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the King. Though Edward often proved falfe to her,
fhe bore it with patience and without any figns of un-
eafinefs. Edward charmed to find himfelf at liberty to
purfue his inclinations, without danger of continual re-
proaches, repaid this moderation with all forts of conde-
fcenfions, which the Queen knew how to improve. The
advancement of Sir Richard Woodville her Father to the
honour of Earl of Rivers (2), and the marriage of her
Brother with the richeft Heirefs of the Kingdom, were
the firft proofs fhe gave of her power. After that, Ed-
ward heaped honours and riches upon this family, even
to the defiring to marry his Brother-in-law Anthony to the
Aft. Pub. King of Scotland's Sifter (3), as appears in the C'olleclion of
XII. f- 17 >• the Public k Ails. When the Prince of Wales was of age
to have a Governor, this fame Lord, become Earl of Ri-
vers, was entrufted with that high Office. The Queen'
forgot not her own Children by her former Husband Sir
"John Grey [of Groby.] Thomas Grey her eldeft Son, was
made Marquifs of Dorfet, Governor of the Tower, and
keeper of the King's treafures. Richard Grey his Brother,
was created a Baron, and had a confiderable poft about
the Prince of Wales.
7w Parties If the Queen had confined her favours to her Sons, her
"ij Ccur j'.i le Father, and her Brother, there would have been no rea-

eta aim tbe ..,. n __ a

tuaNiUlity. fori to think it very ftrange. But it cannot be denied,
that fhe made an ill ufe of her power, by caufing to be
created Peers, many perfons who would have had no pre-
tenfion to that honour, if they had not been fupported by
her favour. This gaveoccalion to thediftinction in thole
days, between the ancient and the new Nobility. But if
this diftinction redounded not to the honour of the laft,
that difadvantage was amply repaired, by the places of
honour and profit procured them by the Queen. By de-
grees fhe had as it were banifhed the ancient Nobility
from the Court, where appeared fcarce any but Lords of
the new Creation, all attached to the Queen. It was much
the fame in all the reft of the Kingdom, where the moft
confiderable ports were filled by fuch as the Queen knew
to be her creatures. Her aim was to preferve her power
during the King's life, and in cafe fhe furvived him, to
fecuire the Government of the Kingdom in her Son's

name, when he fhould be on the Throne. But by a fa- 1483.
tality very common to the heft contrived projects, this
very thing proved the occafion of her own and her fami-
ly's ruin.

The Queen having thus openly declared againft the an- Tt* King
cicnt families, it is eafy to conceive fhe was not beloved. ^JJ^'J hc „ ,
Accordingly flic took all pofliblecare to hinder the Lords Mcwr.' '
whom fhe did not like, from having the King's ear.
Mean while, it was not in her power to expel the Court BeaJi ef th
three Lords of the ancient Nobility whom the King loved, NJ - i: "J-
becaufe they had done him fignal fervices. Thefe were
Henry Stafford Duke of Buckingham, H "illiam Hajlhigs,
and Thomas Stanley.

The firft, who was of a very ancient Family (+), had tl Out I
moreover the advantage of being defcended from aDaugh- Buckin s hjm
ter of Thomas of Wood/lock Duke of Gloccjlcr, feventh Son
of Edward the third, and enjoyed the office of High-

The Lord Hajlings (5) was High-Chamberlain. T\\cne Ltrd
King had a lingular affection for him, becaufe of his con- Haft ' B E •
rtant loyalty, of which he had given proofs in the time
of his adverfity ; particularly when he was forced to fly
into Holland. This Lord was extremely attached to the
King's perfon, but loved not the Queen ; if he paid her
any refpect, it was with reluctance and folely out of com-
plaifance to the King his mafter.

The Lord Stanley (6), of an ancient family, was in The Isrd
the fame difpofitions. He was devoted to the King with- Stanlc >-
out making much court to the Queen.

The King's Concubines held likewife a confiderable J. ne Shore
rank at Court, by reafon of their influence over him. Ar '"^, E ^"
There were three efpecially, of whom Jane Shore alone "^ '
was concerned in the events of this new Reign. She was Moor.
Wife to a Citizen of London, whom Edward had debauch-
ed, and taken from her Husband. She was furprifingly
beautiful, and withal of a generality very uncommon in
perfons of her character. The King was as much in
love with her temper as her beauty. He never heard her
fpeak ill of any perfon, nor ever perceived her to try to
prejudice him againft any man whatever. If fhe impor-
tuned him fometimes, it was in behalf of the unfortunate.
When fhe had done a good office, fhe fcorned to take a
reward, being unwilling to give occafion to think fhe acted
from a motive of intereft. And therefore fhe had amalled
but few riches, in companion of other Concubines, whole
greedinefs can never be fatisfied.

The Duke of Glocefler the King's Brother was embar- Dilpmulatm
raffed between the two parties formed at Court, and in if lb < Duki °f
the Kingdom. The only way to pleafe the King, was t S^ a '
to make court to the Queen. But on the other hand, the
Duke perceiving the Queen's aim was to ingrofs the Go-
vernment in cafe the King happened to die, could not be
attached to her, without forfeiting the affection of the an-
cient Nobility, of which he might one day ftand in need.
As he was naturally a great diffemblcr, he refolved to make
his court publickly to the Queen, but in private, he joined
with the Duke of Buckingham, the Lord Hajlings, and
the Lord Stanley.

It is needlefs to fay much of the two young Princes the Edward [V
King's Sons, the eldeft of whom was but twelve, and the r ' rJ " HitMefl
Duke of York his brother but nine years old, when the' w "|'^ J
King their Father died. It will fuffice to fay, that before Moor.
Edward IV, was feized with the diftemper that laid him
in his grave, he had fent the Prince his eldeft Son, with
the Earl of Rivers his Governor, into Wales to appeafe
fome commotion (7). The young Duke of York remained
at Court with the Queen his Mother.

Edward (aw with fome concern the two parties that RoutciUe -
were formed in his Court. But his affection for the' : " y
Queen not fuffering him to hold the balance even, he '/','-., ,',''/
took no care to prevent the confequences. So long as he mrSt death.
enjoyed his health, he imagined, that during his life he Moor,
fhould be always mafter of both, and by ftrengthening the

( 1 ) The firft mention of that Family, is in the 37th of Edward III, when Richard de Wj&ville was conftituted Sheriff of Norlbamftonfhire, and Governor
tf the Cattle there. Dugdalc's Baron. Vol. 11. p. 230.

{2) Tliis was not the name of any place, but of an ancient Family, fometimes Earls of Devon. Ibid.

(3) Margaret.

(4J He was dclcended from Robert de Stafford, who at the time of the general Survey, in the Reign of Wiliiam I, poffeiTed two Lord/hips in Sujfzlk, one
in A'<< tba'.r.ptonjhtre, one in Wonefterjbire, twenty in Lwcotnjbire, twenty fix in Ifarivukfjire, and eighty one in £>taj}crdjhire. DugdaU\ Baron. Vol. I.
p. 1 ;6.

(;) Anceftnr of the Earl of Huntington. (6) Anceftor of the Earl of Derby.

{- ) The Prince was then at Lttdhw in Sbnpjbire, that by h's Prefence he might compofe the diforders of the IVeijh j who, though not in aclual Rebellion,
yet were grown lb unruly and difobedient to their Governors an'! Hipeiiors, that the Magiftratts, with all their power, were not able tc fupprefs the Dilierliioru
and Drfordcrs, Robberies and Wrongs committed by them. Moor, p. 4S1.

No. 32. V o l. I.

7 U




Vol. I.

14S3. new Nobility hinder the old from being able to prejudice
the Queen and her Children after his death. But when
he came to die, he beheld this divifion in another light.
He confidered, that he left for fupport to his houfe only
new families, which had not had time to eftablifh them-
felves, and owed all their authority and credit entirely to
his favour, of which they were going to be deprived.
This thought fenfibly troubling him, he fought in himfelf
the means to repair this error, and in his prefent condition,
found no better way, than to pcrfuade the two parties to
be reconciled for his fake. Weak expedient ! which could
hardly produce the defired effect. The regard for a dying
King, never beloved by the antient Nobility, was little
capable of extinguifhing their hatred and envy of the
Queen's relations, which unhappily, had been but too much
fomented. However, before he expired, Edivard had at
leaft the fatisfaction to fee this reconciliation, which he
thought fincere, becaufe of the feeming readinefs and chear-
liilnefs wherewith both Parties contented to his requeft.
The Earl of R'rjcrs being abfent, the Queen his Sifter
paffed her word for him, and the Marquis of Dorfet her
eldeft Son , as reprefenting the family of Grey, embraced
the Duke of Buckingham and the Lord Hajlings, who
were the heads of the oppoftte party. The Duke of Glo-
ciflif being then at York, upon the King's affairs, had
'it not in his power to obftruct this reconciliation, which
indeed would have been very much to his prejudice had it
not been infincere.
™'.fip".f As fo° n as Edivard's eyes were clofed, the two par-
/ ',-. ." '.'■'' ties forgetting their late mutual proteftations of friendfhip,
vcrmnint. thought only of gaining the advantage one of another.
Mean while, they unanimoufly agreed to proclaim the de-
ceased King's eldelt Son by the name of Edivard ' V. That
done, each took fuch meafures as were thought moft pro-
per to attain his ends. The chief thing was to become
mailer ot the King's perfon, in order to govern in his
name. The Queen hoped to maintain and even to in-
cfeafe her authority, during the King her Son's Minority,
and the other party faw themfelves irrecoverably loft, if
the young Prince was once in the hands of his Mother.
However , thus far the advantage was entirely on the
Queen s fide. Immediately after the death of the King
lief Husband, fhe had difpatched a courier to the Earl of
Rivers her Brother with the news. She told him withal
in the letter, that fhe believed it abfolutely necefTary for
him to raife forced in Wales, and the adjoining Counties,
to enable him to conduct the new King fafely to London,
in order to his Coronation.

Oil the other fide, the Duke of Buckingham and the

, ,';',',_ Lord Hajlings tent an exprefs to the Duke of Glocejler (1),

\ inting him with the King's death, and the Queen's

1 meafures ; and withal reprefenting to him, that being the

Ur.de by the Fathers fide, the Government of the

Realm belonged to him, during the Minority; but if he

did hot pievt-nt the Queen, it would be in vain to expect

after-wards to obtain his due Right. In fine, that at all

adventures, they offered him a thoufand Men well armed",

and ready to march at the word of Command.

It is vary difficult to judge, whether before the death of
i'.diuard IV, the Duke of Gloce/ier had thought of mount-
ing the Throne, to the prejudice of his Nephews. But
'■' '■'• it is fcarce to be doubted, that he formed this defign the
moment he heard of his Brother's deceafe. All his after-
proceedings, too plainly appear to be confequences of a
Scheme laid to compafs that end. As for the Lord Hajl-
ings, his fole Intention was certainly to take the Govern-
ment out of the hands of the Queen and her Relations.
His conftant attachment to Edward IV, would never
have fuffered him to be concerned in a Plot to dethrone
his Son. As for the Duke of Buckingham, his Conduct
is more ambiguous. Befides his hatred of the Queen and
her Family, he had always preferved a particular refpect
for the Duke of Ghcejler, which gives occafion to fuf-
pect, he had joined with him at firft in the defign to place
him on the Throne. However, the Hiftorians afcribe
to him (at ImA in the beginning of this Reign,) the fame
Intention omy"with the Lord Hajlings, namely to remove
the Queen from the Government of the King's Perfon,
; and of the Realm. Be this as it will, the Duke of Glo-

ton. than)P " cc J lcr -> u ? on news of the Kin g' s death » fent back the Ex-
prefs, with orders to defire the Duke of Buckingham and

the Lord Hajlings, to come and confer with him at Nor-

Tit P- \- rf Thefe two Lords, with fome others of their Party, re-
" ! pairing to the place appointed, the Duke of Glocejler, in

/ '.-.!■ •..;'.. a long Speech, demonftra ted to them, the great and im-
pending danger, if the Queen was poffeffed of the Go-
vernment. He told them, " They would be expofed to

" the Mercy of an imperious Woman, and of the two 14S3.

" Pamilies of Rivers and Cm, newly raifed by the King

' his Brother, who would never think themfelves per-

6 fectly fafe, till thofe whom they confidered as their ri-

'' vals and enemies' were deftroyed. That the late King

" had kept them, by his Authority, within fome bound?,

" but when they fhould be poffeffed of the fupreme Pow-

" er, in the name of the young King, nothing would be

" capable of curbing their Infolence. He added, that so

" perfon had more Right, or was more concerned than

" himfelf, to take care of the affairs of the Kingdom,

" during the Minority of the King his Nephew. That

" every one knew his conftant attachment to the King

" his Brother, and therefore his tender affection for his

" Children fuffered him not to leave them to the Meicy

" of thofe, who had never appeared to have any other

" view than their own advancement. That for thefe

" reafons he was refolved, zealoufly to apply himfelf to

promote, to the utmoft of his power, the good of the

Nation, and the honor of his Nephew, principally by

giving him an Education that fhould render him capa-

" ble of treading in the Steps of his illuftrious Anceftors.

But that he could not hope to execute fuch a Project,

" without the afliftance of all honeft Men, and particu-

" Iarly of thofe to whom he was fpeaking, who, with-

" out doubt, had, like him, no other view, than the Na-

" tion's welfare and glory. That he had affembled them

" to confult with them upon what was to be done in the

" prefent emergency, being refolved not to proceed with-

" out their advice."

This Speech meeting with applaufe, all the Lords en- R/Mt of the
tered into a ferious debate, concerning the means to be c '"' /lT ""-
tiled to become mafter of the King's perfon. To fuccced
by force was extremely difficult. The Earl of Rivers had
not only affembled a good number of Troops, but it would
have been alfo very eafy for him to conduct the King to
London, before they were in condition to prevent it. Be-
fides, they would have given him too great an advantage,
if without any apparent neceflity, they had begun fo foon
to take arms. Such a ftep would have infallibly caufed the
people to fide with their enemies, and been looked upon
as tending to obftruct the King's Coronation. Thefe con-
fiderations made the Lords refolve to ufe policy. To that
end, they agreed, that they fhould continue to fhew a great
zeal for the King, in order to deprive the Queen of all
pretence to raife Forces, or keep thofe on foot that were
affembled by the Earl of Rivers. That the Duke of Glo-
cejler fhould try to perfuade her to difmifs thefe Troops
as ufelefs. That in cafe he fucceeded, it fhould be endea-
voured to become mafter of the King, before his arrival
at London ; but if, on the contrary, the Queen was bent
to keep thefe Forces, fhe was to be amufed with Negoti-
ations, till her defigns could be openly oppofed.

The Conference being ended, the Lord Hajlings ported Haftingj
to London, where his prefence was neceffary, by reafon of"'""" "
his great Intereft in the City. Prefently after, the Duke j™ l>"i, »/
j»f Glocejler fent the Queen a Letter (2) of condolence Clocefter'r
upon the King's death, expreffing an extreme affection for *£"" " ,b *
the y'dung Prince , his Succeffor, and an extraordinary jvLor.'
refpect for her. After this beginning, he told her, " He
" beheld with great Joy, all hearts united in the fame
" Sentiments, which made him hope, that the King his
" Nephew would pafs his Minority in a perfect Tran-
" quillity. That, for his part, he would do all that lay
in his power, to keep the People in the obedience due
" to their Sovereign, by giving them himfelf an example
" of unlimited Submiffion. That he did not queftion,
" fhe would likewife contribute to caufe all the King's
" Subjects, to enjoy the peace and quiet they had reafon
to expect. That therefore, he took the freedom ta
" advife her, to ufe her endeavours to d i f pel the old Jea-
" loufies among the great Men, and confirm, by her pru-
" dence, the Reconciliation lately made before the King
" her Husband's death. That his advice was, that with-
" out affection or prejudice, care fhould be taken to re-
" ward Merit wherever it was found, that no man might
" juftly complain of being neglected for mere Party-con-
" cerns. That this was chiefly to be endeavoured, left
by acting otherwife, divifions, which ought to be buried
in eternal oblivion, were renewed. That therefore he
" could not forbear telling her, he was furprized to hear
" the Earl of Rivers was gathering Forces, to conduct
" the King to London, fince they feemed to be entirely
" needlefs. That he was really convinced of the good-
" nefs of her Intention, but it was to be feared, this
" proceeding would be ill-conftrued. That Troops,
" raifed upon the frivolous pretence of providing for the
" King's fafety, when none appeared to give him any

(1) He was then at Turk, to keep all things quiet in thofe parts. Compl. Hi/1. Moor, p. 4S2.

(2) Sir Tbemas Moor docs not fay, that he lent the Queen fuch a Letter, but only, that he lecretly, and \.\ diver? means caufed the Qneen to be per-
fuad'd, that it was unnecefTary, and would be dangerous tor the King to come to London, with an Army of Attend ints. See in //.*//, fbl. 5. He, and his
Affcciates fent Letters ; but it was to the Lord Riitrs, and uthers of the Queen's Friends, that were abiut the Kind's I'erfca. Idem. fbl. 6.

" difluibance.

Book xnr.

17. E D W A R D V.

'3 1

«4^3- " difturbance, could not but breed fufpicions in the op-
" polite- party, lately reconciled. That the precautions fe-
" vera! Lords would undoubtedly take, to fcreen themfelves
" from the mifchiefs they would have reafon to dread,
" were the natural and infallible fruits of thefe fufpicions.
" That therefore, to avoid a groundlefs peril, and by a
" needlefs precaution, the peace of the whole Kingdom
" wasindangered. That when once thefe fufpicions fhould
" take root, and two armies be on foot in the Kingdom,
" God alone knew what might be the Iffue. That for
" thefe realbns, of which doubtlefs fhe perceived the
" ftrength, he advifed her to difmifs her Troops, that
" all the Nobles of the Realm might come, without fear
" and fufpicion, to pay their refpects to their young So-
" vereign, and contribute, every one according to his
" power, to the prefervation of peace and union in the
" State.
Tit £Jiwn The Queen very imprudently followed this advice, of
"Saw" " ' ' wn ' cn me perceived not the venom. She thought it was
Moor, the fooner to be complied with, as it came from a Brother-
in-law, who had always been firm to the Interefts of the
late King, and (till fhewed himfelf very zealous for her
and her Children. During Edward IV's Life, the Duke
of Glocejier had been very refpeetful to the Queen, fo that
fhe had no reafon to fufpedt him. Befides, there was
not in his Letter a fingle word to induce her to think he
intended to difpute the Government with her. In fine,
file confidered, the Duke could not afpire to the Crown,
•without fupplanting two Nephews, and five Nieces, who
were not in his power. This alone would have been capable
to remove her fufpicions, fuppoling fhe could have enter-
tained any. So, believing herfelf fufficiently fupported,
fince the Duke of Glocejier exprefled fo great an attach-
ment to her Interefts, fhe writ to the Earl of Rivers her
Brother, that (lie thought it proper, he fhould difmifs his
Troops, for fear of raifing Jealoufies without occafion.
Rivers car- The Earl immediately obeyed her orders, and keeping only
«'L>ndon tne King's domefticks, began his Journey to conduct him
•without a to London.

•riTz)' k r ^"' ie y oun S King approaching Northampton, the Dukes
Glccefter 0I " Glocejier and Buckingham, who had brought into the
md bis Town nine hundred armed Men(i), went to meet him,
Frunckge anc ] faluted him very refpectfully. In difcourfing with
X, r „ the Earl of Rivers, they told him, the Town of Nor-

Moor. thampton was fo full of ftrangcrs, and ill provided with

Provifions and other Conveniences, that it would be very
incommodious for theirs, and the King's Retinue to lodge
in that place. Then, they advifed him to carry the King
to Stony Stratford (z), which is but twelve Miles further
in the road to London. They added, for their part, they
would return to Northampton, and wait upon the King in
"Rxyl "•/"•■<'< the morning, before he fat out. Upon parting, one of
tuitbUm'to them propoied to the Earl, in a free and eafy manner, as if
Nortlump- it had been a fudden thought, to go and pafs the night with
ton - them at Northampton, whilft the King refted at Stony

Stratford. The Earl not fufpedting their defign, complied
with this kind Invitation. He was even glad of an occa-
fion to cement their mutual reconciliation, by this mark of
Thy earrfs The three Lords being come to Northampton, fpent the





Evening together in perfect Harmony, with mutual pro-
teftations of friendfhip and offers of fervice. Bed-time
being come, the Earl of Rivers withdrew to his Lodgings.
But the other two paffed the reft of the night in confult-
ing what was to be done, fince the Earl of Rivers had in-
difcreetly put himfelf into their hands. Their confulta-
tion being ended, they fecured the Keys of the Inn where
they lodged, under colour that they would be the firft that
fhould attend the King in the morning. For the greater
precaution, they fent a good number of Men to line the
way, and fuffer no perfon whatever to enter Stony Stratfor /.
At break of day they were ready to mount, whilft the
Earl of Rivers was ftill in bed. Mean time, one of his
People waking him, and telling him, the Dukes of Glocejier
and Buckingham were ready to depart, and that no body
was fuffered to go out of the Inn, he immediately put on
his Cloaths, to know the reafon of this proceeding. But
he found them in a very different difpofition from that
and csfttr- wherein he had left them fome hours before. Upon his
•nurds arnjl Approach they began to quarrel with him (3), taxing him
with alienating the King's affection from his mod faithful
Subjects, adding, they fhould take care to prevent the like
practices for the future. The Earl began to return a calm
anfwer to this accufation, but refufing to hear him, they
committed him to the cuftody of fome of their Servants,
and mounting their Horfes rid away to the King.

They found the young Prince ready to depart, and pay- n?^
ing him their refpects, re-mounted in order to attend him.
Before they were out of the Town, they quarrelled with ^/'''^
the Lord Grey (4), the King's Half-Brother, and charged .-".'V
him, that jointly with the Marquifs of Dorfet his Brother,
and the Earl of Rivers his Uncle, he had formed the
project to become mafter of the King's Perfon : And that
the Marquifs of Dorfet had moreover taken out of the
Tower, the Treafure committed to his cuftody by the late
King. Whereupon the King faid, that for what concern-
ed the Marquifs of Dorfet he could fay nothing, but
would anfwer for the conduct of the Earl of Rivers and
the Lord Grey, fince they had been continually with him.
To this the Duke of Buckingham replied, they had taken
care to conceal their Plots from his Highnefs, which how-
ever were not the lefs certain. At the fame time, he or-
dered his people to arreft the Lord Grey, with Sir Thomas
Vaughan and Sir Richard Hawfe, and inftead of proceed-
ing to London, carried the King back to Northampton {-).
The fame or next day the Prifoners were conducted to Pont- Tbeyfnd
frail Caftle (6), the Governor whereof was the Duke ofp /. ' .
Gloce/ler's Creature. The King appeared extremely con- 1 '■' .
cerned for the difgrace of his Brother and Uncle, as well •' " '"
as for the violence to his own Perfon. But he had no K "**
way to free himfelf from his new Governors, but his

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