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of himfelf, very likely, to obtain this aid, Landais had
put the King in hopes, he would deliver up the Earl of
Richmond. And indeed the fequel plainly fhewed, he had
enter'd into fome fuch ingagement. Thus Richard thought
himfelf fo fecure from Bretagne, that inftead of fearing the*
Duke would affift the Earl of Richmond, he flattered him-
felf with the hopes of having his enemy very foon in his
power.
Trace -with As he might alfo be apprehenfive that the King of Scot-
Scotland. land, defcended from a Princefs of the Houfe of Somerfet,
tnS'zAA,' would countenance the Male-contents, as being concerned
Hall. to place the Earl of Richmond on the Throne of England,

fbl. 42, &c. ^ e believed ne ought to fecure himfelf too fiom that quar-
Hollinglh. ^, . e 1

Stow. ter. I o that end, he negotiated with James III. a I ruce,

concluded in September this year, and which was to laft
from the 29th of that month to the fame day of the year
1487. At the fame time, he concluded the marriage of
his Niece Ann de la Pole, Daughter of his Sifter Elizabeth
and the Duke of Suffolk, with the Duke of Roth/ay, the
King of Scotland's eldeft Son.
Datbcftbe All thefe precautions appeared fo juft, that he feemed to
Pnr.ce of he fcreened from all danger. However, to rob the Earl
Hift. Cnyl. °f Richmond of all hopes of accomplifhing his defigns, the
Hall. Prince of Wales his Son dying in April this year ( 1 ), he

Ea \ rl fV") ^ ec ' are d n ' s Nephew the Earl of Lincoln his preemptive
Heir to the Heir, intending to have this declaration ratified by the
Cnewn. Parliament. The Earl of Lincoln was Son of Elizabeth
his Sifter (2), and Brother of Ann, who was to marry the
Prince of Scotland.
EmlafTy of Moreover, not to neglecT: any thing that might give his
Obidnr.a n enem ies an advantage, he fent an Ambaffador of obedience
Aft. p,?b. t0 P°P e Innocent VIII, lately eletSted to the papal Throne.
XII. p. 253. He had omitted this compliment to Sixtus IV, Innocent's
Predeceffor, as appears in the Collection of the Publick
Ails. But his fear of incenling the Pope, and affording
fome pretence to the Male-contents in the Kingdom, and
particularly the Clergy, made him difpatch his Ambafl'a-
dors to Rome.
Zrr.baffy Shortly after, he had the fatisfaction to fee that Charles

fiem France VIII, King of France, defired a Safe-Condud for Am-
baffadors he intended to fend to him. Thus every thing
feemed to be happily difpofed in his favour. Meanwhile,
the Earl of Richmond was ftill full of life, and fo long
as that Prince was out of his power, he could not think
himfelf thoroughly fixed on the Throne. This was
the chief, or rather the fole caufe of all his trouble and
care.

The Truce with Bretagne being to laft but till the 24th



of April 148;, Richard took occafion from thence to fend 1484.
Ambafladors to the Duke to caufe it to be prolonged.
'I hat was the pretence of the Ambafly. But the Am-
bafl'adors had orders to treat of another more impoitBnt
affair, with Landais, prime Minifier and abfolute Mallei I

of the Duke, who was fallen into a kind of Lethargy,
which rendered him unfit lor publick aftairg. And that
was to perfuade this Minifier to deliver up the Earl of HoHunflu
Richmond.

Landais had not wanted the forementioned thoufand
Archers. It was therefore neceilary, in order to obtain
what the King defired, to make a new Treaty whit h
might be fo advantagious to the Duke and the Favourite,
as to caufe them to overlook all their fcruples upon that
fubjecr. As for the Duke, Argentri affirms, he faw among
the Records of Bretagne, Richard the third's Letter', Pa-
tent, whereby he gave to Duke Francis the Earldom of
Richmond with all its dependencies, as enjoyed by his
Anceftors, with the fole reservation of its return to the
Crown in cafe the Duke died without Iflue. With ref-
pedt. to Landais, as the negotiation whs more fecret, it is
not well known what reward he expected for his intend-
ed fervice. Thus much is certain, Richard made him
very advantagious offers. But as he was a Man not to
be fatisfied with bare promifes, there was often occafion to
fend expreffes to the King. Thefe delays, which, as Ar-
gentri pofitively affirms, were upon thcMiniftcr's account,
proved the Earl of Richmond's fecurity. Though he was ' • ''"•>■
then in Bretagne, he was entirely ignorant of what paffed " '

at the Duke's Court. But the Bifhop of Ely, who though I
abfent, had good fpies about Richard, being informed •
that the Bifhop of Leon, Ambaflador of Bretazne. wa ' '■{ ,
treating very privately with the King, warned the EarL
of Richmond that he was not f.ife in the Duke of Bri- ' , '
tagne's Dominions. This advice coming from fo good a '
hand, put the Earl upon ferioufly thinking of freeing him- H
felf from the impending danger. Ashe knew Landais %tov "
to be a perfon capable of committing the vilcft actions, he
refolved to retire into France, and for that purpofe fent
privately to King Charles for a PafT-port (3), which was
readily granted him. Mean while, informed as he was
of Landais's ill defigns, he did not queftion that he had
ordered him to be narrowly watched. So the difficulty of r ' '"•'
efcaping was not fmall, efpecially as he was furrounded ''
with a great number of Englijh, in refpect of whom it
was very hard to conceal the fecret, and very dangerous
to reveal it. To remedy this inconvenience, the Duke of
Bretagne being at that time recovered of his illnefs, the
Earl took occafion to fend the principal Lords of his re-
tinue to congratulate him upon it (4), ordering them to
take with them all their fervants, under colour of doing
him the more honour. His aim was not only to be more
alone at Vannss, but chiefly to remove from his keepers
all fufpicion of his defiring to efcape, whilft he had fo
many Hoftages at the Duke's Court. Accordingly, this ft 'fopa
artifice fucceeded to his wifh, fo that, two days after, ht^'.,'!*'
departed from Vannes in difguife, attended by five perfons at Angers,
only. As foon as he was out of the Town, he left the Hal1 ;
great road, and riding crofs the Fields and through by- HoUln E' 1 "
ways, without flopping any where, fafely arrived at Angers
Capital of Anjou. This diligence was abfolutely neceflary ;
fcr otherwife he would have been infallibly taken. Thole
who were charged to watch him, hearing of his efcape,
purfued him fo clofely, that they came upon the borders of
Bretagne, but one hour after him. In a few days the
Duke being informed that the Earl was retired under an
apprehenfion of ill treatment, feemed very angry with
Landais for giving him occafion to fear, not knowing
doubtlefs what his Favourite was negotiating with the King
of England. Then he gave all the Englijh in his Domi- TbtD
nions leave, to go to the Earl with his compliments and ''"■"'

_lT- _r r -_ T»L r? i p 7-1 ■ ; r 1 1 r . lends Dim



offers of fervice. The Earl of Richmond received thefe ci-



'



vilifies with figns of the utmoft giatitude, and defired the Sn
Duke's meifenger to tell him, he would have all his favours HaU '
in everlafting remembrance. Thus the Earl of Richmond
efcaped, as it were miraculoufiy, out of Richard's fnarcs.
This was the fecond time he had been thus happily de-
livered. The Englijh belonging to his retinue, thought
themfelves no lefs fortunate than he, to be freed, by the
Duke's generality, from his unworthy Minifter, who not
long after atoned on a Gibbet for all the ill actions Ids
avarice had prompted him to commit.

The Earl of Richmond making but a fhort ftay at An- charlnvril
gets, went to Charles VIII, then at Langeais, who re- *

ceived him very civilly. However, as the Court of France']!
was not yet free from troubles, it was no favourable junc- HolliDgfh.
ture lor the Earl to procure the aiuftance he could no longer



(1) At the Cjlrle of Middtcbam in Yorkjh re. B:lek, p. 534..

(2) An 1 Jobn de la PJe, Duke of Suffbtk. His Name was alfo Join. Sec Duedalt.
(3, By Cbri/hpber Urfiv k.. Hail, lol. 46.

l4J Thi; Duke of Jdreiagnc was then, tor recreation and chrnge of Air, on the B.:i;:i and Confines of France. Bid. HM'mgjhttil, v. \l„".



expect



644-



Tbe HISTORY of ENGL AN D.



Vol. 1.



1484. expect from the Duke of Bretagne. Neverthelefs, as the

voting Kin" feemed well-inclined to him, he Jefpaired not

to obtain Ibme aid of that Prince, when the difturbances

at his Court were appeafed.

YheEarltf Whilft his Affairs were in this (rate of uncertainty, he

Oxford if f aw t [, e }/ ar [ f Oxford {1) arrive, whom King Edward

iUmmLf IV had confined in the Caftle of Hammes in Picardy.

a»fgm'tt This Lord, who had been one of the principal friends of

tUEarlif t j. e fi oll f e f Lancajler, hearing in prifon that the Earl of

Hall.' 10 ' R'ichimnd pretended to the Crown, had wrought fo eft'ec-

Stow. tually upon the Governor of Hammes (2), that he had per-

Hollingfii. f ua d e d him to releafe him, and declare for the Earl. He

even brought him along with him to falute that Prince,

and offer him his fervice. The advantage of having the

Earl of Oxford in his party, was very beneficial to the

Earl of Richmond in England. Several other Lords privately

fent him word that he might depend upon their affiftance,

when they fhould fee a proper fcafon to declare againft

Richard.

RiciVrd cJ- Mean while, the King had daily notice that fomething

'igis the lord was contriving againft him in lavor of the Earl of Rich-

■/"■'"> '; mond; but could not difcover the authors of the plot,

(rave til Sen ' . ir»ri 11

in Hjiagt. what fpies foever he employed, tseiiues, he knew no
Hall. Enclijh Lord powerful enough, as he thought, to form or

i>tuVV ' execute an enterprize of that nature. The Lord Stanley

was the only Perfon he could miftruft, becaufe he was
Husband to the Countefs of Richmond. That alone ren-
dered him fufpected, though otherwife he had no Proof
againft him. So, to fecure himfelf from that fide, Stan-
Icy defiring permiffion to retire upon his own eftate, he
required him to leave his Son (3) at Court as a fort of
Hoftage. Indeed, his fufpicions were but too juft, fince
that very Lord proved afterwards the principal inftrument
of his ruin.
ttiJifavm Richard knew he was not beloved in England. On the
iti 'Fnji8of other hand, he heard there were certain motions among
tbtMarriage ^ people, which, though fecret, could not but be dan-

c/ the Earl r f J ' O

if R.ch- oerous. However, he could not pievent the milchiet he
mord miitb dreaded, without knowing wherein confifted the plots of
H,illl brth ms enemies, and the principal authors : Upon this there-
stcw. fore he laid out all his pains. At length, by planting

fpies in the Country, he came to find, that the projects in
favor of the Earl of Richmond were founded upon his
promife to marry the Princefs Elizabeth, eldeft Daughter
of Edward IV. This difcovery made him perceive, the
Torki/is were not far from an union with the Lancajlrians,
fince they confented to this marriage. It was manifeft
that fuch an agreement could not but occafion his ruin,
fince in that cafe he would have only a few friends of
iiis houfe to rely on, all the reft declaring for his Brother's
family. Finding therefore, that the Plot which was con-
niving againft him, refted upon a more folid foundation
than he had imagined, he applied himfelf wholly to break
the Earl of Richmond's meafures, by preventing this fatal
,y. rtfcfva marriage. He found no better way to accomplifh his ends,
-■■ y tn than to marry himfelf the Princefs deligned for his Enemy.
„'"!?■ But the execution of fuch a Project was clogged with fe-

HcllisgA. ve ' a ' difficulties, which to a Prince lefs fcrupulous than
himfelf, would have appeared infuperable. The firft was,
he had a Wife already, whofeconftitution afforded no figns
of her leaving this woild. But he defpaired not to fur-
mount that obftacle, either by a divorce, or fome other
lefs lawful means. The fecond difficulty was, to draw
Elizabeth out of the Sanctuary at Wejlminfter, where fhe
was with the Queen her Mother. Befides, it was no eafy
task to perfuade the Queen Dowager to give her Daughter
to the murderer of her Sons. Laftly, the Pope's Difpen-
fation to marry his Niece muft be obtained. But this ob-
ftacle feemed inconfiderable in companion of the others,
well knowing, it was not impracticable to adjuft that affair
with the Court of Rome.
Jh „„, lte To begin the execution of this ftrange project, he fent
!&«»- feveral perfons to the Queen Dowager, to infinuate to her,
"'. " that he wifhed to live in friendftiip with her, and to fhew
'ii.-i.-iu; '. ntr marks of his good will: That he confeffed, he had
Half, dealt too rigoroufly with her; but to repair in fome mea-

Kift. Crcyl. f ure t ] ]e j n j ur y he had done her, he intended to aflign her
Hciu'ngfli. an honorable penfion, and give her two Brothers fuch
polls as they fhould have reafon to be fatisfied with.
Moicover, he would take care of her Daughters, and
help them to marriages fuitable to their quality. But as
the Queen would haidly be induced to credit his promifes,



after having been fo cruelly deceived, the perfons he em- 1484.
ployed hinted to her, that this alteration proceeded from
the death of the Prince of Wales. That the King being
now childlefs, and without hopes of having any Iffue,
his interefts were no longer diftinct from thofe of his Bro-
ther's family, and therefore he could do nothing more ad-
vantagious to himfelf and his houfe, than to marry his
Nieces into the moft confiderable families in England. In
fine, fhe was told, the King's defign was, that after his
death, the Princefs Elizabeth fhould afcend the Throne ;
what he had done in favour of the Earl of Lincoln his Ne-
phew being eafily revokable, fince it had not yet paffed
into an Aft of Parliament.

Thefe lait infinuations made deep impreflion in the
Queen's mind. Her intereft made her imagine, what was
faid to be very probable. On the other hand, fhe was
heartily tired of her Sanctuary, which was properly a
Prifon, from whence fhe could not ftir without being
liable to greater mifchiefs. She had an extreme love for
her Brothers, as fhe had plainly fhewn in the life-time of
the King her Husband, and the hopes Richard gave her
concerning them, agreeably flattered her. In fine fhe
confidered, that the plot in favor of the Earl of Richmond
having mifcarried by the Duke of Buckingham's death, fhe
could expect for herfelf and Daughters only a ftill more
rigorous fate, if by her denial fhe fhould farther incenfe
the King. Thefe confiderations cauiing her to forget the
grievous outrages received from that Prince, fhe was fo
exceflively blind, as to put hef five Daughters into his
hands. Moreover, fhe writ to the Marquis of Dorfet Hall,
her Brother, to advife him to relinquifh the Earl of Rich-
mond, and throw himfelf into the King's arms. The
Marquis as inconfiderate, and no lefs ambitious than the
Queen his Sifter, flattering himfelf with the hopes of ho-
nors and preferments, privately withdrew from Paris, in
order to pais into England. But the Earl of Richmond
caufed him to be purfiied with fuch diligence, that he was
brought back to Paris, and, by ftrong reafons, perfuaded
to ftay with the Earl.

As foon as Richard had his Nieces in his Power, he Diatb if
thought of means to execute another part of his project : Ri'hard'i
And that was, to be rid of his Queen, in order to marry §^"'
his Niece. Thofe Hiftorians that fpeak moft favorably Hid. CroyI,
of his conduct, fay, he made the Queen die with vexa- Stow '
tion, by (hewing an averfion for her which fhe did not HoiUn6,h '
deferve, and by grievoufly mortifying her every day.
Others fpeak plainer, and affirm, he haftened her death
by poifon. Some add, he privately acquainted the Arch-
bifhop of York with certain fecret infirmities of the
Queen, which rendered her very difagreeable to him.
This was on purpofe that the Archbifhop might tell
her again, which he thought would caufe her to languifh
away, and fliorten her days. It is faid farther, that the
Archbifhop, after hearing the King's difcourfe, told fome
of his friends the Queen had not long to live. And
indeed, fhe died prefently after. Her fate would have
been more worthy of pity, if her death had not been
obferved to be a manifeft judgment upon her, for marry-
ing the murderer of the Prince of Wales her firft Hus-
band, Son of Henry VI. Richard (hewed an extraordi-
nary forrow for his lofs, and made a pompous funeral
for his deceafed Queen. But this feigned grief was not Hall,
capable of undeceiving the people, who openly accufed
him of murdering his Queen (4) as he had done his Ne-
phews.

Notwithftanding the extreme forrow he expreffed in Tbi Pmafi
publick, the Queen was no fooner in her grave, But he had Elizabeth
the affurance to make his addrelles to the Princefs Eliza- r j£f'' '° hc
beth, and offer her marriage. But (he fo anfwered him, King htr
as (hewed her abhorrence of fuch an union, and defired V_" cl '-
him never to mention it more(c;). Richard being fenfible Stow '_
it was no proper feafon to ufe violence, was fatisfied for Hollinglh.
the prefent with this firft ftep, till time fhould furnifh
him with a more favorable opportunity to prefs the exe-
cution of his project. Mean while, as he daily became Set-cralLardt
more odious, many Lords and Gentlemen went over and £° m -' cr '"
offered their fervice to the Earl of Richmond. Others Richmond,
took the fame courfe, to avoid the perfecutions of that Hall,
bloody Prince, if unhappily he came to fufpect them. Thofe
that remained in the Kingdom were no better affected,
and waited only a favorable opportunity to declare againft
him.



(1) Jcln de Vtre.

\z) jJ-ti Blunt, and alio Sir J-.hn Fortefcui Governor of the Town of Calais. Halt, fol. 47.

(3) Gnroi Stanley Lord Strang*. Unv. fol-. 49-

(4) But/t will have it, that her gre.it Grief at the death of the Prince of JValei, her only Son, threw her into a Confumption, which carried her off
in a very little time. Her Name* was Ann, being the fecond Daughter and Coheir ot Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick. She died March 16, and was
bur'nfl with due Solemnity at Wcfiminfiir. Sandferd, p. 4",o. it;™, p. 467. 1I.JI. Cray!, p. 571.

j) Burt fays, that then- is an riginal Lelf-r under Elizabeth's own hand, in the Cabinet of the Earl of Arundel and Surrey, written to the Duke of
'.- wherein fh= defires him to '. e a Mediator for her Mimage w:th the King, who ((he faid) was her joy and maker in the World; and that fhe was
his in heart and th night, withal iiifmuating, that the beft cart of February was paft, and that (he feared the Qjeea would never die- p. 568.



Richard



Book XIII.



18. RICHARD III.



1484.

; «■ - .1'. {

-"■ ■

naroraesi

Hall,



645



'485.

lays up bis
Flat.
Hill.
Hollinglh.



Richard hearing that the Earl of Oxford and the Go- ford (9), where he was joyfully received by the fnl-.a-

vemor of Hammes were gone to the Earl of Richmond, bitants.
fent orders to the Governor of Calais to befiege that 1c rom this place he fent an exprefs to the Countef. his ""* m

Caftle, and reduce it to his obedience. This order was fo Mother, to inform her of his Arrival, and Defign to man

readily executed, that the Earl of Oxford, who was towards London, defiring her withal to affernble > ;

marching to relieve the place, arrived not in the neigh- friends, that they might join him upon his rout with as ''

bourhood, till after the capitulation ( 1 ). However he many Troops as poffible. This rout was to be very long, ' ""

reaped this advantage by it, that he brought away the Gar- fince having no Town upon the Severn at bis comm ind,

rifon for the Earl of Richmond. be was neceffarily obliged to crofs almoft all Wales, v

After the Earl of Richmond's attempt, Richard had fitted to Shreiusiu,y t.. the herd f.f ih.it liver, v I, .

out a Squadron of Ships tooppofe his Paffage in cafe he en- told he lhould he received. So making but a ihort ftuv .;

deavoured to make another defcent. But the beginning of Haverford, he began his march to North- Wales, in order

the year 14S5, the Truce with Bretagne being prolonged to reach Shrewsbury before the King was rcadv to difpute

for feven years, and France mowing no great willingnefs bis paflage.

to aflift his enemy, he believed he might fave the charge Richard hearing the Earl of Richmond was landed at TbtKmgor.

Milford-Htwen with fo few Troops did not imagine he *'
vvould be able to make any great prog refs. However lie .



of a Fleet, which he now confidered as ufelefs. Accord
inglv the Ships were unrigged and laid up in the Spring.



■ c



The Court of This proceeding encouraging the Earl of Richmond, he fent orders to Sir Walter Herbert, to raife the Milil
jZ'TtoZ'id ear "ellly follicited the Court of France for aid. King the County, thinking that Herbert might eaflly (top him '
; f Charles's A-linifters at length ferioufly confidering his re- till he was himfelf ready to march. jjut Herbert 1,



Hall.
Stow.
Hollinglh.



Richmond, queft, believed it could not but be advantagious to France, been privately gained by the Earl', friends, fuffered 1

to cherifli the troubles in England. It was folcly with to pals unmolefled, without offering to make the I

this view that they promifed the Earl an aid of two thou- oppofition.

fand Men, with Ships to tranfport them, and gave him a Some days after, Sir Rice ap Thomas, a Man of greal

Sum of money. Philip de Commincs fays, he never faw power in Wales, met the Earl upon his rout, and offered J

fuch wretched Troops as thole defigned for this expedition, bis fervice, which was gladly accepted (10). He had with ' ' Ri< ,p

Which is a clear evidence with what intent the Court of him a good body of TVelJImen. It is not furpriftng that I

France granted the Earl this inconliderahle Supply. Be- all Wales (hould declare for the Earl, fince he was f Holiingfli,

fides, he was required to leave Hoftages in France, that Weljh extraction, and of one of the antienteft families bf

f.tisfaftion fhould be made for what was expended by the the Country.
Court. The Earl having reafon to miftruft the Marquifs 1 he Earl of Richmond's Army being greatly encreafed by '>' ' ! "«<-



The Ears

toes ti Roan.
Hall.



oi Dorfet, embraced this opportunity to leave him in Hof-
tage at Paris, with Sir Thomas (2) Bourchier. Then he
repaired to Roan, where the Troops that were lent him
were ordered to affemble.

When he came to Roan, he received the difagreeable
news of the Queen's death, and of Richard's deiign to
marry the Prinoefs Elizabeth his Niece, and to give Cecily
her younger Siller to one of his Favorites. His meafures
being broken by this marriage, which was reprefented to
him as ready to be accomplifhed, he confulted upon this



oppoil-



the junction of Sir Ralph ap Thomas, and feveral // ,

tlemen (11), and the whole Country fuppiying him in his Shrew " ' ; '

march with all neceffaries, he arrived in a few days at

Shrewsbury, where he was received without

tion (12).

The King had very juflly fufpedlcd the Lord Stanley The-Uri
of being a fecret friend to his Son-in law. Stanley had Stanley ««*
indeed affured the Earl of Richmond, he would favour ^
him to the utmoft of his power. But as he was forced to "lifi,™",
leave his Son in Hoftage with the King, he could notf° r ' t ' K,n l
occafion with the Lords that attended him. The refult of openly efpoufe his caufe without endangering his Son's life
their opinions was, that fince he could have no hopes of For this reafon he pretended to take the Kind's part and Hoii'inglh.
efpoufmg one of Edward the Fourth's marriageable Daugh- having levied about five thoufand Men, polled himfelf at
BedcfigK, to ters, he ought to think of fome other. For that purpofe, Lichfield , as if he intended to oppofe the Earl of Rich-
marry Sir he was advifed to gain to his interell Sir Walter Herbert, mend's march. On the other hand, Sir William Stan-
krt'T "" a P er(on oi g reat power in Wales, by an offer of marry- ley (13) his Brother drew together Iikewife a body of two
Daughter, ing his younger Siller, the eldeffc being already married to thoufand Men, infinuating that it was with the i'.ime
the Eari of Northumberland. The refolution being taken, view.

The King was then at Nottingham, where, at the firfl 5J< *'%
news of his enemies landing he had given orders t.> .idem- d ""
ble his forces (14). He at fir ft confidered the Ear! c\\„
Richmond's attempt as a fort of Bravado, which he hoped H, 1.



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