of
the Bilhops and Lords, gave the King a Tenth and a Fifteenth, to be levied on the Laity, except fix thoufand Pounds to be bellowed upon decayed
Towns. They alio granted a yearly Subfidy to be levied of all Strangers, as well Denizens as otherwife. They moreover allowed a yearly Rent out
of the Cultoms, and other Revenues, to defray the King's Houfhold Expences, amounting to eleven thoufand Pounds. Cotttm't Abridp p. 705, 706.

(2) They begun their march in May, and came to Alnwick in the beginning of July. The number of Men in this Army, with then

Command- 1 . were as follows: The Front was led by Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland, under whole Standard Wore, the Lord Scrofe of Boll ■
Sir Join Middlcton, Sir John DicbjieU, and others, to the number of fix thoufand fevrrn hundred. In the middle Ward was the Duke of C

and with him the Duke of Albany, the Lords Lo-vdl and Grey/loci, Sir Edward JVaadvitic, and others, to the number of rive th .ml'and eight hundrsd
Men. The Lord Nevill was appointed to follow with three thoufand Men. The Lord Stanley led the right Wing, with tour thoufand Men at
re and Cbejhire. The lett Wing was commanded by the Lord Fitxbugb, Sir William Parr, Sir Jamet Harrington, with two thoufand Men,
And befide all thefe, there was a thoufand Men appointed to attend the Ordinance. Hall, fol. 243. Stew, p. 431. H'llinglb p. 135.'..

(3) Bv the Lord Stanley, Sir J bn Erlingtm, Sir William Parr, and four thoufand Men. Hall, fol. 243.

(4) i.ii rfugujl 1. Idem. p. 2+4. (5; Ai%ufl 4. Rymer'i Ftrd Turn. [2. p id-
lb) The CaltJe of Berwick was furrendered to the Er.gliffj, Atigufl zi. Burban. I. 13,

[■;) 1 i C'.f, jol Sir Jamti Lyidall. Rymcr's Fed. Tom. 12. p. 173.

Book XIII.


1483. 1)' killed with the fplinter of a lance, at a tournament, by
the Duke of Orleans, who was afterwards King of France
by the name of Lewis XII.

The War with Scotland being ended, Edward turned
all his thoughts to the War he defigned to carry into
France. But he was far from being in fo favorable cir-
ri* Oi'.i.'ic/cmnftanccs to be revenged of Lewis XI, as before the rup-


Ajfalrl are

v- |! up

publick Affairs, It will be necelTary now to I i4 , ;

of his pei Ion, and defcribe the good and bad qualitie
Ins body and mind. But fi II,'" I cannot forbear
more to remark, that a nun muft be upon his guard,
with refpea to the Hiftorians that fpeak of this Prince, as
well as of his Brother Richard III. The greateft part
wrote when the Throne was filled with the Princes ofthi
Houfe of l.ancajicr, who were extremi I

the Ducbefi ture w j t h Scotland. Maria Duchefs of Burgundy, being

,,,'' ;"" y " killed by a fall from her horfe in March 1481, the Arch- Rights, and would not willingly hai e fujiered them to

P. Daniel- duke her Spoufe had fo little authority among the Flem- blemifhed, oj; the Kings of the. Ho '.>*■ to be prai-

ings, that he was forced to fuller his Children by that Prin- fed. The After- writers when the C 1 \. rs were for-

_ cefs to remain in the hands of the Gantois. Then Lew- got, tranferibed what they found in thefc firlt Hill

"t'isXl, ufing all his policy to infpire die Flemings with a and frequently gave for truth, what w

31, 0,:a-
fvin'i Mil,




P. Daniel.



dread of the Houfe of Ai///ria's power, managed fo dex-
troufly with the Gantois, that he obtained their con fen t to
give the Dauphin his Son, Alargaret Daughter of their
deceafed Duchefs, with the Earldoms of Artois, Burgundy,
Maconnois, Auxerre and Chcirolois. This Treaty was made
with that fecrecy that Edward had no notice of it ; fo
that Lewis Itill continued to amufe the Englijjj Ambafla-
dbrs, even after it was ended to his wifh. The firft news
they had of it, was the arrival of the young Dauphinefs,
two years old, who was brought to Paris in April 1482.
The nuptials were folemni/.ed in 'July. This was a great
vexation, and moft outragious affront to Edward, who
cauled the Princefs his Daughter to be ftiled Madam the
Dauphinefs. He had perhaps forgot the affront he himfelf
put upon Lewis with regard to his own marriage, or
thought love would excufe it ; but Lewis believed himfelf
no lefs excufed by politicks, and what Kings call reafons

the prejudice or policy of the former Hiftorians. For

part, who have no Intcrcft to blacken this Prini

I have endeavoured to avoid that excels, without


concealing however either his tailings or i.'l qi .

When Edward afcended the Throne, he was
the handfomeft Men in England, and / ,/>,.

This is acknowledged by all. His noble M I free
and eafy Air, his affable Carriage, prepoffeffed c.
in his favor. Thefe qualities, r ed to an un
Courage, gained him among the People, an efteem -
affection, extremely ferviceable to him, in many circum-
ftances of his Life. Philip de Corm affirms, -

his reftoration, to the Inclination, the princi - .
Ladies had for him. But that would have been inc .
derable, had he not likewife acquired the affection of
their Husbands, and in general, of moft part of the ]■
glijl). If he had not depended upon the hearts of the
Anil! of ftate. Be this as it will, Edward full of indignation people, he would never have ventured to atl re

Juntfltr'- f»<- " • • ' « • *•-•




?*^wf an< ^ ra S e ' ^ent a " ^' S thoughts to revenge ; but it wa
too late, the opportunities he had neglected were irreco-
verably loft. He could no longer rely upon the affiftance
of the Flemings, who had fo openly fhown their attach-
ment to the interefts of France. The Duke of Brctagne
was feized with a melancholy, which rendered him inca-
pable of any confiderable undertaking. The King of

covery of the Throne, with the help of two thoufand
Men, who were moftly Foreigners. For fome time, he F ..
was exceeding liberal, but at laft became covetous, not fo ' (< Ea-
much from his natural Temper, as from a neceiTity to u -" d>
fupply the immoderate expences, into which he ' was
thrown by his pleafures. Though he had a great extent
of wit, and a folid judgment, he committed however fo-

Scotland had no reafon to be pleafed, and all that Edward veral very great errors. The firft was, when he fuffered

could expect fram his Alliance with the Kings of Spain
and Portugal, was, that they would not give any Affi-
ftance to Lewis. So to be revenged, Edward muft, like
Henry V, attack France with the forces of England alone.
But France was very far from being in the fame circum-
ftances, as when Henry V began the War. Neverthelefs,
in fpite of improbability of fucceeding in fuch an under-
Weprtperex taking, Edward was bent upon it. For that purpofe, he
urverfor z ff em b\ e rl a H the Lords that were at Court or near Lon-
don, and in a very moving fpeech reprefented to them how
great reafon the Englijh nation, and himfelf in particular,
had, to refent the grievous affronts put upon them by the
King of France. He forgot not to difplay the title of the
Kings of England to the Crown of France. That was
the chief topick to touch the hearts of the Englijh. In
fhort, he added whatever he thought capable to perfwade
them, not only of the neceffity of a War with France,



himfelf to be furprized by the Earl of IVarwick.

that fault was in great meafure repaired, by the dcxteritv

and readinefs wherewith he freed himfelf from the Arch-

bifhop o( Tori. The fecond was, to truft fuch perfi 1

betrayed him, and were fold to France. The third, to
fufter himfelf to be fo long deceived by Lewis XI, who
was univerfally exclaimed againft for his iil Faith. Moft
Hiftorians have extremely aggravated this error, as being
ignorant, that from the year 1480, he began to take mea-
fures to make war upon Lewis, as appears
been quoted from the Collection of the Publick ..', is. Two
other errors are alio afcribed to him, which may be more
eaftly excufed. The firlt is, his breaking oft" the war with
France for an inconflderable Sum, at a time when he in '
have flattered himfelf with the hopes of fuccefs. But if the
circumftances of this affair be well examined, it will be
eafily feen, that being forfaken by the Dukes of Bi

but alio of the great probability of a happy fuccefs. There and Brctagne his Allies, it would have been very tain ;
is no need of much eloquence to induce the Englijh to purfue with his own Forces alone, the execution of fo
wage War with France. All the Lords unanimoully de- great an enterprise, which, probably, would have proved
clared, they thought theWarjuftand neceffary, and af- unfuccefsful. Another error laid to his charge, is, I,;,
fured the King, they were ready to ferve him with their joining with the Heirefs of Burgundy, to flop the pro
lives and fortunes. The report being fpread ia the King- of the King of France. I own, JJBt was a real fault.
dom, that a War with France was refolved, an extraordi- However, it may be confiderably reiTencd, by the exam-
nary joy appeared in Peoples faces, as if the news of fome pies of feveral Princes eminent for their Abilities, .
great victory had been received. obferved the fame conduct on the like occalions. Uncer-

But whilft preparations were making for this important tain of the events, Princes often imagine they (hall be

great gainers by letting their neighbours at variance, in
hopes of their weakening one another. B,.t the fuccefs


Death of

Edward IV. war> Edward was feized with a mortal diftempcr, which
Stow. difcovered to him the vanity of all his projects. When

he found himfelf mortally fick, he beheld with another
Eye than before, whatever had ingroffed him during his
paft Fife; and it is pretended, he fhewed marks of a fincere
repentance. But in the laft moments, the great fearcher
of hearts alone can perfectly judge of the fentiments ex-
prelled by the Tongue. Edward died the 9th of April,
in the forty fecond year of his age (1
two and twenty years and one month,
death is varioufly reported. Some accufe the Duke of
Glocejler of poi foiling him. But this Accufation being
groundlefs, ought not to be too lightly credited. Philip
de Com/nines pretends, Edward died with grief and vexa-
tion, to fee himfelf baffled and deceived by Lewis XI.
But what he fays is to be confidered only as a bare con-
jecture, and the rather, as Edward was convinced, two
years before, of Lewis's Infincerity. The moft probable
opinion is, that he died of a furfeit, being uled to divert his
cares with excellive eating and drinking (2).

I have hitherto fpoken only of Edward the IV's moft

1. 6.



of Edward




fometimes happens not to anfwer their expectations, It is
certain, if Maria ol Burgundy, and afterwards the Archduke
her Husband had more vigoroully refifted the attacks of
Lewis XI, nothing was more capable to render Edward
the Umpire of Europe, than the mutual weakening of
thefe two powers. By this conduct it was that he iw -
after a Reign of himfelf courted by the King of France, and the Duke of
The caufe of his Burgundy, becaufe he was always in condition to n

the balance incline to one fide. He hoped, perhaps, it
would be always the fame ; but he had to deal with a
more artful Prince than himfelf.

Thefe are properly political faults, which are often
fidered as fucn, only becaufe of the events which are not
in Man's power. But the Crimes Edward is more juft-
ly charged with, are his Cruelty, Perjury, 3iid Incon-
tinence. The firft appears in the great number of Prin-
ces and Lords, whom, after taking them priforiers, lie
put to death on the Scaffold. If ever there was room to
exercife Mercy in cafe of Rebellion, it was at that fatal

Alining Actions, by reafon of their connexion with the time when it was almoft impoflible to Hand neuter, and [o

(1) See above, p. 567, Note (6).

(z) hell lay,, he had been troubled, ever fiuce hi; lafl fournej ts France, with a tertian Ag-ac and Fe»'cr,
fol. 247.

which Atddenlv

to a Qna





Vol. I.

H:i Breach
of Fa; lb.

Hii Jnconit





His Good-
For tune.

difficult to chufe the jufteft fide between the two Houfes,
that were contending for the Crown. And yet, we don't
find , Edward had ever any regard to that confideration.
The death of the Prince of Wales, Son of Henry VI,
murdered almoft in his prefence ; and that of Henry him-
felf, notwithstanding his innocence, may perhaps be jufti-
fied in fome meafure, by thofe who think nothing unlaw-
ful when a Throne is in queftion ; but they will never be
excufed by thofe who have any tindture of Religion. As
for the death of the Duke of Clarence, I don't know
whether it would be poflible to find the leaft foftning, if
it be true, as it is very probable, that he was innocent.

Edward's breach of faith was vifible, in the unjuft pu-
nifhment of the Lord Wells and his Brother-in-law, after
drawing them out of Sanftuary by a Safe-Conducl ; in
that of the Baftard of Fauconbridge, whofe Crime he had
pardoned : And laftly, in his Oath at York, taken even
with intention to break it. All thefe aftions are of the
number of thofe, that can be excufed only by reafons of
State ; weak excufe in things where Honour and Religion
are concerned.

As for Edward's Incontinency, his whole Life may be
faid to be one continued Scene of Luft. He had many
Concubines, but efpecially three, of whom he faid, One
was the merrieji ( 1 ), the other the wittieft, and the third
the boliejl in the World, for Jhe was always in a Church,
but when he fent for her. He had however but two na-
tural Children, both by Elizabeth Lucy, ( to whom he is
faid to have been contracted before his marriage, ) Arthur
firnamed Plantagenet, created Vifcount L' Ijle by Henry
VIII (2), and Elizabeth, Wife of Sir Thomas Lumley. I
fhall fay nothing of Edward's Religion, fincc Hiftorians
mention it only in relating his Death-bed difcourfes.

What is moft furprifing in the Life of this Prince, is
his good fortune, which feems to be almoft miraculous.
He was raifed to the Throne after the lofs of two Battles,
the firft by the Duke his Father, the other by the Earl
of Warwick, then devoted to the Houfe of York. The

head of the Father was ftill upon the Walls of York, when 148-;.
the Son was proclaimed at London. Edward efcaped, as
it were by Miracle, out of his Confinement at Middle-
haM. He was reftored to the Throne, or at leaft re-
ceived into London at his return from Holland, before he
had vanquifhed, and whilft his fortune yet depended upon
the deciiion of a Battle, which the Earl of Warwick was
ready to give him. In a word, he was ever victorious
in all the Battles where he was prefent (3).

Elizabeth his Queen brought him a numerous IfTue, Hr &■'-
namely, three Princes, and eight Prmcefles, of whom one
Son and two Daughters died in their Infancy (4). We
fhall fee prefently the fate of his eldeft Son Edward his
SuccefTor, and of his Brother Richard Duke of York.

Elizabeth the eldeft of his Daughters (cj was promifed
in marriage to the Dauphin, Son of Lewis XI, afterwards
King of France by the Name of Charles VIII. In pro-
cefs of time, (he was married to Henry VII, King of

Cecily, who was affianced to the Prince of Scotland,
efpoufed the Lord Vifcount Il'elh, and after his death, a-
nother whofe Name I know not, fhe died without IX-
fue (6).

Ann was contracted to Philip, Son of Maximilian of Au-
Jlria and Maria of Burgundy. But that Marriage not
taking effecl, fhe efpoufed Thomas Howard Duke of Nor-
folk, by whom fhe had two Sons, who died without \i-

Bridget was a Nun, [at Dartford.]

Mary, who was promifed to the King of Denmark died
at Greenwich before her marriage was folemnized.

Catherine, whom the King her Father would have
given to the Infante of Spain, was married to William
Courtney Earl of Devon/hire, by whom fhe had a Son cre-
ated Marquifs of Exeter, in the reign of Henry VIII,

It muft be remarked, that in the Englijh Hiftories there
is a continual .A nachronifm of a year, and fometimes of
two, from 1474, to the end of this reign (7).

(1) Jane Shore.

(2) From Frances Plmtagtr.it, his fecond Daughter, married to Thomas Mink, Efq; was defended the late George Monk, Duke of Albtmarh.

Sandf. p. 449. 450* , _ . n

[3] King Eaward was buried at Wmdfor, in the Collegiate Chapel begun by him, and fin fhed by the Lord Reginald Bray. He is faid to have
taken a thoufand 1'ounds a year from Eaton and King's College, to bellow on this his new Foundation at Wmdfor. He alfo repaired the Caflles
of Nottingham and Dover, the Tower of London, his Palace at Eltbam, &c. Stow, p. 433. Habmgton, p. 479.

(4) The Son was called George, who being a Child, was created Duke of Bedford, and fllortly after dying, was buried at Windsor. The tw«
Daughters were, Margaret, ( the lixth Daughter, buried in Wejlmmjler Abbey, with a Latin Epitaph : ) The other's name is not mentioned. See
Sandford, p. 418, 419.

(5) Born at WefimmlU', Feb. II. 1466. Idem. p. 417.

(6) She had by Wells two Daughters, Elizabeth whi died without IiTue, and jinn {Veils, buried at the Augaftm Fryers. Cecily's fecond Husband
was one Kyme of Lincoln/hire, by whom /he had no Children. She was buried at <%uarer* in the llle of Wight. Idem. p. 418.

(7) In this Reien flour ihed feveral eminent Men, particularly Thomas Littleton Judge of the Common Pleas, and John Fortefue Judge and Chancellor
of England. In the year 1483, the laft of this Reign, was born lbcmes karris Sbrofjhire Man, noted tor his extraordinaiy great Age. He lived
to the year 1635, being then brought up to London by the Earl of Arundel, as a great rarity, where he died, after having lived in the Reigns of
r*n Kings and Queens, aged a hundred and fifty two years.

Bv an Indenture of the 4th of Edward IV, a Pound Weight of Gold of the old Standard, was to make by Tale twenty Pounds, fixteen Shillings
r»nd E uhl-pence ; and a Pound Weight of Silver, old Sterling, was to make thirty ^ven Shillings and Six-pence. By other Indentures of the cth,
8ih, nth, 16th, and 22d of the fame King, a Pound Weight of Gold of the old Standard, was to make forty five Nobles, going for ten Shillings
or ninety half Nobles, or one hundred and eighty quarter Nobles, or fixty feven and a half of the Pieces impreffed with Angels, going tor
fix Shillings and Eight-pence each, and tunfequently was coined into twenty two Pounds ten Shillings by Tale ; and the Silver Moneys were /horn
lit thirty feven Shillings and Six pence the Pound Weight Ttoy. Thefe Indentures were made belween the King, and the Lord Haftings his Cham-
berlain," Mailer, Worker, and Warden, of all his Exchanges and Outchanges in England and Calais. King Edward IVth's Monies are di/linguinV.d
from thofe of Edward III, by the Ferm of the Letters, particularly \\ which is not made like an H, as in thofe of Edward III; as alfo by the
Weight, his Groats being above twenty Giains lighter : moreover, the Title of Ireland is wanting on his Coins. The outer Circle on the Croats is
wanting, leaving the Letters extended to tile very edge, and generally worn part away, in other refpecls like his Predecellr rs ; and of feveral Mints,
u, London, York, Canterbury, Bnftol ; feme of them, be/ides the Name of the Mace of Mintage on the Reverfe , have the initial Letters E. C. B.
Da toe King's Bread ( Fig. I. ) The Ir:Jh Groats have the King's Head within a Rofe, and generally make n" mention at all of England, with
rhe Place of Coinage un the Reverfe, as Dublin, Drogheda, V/aterford ; the power of coining Money being taken from other Places. Thefe fall
fliort of the Er.glifli Groats near ten Grains ; the full difference betwixt the Standards of the Englijh and In/h Money beginning in this Reign. Of
Ihii Irijh Money there is one piece having on the Reverfe, CIVTTAS. DVBL1NIE. with a large Star, that fills the whole Area : This i
reckoned a great Curiofity. (Fig. l. ) There is another in Speed, having on one tide the Atms of France and England quartered, inferibed,
Ktx- ANGLI. Z. FRANCIE. Reverie, three Crowns, d.-noting the three Kingdoms DOM1NVS. HIBERNIE- (Fig. 3.) The ttyal is like Hen-
ry Vth't Rofe Noble, only here is added a Flag at the Stern of the Ship, wherein is the Letter E. EDWARD. DI. GRA. REX. ANGL. Z.
FRANC. DNS. IB. Reverfe, 1HS. AVT. TRANSIENS. PER MED1VM. ILLORV. IBAT. Inftead of a Crofs, there is a Role in the Center,
,'/,.». Ksy, hlie a Sun, tiiendmg u ha Lions and Fleurs-de-lis intefcbangeably. The Angel is exactly like that of Husry VI.

17. ED~

Book XIII.


17. E D W A R D V.

i 4 8 3 .


is proclaimed*
j-\piil 9.

A 1

FTFR the death of Edward IV, the Prince
his eldeft Son, between twelve and thirteen
years of age, was proclaimed King by the name
of Ediuard V. The reign of this Prince was
fhort and unfortunate ; if the two months and twelve days
that he bore the title of King, and which were wholly
fpent in depriving him of the Crown, even before he had
iblcmnly received it, is not rather to be deemed an Inter-
regnum. However, as during that fhort fpace, he was
generally acknowledged for Sovereign of England, Hifto-
rians have made no fcruple to rank him among the Kings.
The whole fubjecf, of this reign confifts only of the means
ufed by the Duke of Glocefler to difpoffefs the young King
his Nephew, and place himfelf in the Throne. But be-
fore I enter upon the relation of thefe deteftable practices,
it will be neceffary to (hew the ftate of the Court of Eng-
land before the death of Edward IV.
Siatt of the Elizabeth Woodvillc, who from a fubjeit was become
Cmrt ttfin Q ucen Dv her marriage with Edward, held the firft rank

Kdward 1 ^— „ ' J 11 1 C • 1 11 /~v

Death, at Court, as well by the privileges common to all Queens,
as by her great credit. From the time of her marriage,
fhe had acquired an influence over the King which file pre-
ferred to the day of his death. Her birth by her Father's
fide was not very confiderable(i). But her Mother, who
had been Wife of the famous Duke of Bedford, was of the
Houle of Luxemburg!}, illuftrious for the Princes, Kings,
and Emperors it had given to Europe. So, confidering
Elizabeth as derived from thence, it is not at all ftrangc,
fhe fhould have a great foul, and think hcrfelf as worthy
to command, as the nobleft Lords of England. Mean time,
as being Queen gave her no right to interpofe in the pub-
lick affairs, fhe artfully affumed it by her afcendant over

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