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by the People of England in the laft Reign. He aggravated
in a very violent manner, the Cruelty, Avarice and In-
continency of Edward IV, and endeavoured, to the utmoft
of his power, to render him odious. Then, he put his Au-
dience in mind, the Sunday before, that excellent Man,
Dr. Shaw, had clearly proved to them, that Edward was not
lawfully married to his Queen, and confequently their Chil-
dren were baftards : That neither Edward himfelt, nor the
Duke of Clarence his Brother, were the Duke of York's
Sons, and to the proofs alieuged by the Doctor, he him-
felf could add many more, did not his refpect for the Pro-
tector, hinder him from dwelling upon the Duchefs his
Mother's loofe Life : That for thefe reafons, the Lords
of the Council, and the Commons of the Realm, particu-
larly of the northern Counties, had declared, that a Ba-
ftard fhould not fit on the Throne of England, and pe-
titioned, that the Crown fhould be adjudged to the Duke
of Glocejler, only Son of the late Duke of York : That
indeed there was reafon to fear, the magnanimous Duke
would refufe the offer ; but on the other hand, it was to
be hoped, all the people, and efpecially the Inhabitants of
London, uniting with one accord, he would be prevailed
with to take upon him the Burden of the Government,
too weighty for a Child : That upon all thefe Confidera-
tions, he required them in his own, and the name of the

h '" Lords of the Council, to declare their Intention. Here
he ftopped, in expectation to hear the People cry, Long
live King Richard ; but every one flood fpeechlefs, fo great
was their furprize, to hear fo unjuft a propofal. The Duke,
furprized in his turn at fo unexpected a filence, asked
the Mayor the teafon ; who replied, perhaps, they did
not well underftand him. If that's the cafe, anfwered
the Duke, I will make my fclf better underftood. Then
raifing his voice, he repeated the fenfe of what he had


try, kin
Richard !

Ht repeati

> ■ tub.

faid in other words, with a gracefulnefs and eloquence 14&3.
worthy a nobler fubject. But the People (till kept a
profound filence. The Duke, in confufion that hir. Rhe-
toric fhould produce fo little effect, talked fome time in a
low voice with the Mayor, to confult wiih him what was
to be done. At length, the Mayor told him, perhaps the
People were filent becaufe they were ufed to be haran
only by the Recorder, who was the Mouth of the Cil
Whereupon he commanded the Recorder (3) to fpeak to He orders tbe
the People, which he did with great reluctance. How- " ■ ril '
ever, he fo managed his Speech, that without any addi- J'„- c '
tion of his own, he repeated to the people the fubftance
of what the Duke had faid. He concluded, with requir-
ing the people (4) to give a pofitive anfwer, whether they
would have the Duke ot" Glocejler for King or not ? At
thefe words there was a confuted murmur in the Affem-
bly, and as it was yet uncertain whether the People an-
fwered Ay or No, fome of the Duke of Buckingham's Ser-
vants, who had dipt in amongft the crowd, fell to cry-
ing, Long live King Richard ! Some of the Citizens vthoScmc of tie
had been bribed, but would not venture to beg

fecend- ;'"'; ' -'; *
ed the Cry, and the Apprentices, with the Rabble, who M or-
ftood near the door, followed their example, and throw-
ing up their Hats in token of Joy, cryed out King Ri-
chard ! King Richard ! The Duke of Buckingham plainly
perceived, the Cry came from the Rabble without, and
not from the principal Citizens in the Hall. Neverthelefs, lb, r> u ii
improving this advantage, he commanded filence, and re-l ,, """ ,s "
fuming his Speech, faid, he was overjoyed to fee fo general^ 1 JLf'""
and unanimous an approbation to his propofal. Where- bat-on.
fore, continued he, my good Friends, I defire you to meet
me here to morrow about this time, that we may all go to-
gether, and prefent our humble petition to his Highnefs, and
intreat him to condefcend to our requejl. Then, the Mayor
difmiffing the people, the Citizens returned to their Houfes
with tears in their Eyes, and grief in their Hearts, with-
out daring to fhew it, for fear of offending thofe whofe
Intereft it was to have it concealed.

Next day the Duke of Buckingham, with the Mayor, He -waits
Aldermen, and many other Periods of the Cabal came to*£™!{~
the Protestor's Palace (5) and fent a Menage to him, that „,,-;£ ,fc
the Magiftrates of London delired an audience. The Pro- Mayor, and
te£tor fcrupled to appear, pretending to fear, that fuch -^ "™
numbers were afiembled lor no good defign. Whereupon Moor.-
the Duke of Buckingham obferved to the Mayor and thofe
about him, that his Highnefs was not confeious of their
intent, intimating thereby that he was not concerned in
the tranladtions of the foregoing day. At length, upon
the repeated defire, that his Highnefs would be pleafed to
grant an audience, he came forth with figns of great mif-
truft, and as not daring to approach fuch multitudes, for
fear of fome Mifchief (6). Then the Duke of Bucking-
ham, without giving the Mayor time to fpeak, briefly fet
forth the grievance of the Nation in the late Reign. Af-
ter that, he faid to the Protector, the People had found
no better way to free themfelves from their evils, than to
pray his Highnefs to affume the Royal Authority, which
of right belonged to him. He added, the Mayor and
Aldsrmen of London, whom he faw there, were come to
petition him in the Name of all the people, who were
united in the fame intention.

The Duke of Glocejler feeming furprifed at this propo-Tiv Protean
fal, anfwered, " he was convinced that all he had heard "fy" " "'
" was true : But he had fo great a veneration for the me- Moor.
" mory of the late King his Brother, and fo tender an af-
" fection for his Children, as out-weighed all the Crowns
" in the world, and therefore he could not comply with
" their requeft. However he willingly pardoned their
" petition, and thanked them for their affection: But ad-
" vifed them to be obedient to the Sovereign under whofe
" Dominion they lived : That for his part, he would
" continue to the utmoft of his power, to give the King
" his Nephew fuch Counfels, as he fhould judge molt
" conducive to render his Kingdom flourifhing, and his
" People happy, as he believed he had hitherto done, to
" the fatisfadion of all the world."

The Dtike of Buckingham feeming diffatisfied with this Tie Duke cf
anfwer, murmured fome words to himfelf expreffing his Buckingham

. -1 11,- it r \ threatens to

dilcontent, and at length delired leave to (peak once more ; g ; m tbe .

and havina, obtained it, he plainly told the Protector, Crown to

" That all people were unanimoufly refolved not x.o a ' K ' b "'

" acknowledge for King any of Edward IV's Children :

" That they had proceeded too far to go back, and there-

" fore if he would not receive the Crown, the People

" would be forced to offer it to one who would not re-

" fufe it." At thefe words the Protector began to be aTttPnteBn

adepts of it.
Halt, fol. 20.

(1) On the TueJJay following, which was the 17th of June. Moor.

(2) Attended by feveral Lords, who were privy to the defign. Ibid,

(3) nomas FitX-lfilliam, Moor. Halt, fol. 22.

(4) It was net the Recorder, but the Duke of Buckingham, who continuing to fpeak, required the Pcopk to give a pofitive Aafvver, Moor. Ha!!,
fol. 20.

(5) At Baynard'sCMe in Tbama-ftrcet, where the Protector then hy. Moor.

(6) He is faid to appear io a Gallery, w«,U a Bifliop en each fide of him, Mnr, Ha!!, fol. 23.

3 little

Book XIII.


H« Speech
to the People


little more compliant, and at laft, fpoke to the people in
this manner : Since I fee the whole Kingdom is refolved
not to fttffir Edward's Children to reign, for which I
am extremely concerned, I am fully convinced, the Crown
can of Right belong only to me, who am the undoubted Son
of the late Duke j/York my Father. To this Title is
now joined the free Election of the Lords and Commons of
the Realm, which of all Titles I Jhall confuler as the chief
and mojl ejfeilual. From thefe confederations I gracioufly re-

ceive your Petition, and inflantly take upon me the Govern-
ment of the two Kingdoms of England and France, the for-
mer to be governed and defended, and the latter by God's
help, and my people's afftflance, to be fubducd. At u r clofe
of t Iiis Speech was heard a great fhout of, L'.ng live King
Richard III ! The Comedy being over, the people re-
tired to their homes, making upon this occaiion fuch re-
flections as were fuggefted by their refpective Underftan-
dings, Interefts, or Paiiions.

6 37


1 3. RICHARD III. Sir named Crook-




it pro-


H E Duke of Glocejlcr having attained to his

ends by fuch extraordinary ways, and in fpite

of all the obftacles that oppofed his ambition,

was proclaimed the 2 2d of fund ( 1 ), by the

name of Richard III. He might have been crowned the

next day, fince the preparations for Edward the fifth's

coronation were finifhed : But he delayed the ceremony

till the fixth of July, expecting the arrival of five thou-

fand Men, which he fent for out of the North, becaufe

he did not entirely confide in the Citizens of London.

During this interval, he gave the Great Seal to the Bi-
fhop of Lincoln (2), one of his favorites. On the 28th of
'June he conferred the office of Earl Marfhal upon the
Lord John Hoivard (3), and the next day, the title of
Duke of Norfolk. The day following, he commiffioned
him to exercife the office of High-Steward during the
Coronation. A few days after, he created Thomas How-
ard his Son, Ear! of Surrey, William Berkeley Earl of
Nottingham, and the Lord Lovel one of his Confidents,
Vifccunt of the fame name (4).

Thomas Rolherham Archbifhop of York, and the Lord
aj .York and Thomas Stanley, who were imprifbned the day the Lord
c Ha/lings was executed, were relealed at the fame time,
and the new King made the Lord Stanley, Lord Steward
of the Houfhold. It was not from a motive of affection
or confidence, but out of fear that the Lord Strange his
Son (;), who was beginning to levy forces in Lincoln-
shire (6), mould raife commotions, the confequences where-
of he much dreaded.

As for Dr. Morton Bifhop of Ely, who was arretted
the fame day, the King defigned not to do him the fame
favour. But the Univerlity of Oxford, of which that
Pi elate was member, having prefented a Petition in his
behalf, he did not think proper wholly to reject it, at a
time when he wanted to gain the affection of his new
Subjects. However, as he mortally hated that Bifhop,
he could not refolve to rcleafehim entirely. He only took
him out of his confinement in the Tower, and commit-
ted him to the Duke of Buckingham's Cuflody, who fent
him to the Caftle of Brecknock in Wales. He was a
Man of mean Parentage (7), but having; ftudied at Ox-
ford, where he had taken his Doctor's Degree, was fo
eminent for his learning and parts, that he was taken
from thence, and made Privy- Counfellor by Henry VI.
The Revolution which had placed Edward IV on the
Throne, made no alteration in his Fortune. Edward,
it is likely, pleafed with his complaifance, continued him
in the fame Port, and promoted him to the Bifhoprick of
Fly. From thenceforward he was wholly attached to
that Prince, which drew on him Richard's, hatred, who
put him under confinement the fame day the Lord Ha/l-
i>i<rs was beheaded, for fear his affection to the late King's
Family, mould lead him to oppofe his defigns.

The fixth of July, the Coronation of the King and
Queen was performed with great Solemnity (8). All the
Peers of the Realm were prefent for fear of being fufpected
by the new King, whofe jealous temper was well known.
Margaret Countefs of Richmond, Wife of the Lord
Stanley, and Mother of the Earl of Richmond, detained in
Bretagne, held up the Queen's Train.

The Bifoop
of Lino In
ij made
M\. I'ub.
XII. p. 189,

and John
Bake of




•!>■ Bifl. f
,/Ely is
eomtn tied to
the Cufto.iy
of Bucking-

T'e King
and rV:,
rr ".whd.

Richard enjoyed hut two years and two mon'hs the
Crown he had fo eagerly defired. He fpent his hole
Reign in devilng means to fupport him!eb in the Thn ne,
which having mounted by Bluodfhed and other ernes,
he endeavoured to keep polfeffion by the fame Metl ods,
but all his meafures proved ineffectual, divine Providence
being pleafed to blaft projucT, founded wholly upon In-
justice, Violence, and the fubverfion of the Laws. The
prefent circumftances feemed however to be very favoia- r '
bleforhim. The Lancajlrian Family was quite extinct
in England. Henry Earl of Richmond, the only branch ch
of that Houfe, was in the hands of ;he Duke of Bre-
tagne, who had promifed Edward IV to hinder him from
going out of his dominions. Margaret his Mother fhewed
no inclination to profecute her Rights. Befides, fhe was
fubject to a Husband whom Richard had attached to his
interelt, by one of the raoft confiderable Pofts at Court.
As to the Princes ;.nd Ptinceffcs of Portugal and Cajlile,
defcended from Philippa and Catharine of Lancajler,
Daughters of John of Gant, they were too remote to dif-
turb the new King. In fine, there was not a Lord in
the Kingdom that feemed to have credit enough to excite
infurrections, the Civil War having fwept away great num-
bers, and entirely deftroyed many ancient families. As
for thofe that were ilill left, Richard hoped to v\in them
by favours, as he had already gained the Duke of Buck-
ingham, the Duke of Norfolk, the Lord Stanley, and fome
others. As for the Yorkijls attached to the family of Ed-
ward IV, namely, the IVoodvilles, Greys, and others of the
new Nobility, he had already difpatched fome, in the laft
reign, and the reft were fled. The Queen-Widow was
ftill with her five Daughters in Sanctuary, from whence
fhe durft not ftir, and where fhe feemed unable to hurt
him. The Marquifs ot Dorfet her Son had likcwife
taken Sanctuary, and Sir Richard Woodville had abscon-
ded. In a word, Edward V and the Duke of York his
Brother were in the Tower, where, fince the 27th of
June, Richard had taken care to place as Governour
Sir Robert Brackenbury his Creature. Thus, nothing
feemed capable to (hake the new Monarch's Throne.

Mean while, to be provided againft whatever might Richard'*
happen, he formed the project to fecure Cajlile and Por- T
iugal, the Archduke Maximilian, who governed the Low-
Countries in the name of Philip his Son, France and Bre-
tagne, from whence he feared his enemies might procure
fome affiftance. In fine, to break all the meafures which
the friends of Edward the IVth's family might take againft
him, he refolved to murder his nephews young King
Edward V, and the Dike of York his Brother. Thefe
were Richard's rirft projects to preferve his Crown, which
created him no lefs uneafinefs after poileffion, than whitft
he was labouring to obtain it.

To execute all thefe refolutions, the 1 2th of July, he E " ';
appointed for his Ambailador to Cajlile, Bernard de la Ac ^ Vub.
Force, with orders to renew the antient Alliance with xn p. 193.
Queen Ifabella and Ferdinand King of Arragon her Hus-
band. The next day he gave the like commiilion to Tho- " Br « a s n =;
mas Hutton, to treat of the prolongation of the Truce
with Francis II, Duke of Bretagne. Probably, Hutton
had fecret initructions to endeavour to procure the Earl of

(r) Sir 7. Moor, ( as publifhed in Hall) fays, that Richard took the Reins of the Government the 19th of June, and the next Jay, wos. the
20th, was proclaimed King, when with great Solemnity he rode to Weflnnnfler, and fitting in the Seat Royal, called before him the Judges of the
.Realm, whom he fteaightly commanded to execute the Law without favour or delay. Moor. Halt, fol. 25.

(2) John Rujfel. See above, p. 632.

(3) He was Son of Sir Robert Hoivard, and Margaret Daughter and C heir of Thomas de Mouiraj Duke of Nor/ilk. The firft Perfan of Nate
in this Family, was William Howard Judge of the Common Pleas, in the Reign of Edward I. Dugdale's Baron. Vol. II. p- 265.

(4) And Chamberlain. Moor.

(5) Having married Joan, Daughter and Heir of John Lord Strange, he was fummoned to Parliament in 22 EJw. IV, by the Tide of Lord
Strange. Dugdaho. lb d. p. 249.

(6) Hall and li-'lt:ng/head fay, it was in hancaftnre, fol- 25. p. 13S5.

( -j) B.ih'p Morton was not of mean Parentage. He was Son ot Richard Morton, a Gentleman of Bert in Dorfetjbire^ whofe Grandfather was Ro-
btrt Morton of Morton in Nottmgbamjhlre, of a very antient Family.

(S) On the 4U1 of July he went to the Tower by water with his Wife; the 5th he rode through Ltnd-n with great poop j and tie 6ti wa«
cr.wned. See a particular acconat of his Coronation in hail, Ivl. 2j, 26 ; and HzLtr.gjb, p. J3S7, ice.

No 32. Vol.. 1. 7 Y Richnznd,

6 3 8


to F". ince.

F . I >], I,;,.

M< or.


J :

M if.



Vol. I.


Tie Duke »f
ham de-
mands the
of Hereford.

His Claim*

Richmond, or at lead to renew the Treaty upon that fjib-
j.ct between Edward IV, and the Duke. Three days
after lie appointed commiffioners to treat with France
concerning fome breaches of the Truce, in order to have
occafion to confirm it.

Thefe meafures being taken, nothing remained but to
execute the principal article , the murder of his two
Nephews. For that purpofe, he refolved to remove from
London, that their death happening in his abfence, he might
be the lefs fufpefted. With this view, he departed from
London to vifit feveral Counties, under colour of reform-
ing certain abufes introduced to the great detriment of the
people. His progrefs into the North was particularly ne-
ceflary, to curb the infolence of the Troops he had fent for
from thence, and who, after their return, had committed
<;reat outrages. But before he proceeded to York, he made
fome ftay at Glocejler, not to be too far from London,
whilft his orders concerning his Nephews were executing.

The Duke of Buckingham, his intimate friend and con-
fident, attended him to Gloce/ier. He had loaded that
Lord with eftates and honours, both whilft he was Pro-
tector, and after he was King. But the Duke ftill expect-
ed another favour, of which he had received a poiitive
promife. And that was, the moiety of the Lands of the
Houfe of Hereford, to which he thought he had a very
juft right. The foundation of his claim will plainly ap-
pear in the following Genealogy.

Eatl of Hereford and Northampton.

Mary Bohun
Wife of
Henry IV


Henry VI.

Prince of Wales.

Thomas of Woodjlock
Earl of Glocejler,
Son of Edward III.



Edmund Earl of Stafford.



Duke of Buckingham.

Duke of Buckingham.

The King
denies bit
Requefi ;

up r n titbit
be Dulc

To confider only this Genealogy, it is evident, the
Duke of Buckingham had a right to claim one half of the
Earl of Hereford's Lands, as defcended from one of his
Daughters. But there were other reafons which rendered
his title difputable. When Richard II put to death his
Uncle the Duke of Glocefter at Calais, he caufed his E-
ftate to be confifcated by the Parliament, and gave what
that Prince held in Right of Ann his Wife, to the Earl of
Derby, who had married the eldeft of the Sifters, and
withal created him Duke of Hereford. Thur, the Earl
of Derby took polTefTion of the whole Inheritance of the
Earl of Hereford his Father-in-law, and afterwards mount-
ing the Throne by the name of Henry IV, all his Lands
were annexed to the Crown, which was thereby poflefled
of the whole Eftate' of the Hereford Family, till Rich-
ard the third's acceiTion to the Throne. However, when
Richard, being Protector, intended to engage the Duke of
Buckingham to ferve him in his defign to ufurp the Crown,
he promifed to reftore him the moiety of the Inheritarce
confifcated upon the Duke of Glocefter his great Grand-
father. But after he was King he altered his mind, whe-
ther he thought he had amply rewarded him otherwife,
or was afraid of rendering him too powerful, and fo giv-
ing him occafion to afpire to the Throne, as defcending
from Edward III. Be this as it will, the Duke during
t lis fourney putting him in mind of his promife, received
f ,ch an anfwer, as left him no room to expect that Juf-
■ tice or Favour (1). The Duke, who was very high-
fpirited, was fo offended at the King's anfwer, that he de-
fired leave to go and look after his own private affairs (2).
Richard not imagining, this refufal had made fo deep an
Impreflion upon the Duke, or perhaps, not fearing the
effects of his refentment, gave him the leave he dehred,
and parting from him at Glocejler, he purfued his Journey
to York.

During the King's ftay at Glocejler, he fent an exprefs

order to Brackcnbury, Governor of the Tower of London, 1483.
to murder Edward V, and the Duke of York his Brother. Death <f
Brackcnbury more confeientious than his m.-.fter, returned cl ^\. rie '
a very fubmifTive anfwer, but withal, told him, he fhould Dukiof
never be able to execute his Commands. Richard vexed York,
to be deceived in his opinion of that Officer, fent him Ha jj/
by James Tyrrel a written order, to deliver to the bearer
the Keys and Government of the Tower for one fingle
night. Brackcnbury obeyed, and Tyrrel brought in his
Agents (3) to execute the King's orders. That very
night, whilft all were afleep, he went into the two Prin-
ces's room, and fmothering them in their bed, caufed
them to be buried under a little Stair-cafe. This is what
Tyrrel himfelf afterwards confefTed, who was executed in
the reign of Henry VII. In 1674, whilft fome Altera- ncir g<raa
tions were making in that part of the Tower, Bones-were are fund i*
found, which were thought to be thofe of Edward V, lh ' R "l« *f
and the Duke of York, and upon that fuppofition, Char/esll, ^aiidtora- "
who then reigned, ordered them to be put into a marble
Urn, and removed to IVeJlminJhr among the Tombs of
the Kings (4). As the two Princes were never more
heard of fince the day Tyrrel went into the Tower, and
as their Servants were difmifled, the publick doubted not
that they were facrificed to their Uncle's fafety.

Richard having received the news of the death of his TbejgjngU
two Nephews, continued his Journey into the North, and "owned
came to York about the end of Augnjl. As the pretence "^yf
of his Journey was to caufe Juftic* to be impartially ad- Hall,
miniftrcd to the people, he could not help executing fome H:ft - Cray!,
of the northern Soldiers, who in returning from London
had committed great outrages. Then, he caufed himfelf tfemata
to be crowned a fecond time at the Cathedral of York, '* ^
the beginning of September, and the fame day he created Wales.
Edward his Son, ten years old, Prince of Wales, with
the ufual Formalities.

A few days after his Coronation, he received the a- 7lf AUi _
greeable news, that Ferdinand and Ifabella had prevented ametohb
him, by defiring themfelves the Confirmation of the.AUi- c ^ e "
ance between England and Cajlilc, by an Ambaflador fent ^^p^,
on purpofe, and who was then come to York. The re- xn. p. 199.
newing of that Alliance, which he ratified himieh the
31ft of Augujl, pleafed him extremely. He found that
Ferdinand and Ifabella acknowledging him for lawful
King, were forming no project to reftore to the Throne
tlie Houfe of Lancajler, from whence Queen IJabella was
defcended, being Grand-daughter of Catherine of Lan-
cajler, Daughter of John of Gant. He exprefled his fa- s ept . g,
tisiaction by conferring the honour of Knighthood (5) p. 200.
upon Geoffrey de Saftola Ambaflador of Cajlile, who
brought him the good news, and by his Letters full of 202

efteem, affection, and acknowledgment, to the King and
Queen of Spain, to the Cardinal de Alendoca, and to the
Earl of Leryn their Minifters.

Lewis XI King of France died Augujl the 29th (6) this Death
year. Charles VIII his only Son being a Minor, fuc- !«»«« x '-
ceeded him under the Guardianfhip of his Sifter Ann, p,™™",.'].
Wife of Philip de Bourbon, Lord of Beaujeu, purfuant to
the late King's Directions. But Lewis Duke of Orleans,
firft Prince of the Blood, difputed the Regency with her.
This conteft raifed, in the Court of France, difturbances TrcMs at

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