M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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to make him quickly repent. But when he heard that Sir fT!!: .

H ..



H

Hollinglh. he djr patched an ex p re f s t0 Sir Walter Herbert (3) to

HisMca- make the propofal. Happily for the Earl, the Meffenger

jeresarebn- found the roads fo narrowly watched, that he durft not
venture to purfue his Journey to Herbert. It is extremely
probable, if this Affair had fucceeded according to the Earl

of Richmond's defire, he would have been forfaken by all Walter Herbert had fuffered him to pafs without opi

the friends of Edward the Fourth's family, who were very tion, that Sir Rice ap Thomas had joined him, that all

numerous. For, they had ingaged in his party, only out Wales had taken his part, and that lie was marching to

of hopes of his uniting the two Houfes of York and Lan- Shrewsbury, he perceived, the Affair was going to become

cajler by his Marriage with the Princefs Elizabeth. more important. So, without hefitation, he refolved to

He is invited Not many days after, he received Letters from Eng- give him battle before he had made greater pros; reii, and

land (4), acquainting him, that if he would make halte his Army was reinforced. He wifely judged, ]{ on this

and land in Wales, he could not have a more favorable op- occafion, he fhowed the lead faint-hcartednefs, it would

portunity. That all the Nobility of the Country were certainly caufe the whole Kingdom to declare againfl him.

for him (5). That he would find the people ready to On the contrary, his firmnefs was capable of keeping in

take arms in his favour, and a good fum of money, awe fuch as were inclined to fide with his enemy. Mean ;

which had been privately gathered (6) to fupply his occa- while he had every day the mortification to hear his Of- '' ' " "

fions. That in the reft of the Kingdom everyone was fixers and Soldiers deferted to the Karl. He was ftill In Hemfinjli

difpleafed with the King, who daily rendered himfelf hopes, the Lord Stanley and his Brother would join him S . 3 "' ; '

more odious. In fine, that the Junfture was the moil with their Troops, though the little correfpondence they

favorable, as it did not appear that Richard imagined him kept with him, gave him but too much caufe to fufpecT:

fo ready to depart, fince there were no extraordinary pre- them of treachery. Be this as it will, havino- received

parations in hand. certain advice, that the Earl of Richmond intended to

This good news obliged the Earl to haften his depar- march towards London, he refolved to expect him upon his

ture, without Haying for Sir Walter Herbert's anfwer. rout between Leicejhr and Coventry, in order to put a



into Eng-
> land.
Hall.
Stow.
HollingUi.



He Ian. Is at

Milfuid-

Haven.

Hill.



So coming to Horf.eur, where his Ships waited for him,
he embarked his Troops (7), and fet fail the laft day of
July. He arrived the fixth of Augufi at Milford- Ha-
ven (8) in South-Wales, and next day came to Haver -



fpeedy end to their quarrel by a Battle.

Though the Earl of Richmond's Army was not confi- 77.-F.1-/
derable, he was no lefs deiirous to ingage, becaule he ex- -•'
pedted that the Lord Stanley and his Brother would not Li " h '"

Hal]

- .• .
ts) It however flood out fome time after his arrival, and Thomas Brandin found means to introduce thirtv Men into the Gillie Hall fol 40, ^ ' "^n-
IMUngfb. p. 141 1. ' "•'

(2) HaN calls him Sir John, fol. 50 ; fo doth Hollingjh. p. 1413.

(3) Hall fays, this MetTenger was fent to Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland, fol. 50.

(4) By the' hands of Morgan Kydivelly. Hall, ibid.

(5) Particularly Sir Rice af Thomas, a Man of great Intereft, and John Savage a famous Captain- tbij. (6) By Reginald Buy. Ibid-
(7) Which ccnliflcd only of two thoufand Men, as is faid above. Hail, fol. 51. Hollingjh. p. 141 3. Stew, p. 46$.

IS) One of the moll fpacious and fecurc Ports in Europe 3 it contains lateen Creeks, live Bays, and thirteen Roads, d:ltinjuiih;d oj their !". wral
Names.

19) Called now Htsrford-Weft. It is a County of itfelf, and is governed by a Mayor, a Sheriff, and two Eailift's.

(10) Henry promifed to make him chief Governor of Walei. Hall. fol. 51.

(u) jfcbn Savage, Arnold Butler, Riebard Griffith, Jibn Morgan, Sec. lb:d.

(12) Here Sir dorgc Talbot, with his Ward the young Earl cf Shrewsbury, who was then a minor, came to him,



fjr.H Men. Hall, fol. 51. Stow, p. 4.68.



(13) Rapni calls him IVuliam Strange.



and b:ou»ht him :mj tfa u-



(74) He fent to John He-.uard Duke of Norfolk, and to his Son Thomas Earl of Surrey, to Henry Percy Eirl of Northumberland, &c. to br;n<* him
their servants and Tenant;: And ordered Sir Robert Brachenbury to come to him, with Sir Thomas B;ur.b : er, sir Walter Hunger ford, and i°'. cf al
mher Knights and Efquircs. Hall, lol. 51. Uo'.lingfh, p. 141 ,•



No. 33. Vo 1.. I.



% A



feil



64-6

l +8 ;.



tte HISTORTof ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



A dangerous
Adventure
tapfent to
the Earl m
ch March,
Hall.
Hollinglfc.



rail him in his neceffity. With thefe hopes, he advanced
to Lichfield, from whence, upon his approach, the Lord
Stanley retired to Atheijlon. Whilft his Army was upon
the march, he came privately to Stafford, where he had a
conference with Sir William Stanley, in which were con-
certed the meafures, the effects whereof will prefently be
feen.

The Earl being come to Lichfield, heard that the King
was at Lcicejler. So, perceiving he could not poflibly
proceed to London without fighting, he refolved to march
directly to his enemy (i). Whilft he was on the road to
Tamworth, he happened to be behind his Company, and
attentively mufing upon his Affairs, miftook his way, and
loft the track of his Army. He roved about till night,



lLIl fuperior to the Forces of the Earl of Richmond and 148c.
the two Brothers together, he fhould have oppofed to
thefe laft, two Bodies equal to theirs, with orders to
attack them the moment they offered to ftir. He would
thereby have debarred them of the advantage of taking
their time to declare^ as they afterwards did. Such an
overfight in fo able a Prince as Richard, cannot be
looked upon but as proceeding from a particular directi-
on of the providence of God, who had determined his
deftruction.

The two armies approaching one another, the battle Hall.
began with a fhower of Arrows difcharged from both
fides, after which the Royal Army moved forward to
eome to clofe fight. The Lord Stanley, who till then



not daring to inquire the way to Tamworth for fear of had been only a Spectator, perceiving the' Duke of Nor



addrefling to fome one of Richard's party. At laft, not
being able to find the road, he was forced to pafs the night at
a Village, without knowing where he was, or daring to in-
quire. However, next morning he found means to get to
Tamworth, where his Army was in great pain for him, not
knowing what was become of him. To excufe fuch a
blunder which, had it been known, muft have done him
great injury, he pretended he had been to confer with
fome private friends who did not care to appear openly.
That very day, he went with kw Attendants to Ather-
Jlon, where he had a long conference with the Lord Stan-
ley (2). On the morrow hearing that Richard was gone
artofworth' ^ rom Lcicejler to meet him, he advanced to fave him fome
Hail. '^art of the way. The two Armies met at Bofworth, fo
Hid. Croyl. near one another, that there would be no avoiding a Bat-



The ttuo



Stow.
Hollinglh.



tie, fuppofing either of the two Leaders had defired it.
But they were both very far from fuch a thought. The
2 2d of Augujl was the day famous for the Battle which
decided the quarrel of the two contending Houfes.

Richard perceiving his enemy to advance, drew up his
Army, confifting of between twelve and thirteen thoufand
Men. He gave the command of the vanguard to the
Duke of Norfolk, and led the main body himfelf, with his
Crown on his head, either to be better known, or to put
his Troops in mind they were fighting for their King.
The Earl of Richmond who had but five thoufand Men,
drew up his Army likewife in two lines, of which the
Earl of Oxford commanded the firft, and himfelf the fe-
cond (3). A Hiftorian has recited the Speeches of the
two Leaders to the Soldiers before the fight. But as it is
not very certain that they were really fpoken, and as be-
fides they contain nothing very particular, I (hall pafs
them over in filence.

Whilft the two armies were preparing for battle, the
Sunlty and Lord Stanley, who till then had continued at Ather/lon.

b:i Brother.
Hall.

Frow.
(Sc.



a r i draw
Vp.

H.rt. Creyl
Hall.
Stow.
Buck.
Pol. Virg.



Hall.



Conduit of



folk widened his line to the left, in order to furround the
Earl of Richmond's, Troops, gave him not time to exe-
cute his defign. On a fudden, he polled himfelf on the
right of the Earl's, to receive the front of the King's firft
line. This motion caufing the Duke of Norfolk to halt,
in order to re-clofe his line which was too much ex-
tended to the left, the fight seafed for fome moments.
But prefently after, both fides being more upon an equa-
lity, by the Lord Stanley's joining the Earl, fought with
great ardour.

Mean while, Richard being impatient to know what H
pafted at the firft line, fpurred his Horfe towards the Stow!
place where they were ingaged. At the fame time, the HoU\n S (h.
Earl of Richmond quitting his fecond line, where he had
taken his Poft, was advanced as far as the foremoft ranks
of the firft, to incourage his Troops by his prefence, be-
ing fenfible that the fuccefs of the day, would in great
meafure be determined by the fight of the two firft lines.
Richard perceiving him, inftantly rode to attack him'.
He flew Sir William Brandon, the Earl's Standard-bearer,
who had interpofed in his way. Sir John Cheney having
taken Brandon's place, to oppofe the King's furious ef-
forts, was overthrown to the ground. The Earl of
Richmond avoided not the Combat. But if we may
judge by the manner wherein the Hiftorians relate thefe par-
ticulars, he fhowed no great eagernefs to join his ene-
my, contented himfelf with ftanding in a pofture of de-
fence ; and willingly fufFered his people to come between
them, and hinder them from too clofely approaching each
other.

At the very time that Richard was fingling out the
Ear] of Richmond, to decide at once their important quar- Stanie



Sir William



ported himfelf with his Troops over againft the fpace,
between the two armies, and his Brother, who was come



rel, it was decided very much to his diladvantafe from J 1 "" 1 "''!*
another quarter. Sir William Stanley, following °the ex- J"^;^ 1 "
ample of the Lord Stanley his Brother, and feeing that ™*.
the left of the Earl of Richmond's firft line began to give Hal1,
ground, openly declared againft the King, by falling upon



from Stafford, took his ftation on the other fide, oppofite his Troops in' the flank, who were employed in fightine
Miad been hitherto in doubt, whether their enemy's in the front, and vigoroufly repulfing tibem!

This fo feafonable an attack at fo critical a moment, hav-



the Lord Stanley was for or againft him, becaufe he had
not yet made any publick demonftration in favour of the
Earl of Richmond. But when he law him in that poft,
it was eafy to perceive, he was not there to affift him,
fince he had not given him notice of his defign. Mean
while, willing to know for certain what he had to fear or
hope, he fent him orders to come and join his Army.
Stanley anfwered, he would come when it was convenient.
ffl'iaJ? This anfwer not ^tisfying the King, he commanded his
Order,. Son to be immediately put to death. But his Generals
ibe Ktngor- reprefented to him, that though the Loud Stanley's beha-
t'be'fuTtl v '- our was ver y doullt ful» and even gave caufe to fufpea him,
he had not yet however declared for the Earl of Richmond



Stanley



- put t
atb.



ing caufed an extreme diforder in the right of the Kind's
firft line, they were feen fuddenly to retreat towards the
main Body, and the left quickly followed their example.
This hafty retreat ftruck fuch a terror into the main Bo-
dy, that they almoft all took to flight, without expe&ing
the enemy. The Earl of Northumberland alone, who
commanded one of the wings, flood without motion,
having firft ordered his Troops to throw down their arms'
to let the enemies fee they had nothing to fear from him.
Richard perceiving the day was loft, and not bein* able
to think of flying, or running the hazard of falling 5 into
the hands of the Earl of Richmond, rufhed into the midft



but

ud^aM That it was not improbable, he was meditating fome great ofh'isTnemieT where" hTfoon met' "with "The fca.h'h,
Ha„. f 10 » '« *«»» of h * Sovereign, or perhaps intended to fought. Thus fell the Ufurper, in a more glorious man

ftand neuter during the fight, in order to join the Con-
queror. That in both thefe cafes, it was better to defer
examining his Conduit till after the event, than to pro-
voke him by putting his Son to death, to give the Earl
of Richmond an aftiftance capable of making Victory in-
cline to his fide : That after all, in the Kin "



-.ng's prefent
Circumftances, the death of the young Lord Strang
could procure him no advantage. Thefe arguments feem-
ed to the King of fufficient ftrength to caufe him to re-
Overfyltcfvokehis orders. But he was guiltv of an unpardonable
>h, K<ng. erl or, in remaining doubtful as to the two Brothers, who
plainly enough diicovered their defign. As his army was



ner than his Crimes feemed to deferve. He wore but
two years and two months the Crown, he had purcha-
fed by fo many ill actions.

The Battle lafted about two hours, including the time
fpent in the purfuit of the run-aways (4). As moft part
of the King's army fled without fighting, there were not
flain on the fpot above two thoufand Men (5) on his fide.
The Earl of Richmond loft but a hundred, of whom Sir
William Brandon was the only perfon of note. He was
Father to Charles Brandon afterwards Duke of Suffolk.
On the King's part, the Duke of Norfolk loft his Life
valiantly fighting for him who had made him a Duke f6> n ' Dukr '/

V '• Nortjlc

oynw the
and Sjr Thomas Bounbier, who deferted King Richard. Hall, fol. 55. Stow, p. 460. J ""''•



(1) Tn his march he was joined by Sir Walter Hung,rfo, a
racea of his enemies. Hall, fol. 57. &#>*& . p l«p °" ' " S ' ' SM M h ' S back ' and " In lhe

«' ^-5?iMt s£f££: w^ttars r rke v ? wn L n sife- T f he r a &■, of ^ is **-*

is l Xf r up ' v hic K h H '"\ vl is hVl: ?*Sz%2£ttJS?3tt ft? a s and large Proportion - Therc

I The nth H r ^f a t ° VC , a „' h T f -"' d n ' ]n ' t0U 57- Bot A7, w fays, there were four thoufa.d, p. 47c,



He



Book XIII.



i?. RICHARD III.



647



i 4 8j.



Tie Fart cf
but re} is ta~
ken Pri/oner.



Cate^by is
executed.



The Lord
Stanley/"
the Crown
on tbc Earl
of .Rich

Hill.
Stow.
H illinffli.

Rithaid'i
ilody is car-
ried to Lei-
celter.



The C'ur.i
,,<■ 0/ Ri-
chard 111.



He would have doubtlefs gained more honour and glory,
had he employed his valour for a Prince who had better
delervcd than Richard, that a Man fhould hazard his Life
for hi-, fake. The Earl of Northumberland was taken
into favour by the Conqueror, having perhaps held Intel-
ligence with him before the battle. It feenis at leal):, that
it may be inferred, as well from what he did in the he-
ginning of the rout, as from certain verfes found that very
morning by the Duke of Norfolk, on his Tent-door, in-
timating, that the King was fold (1). The Earl of Sur-
rey, Son of the Duke of Norfolk, was taken prifoner, and
fent at firft to the Tower of London, but fhortly after ob-
tained his pardon and liberty. Some of Richard's Adhe-
rens were treated with the fame lenitv, others had the
good fortune to efcape. But Catesby, Minifter and Con-
fident of Richard, who had fo balely betrayed the Lord
Ha/lings, being made prifoner, was executed two days
after at Lcicejlcr, with fome others of the fame ftamp,
who had been the Ufurper's Inftruments.

Richard's Crown being found by a Soldier, was brought
to the Lord Stanley, who went immediately and placed
it on the Earl of Richmond's head, congratulating him up-
on his Victory, and faluting him King. From that time
Henry kept the regal title, and a£ted always as Sovereign,
as if that bare Ceremony had given him an undoubted
right. Richard's body was found among the flain ftark
naked, covered with blood and dirt, and in that condition
tl.ruwn crofs a Horfe, with the head hanging on one Tide
and the legs on the other, and fo carried to Leicejler (2);
The body lay two whole days expofed to publick \hw,
after which, it was interred without any Ceremony, in
one of the Churches of that City. Some time after, Hen-
ry VII his Enemy and SuccefTor, ordered a more ho-
norable Monument to be erected for him on account
of Elizabeth his Queen, who was of the Houfe of
York{i).

Richard III was firnamed Crook-back'd, becaufe he was
fo in reality. Moreover, one of his arms was almoft.
withered, receiving but little or no nourifhment. As to
the defedls of his mind, if we believe mod Hiftorians,
they were fo great and fo numerous, that it would be
difficult to find in Hiftory a Prince of fo ill a Character.
It is certain, he had a boundlefs ambition, which often
caufed him to commit aftions unbecoming a Chriftian
Prince. To this Paffion alone muft be afcribed his
treachery and cruelty, fince he was treacherous and cruel
only with refpeit to the acquifition or prefervation of the
Crown. He has not been the fole Prince whom ambi-
tion has led into the like excefles. The Hiftorians who
writ in the reign of Henry VII and Henry VIII, have fo
aggravated the heinoufnefs of his actions, that one cannot
help obferving in their writings, a ftrong defire to pleafe
the Monarchs then on the Throne. Nay, very probably
they have afcribed to him fome actions upon no very good
foundation ; for inftance, his murdering with his own
hand Henry VI, and the Prince of IVales. Their defire
to fay a great deal of ill of this Prince, made them overlook
his good qualities, which ought not to have been palled
over in filence. Be this as it will, without pretending ei-
ther to juftify him upon what he did of ill, or condemn
him generally upon all, as fome have done. I fhall con-
tent my felf with blaming what was blame-worthy, and
acknowledging withal what deferved condemnation. The
Crimes he was guilty of in procuring or keeping the
Crown, are, as I faid, effects and confequences of his im-
moderate ambition, by which he fuffered himfelf to be
blinded. But their, being produced by that Paffion, does

(1) The Verfes faid to be written upon the Tent-Door were thefe :



not in the leaft lefflr, their heinoufnefs. As to the .-eft, t ^ s .
he had a great deal of fenfe, and a very folid Judgment,
Qualities that might have been an honour to him, hau
they been ufed to better purpofes. We may judge of his
good fenfe and penetration, by his precautions to fecure
himfelf from the afTaults of his enemies. Thefe precau-
tions could not be more juft, if divine Providence had
not been pleafed to render them fruitlefs, as it fometiT~
does with refpect to feemingly the beft concerted defigns';
On feveral occafions he /.hewed an uncommon Valour,
and particularly in the battle where he was flain: Tim
cannot be denied him without injuftice. He exprefRd
great concern that Juftice fhould be impartially miniftred
to all his Subjects without diftinction, provided the prefer-
vation of his Crown was not concerned ; for in that rc-
fpeft he made no fcruple to trample upon all the rules of 1
Right and Equity. This natural Inclination for Jufticrs
but combated by his ambition, may afford fome occafion
to prefume, he would perhaps have proved a "ood Kin"
had he been able to fix himfelf fo firmly in the Throne'
as to have feared no revolution (4). At leaft, this cannot
be laid to be improbable. The Emperor Auguftus, who
was guilty of fo many Cruelties to arrive at the Empire,
affords a memorable and well-known Inftance of fuch a
Change, and it would not be impoffible to find other ex-
amples. But as Richard was taken out of the World be-
fore he had given figns of any amendment, his ill actions*
abforb d whatever there might be commendable in him.
There is one Hiftorian however who has endeavoured to B u<fc
Vindicate this Prince. But as he has fet no bounds to this
Vindication, and laboured to make him entirely innocent,
he has not acquired much credit, especially as he was oftea
obliged, in order to attain his ends, to advance facts not
ftriftly true. He has however a place in the Collection of
the Englijh Hiftorians ; but no modern Author has thought
fit to take him for guide (5).

Richard left but one natural Son, who was ret a Fndcftb,
Minor when the King his Father died. Some ftrtnths R 'V n lf' u
before, he had made him Govemour of Calais, Guifnes f c s
and of all the Marches of Pkardy, belonging to the A3.' Pub-
Crown of England (6). With Richard III, ended the x,l '» s6 *
Angevin Kings, firnamed Plantagenets (7) ; who, fince
Henry II, the firft of this race, had pofTeffed the Crown
of England from Father to Son, during the fpacc of three
hundred and thirty years. Richard was the Lift King of
this Houfe ; but not the laft Male, as fome haveaf-
firmed, fince the Earl of Warwick his Nephew, Son of
the Duke of Clarence his Brother, was ftill alive This
young Prince was the fole branch of the Male-iffiie of
Edward III, which had been fo numerous ; hut was al-
moft entirely deftroyed by the late Civil War. This «rf of tL
War, commenced thirty years before, was at length civU War '
ended by the Battle of Bofworth, after deftroyino- above
one hundred thoufand Englijh-mcn, and a great number of
Princes of the two contending Houfes. Philip de Corn-
mines mounts the number to fourfcore ; but it is a
miftake or exaggeration of that author, as it is cafy to
fee by the Genealogical Table of the pofterity of Ed-
ward III.

Let us clofe the Hiftory of the Plantagenets with a Brief Rea
brief recapitulation of the moft memorable accidents that A'» <•'" V
befel the Kings of this race, whilft on the Throne of "** '■'''■''
England. In this fummary of the fourteen foregoing 1£&
reigns, it will be feen, not without aftonifhment perhaps
that the happinefs and glory enjoyed by this race for a-
bove three hundred years, were almoft' nothing in com-
panion of their misfortunes (S).



Jack of Norfolk, be not too bold,

For Dickon thy Mafier is bought and folj.



£uBh"r? W DUl " ° f N ° rfM ' S ™ ° f ^ M "' "^"^ " k faid 3b ° Ve ' P - 6 "' N ° te ( 3) fcft M^ «» &>»■» ^rl of Surrey, , nd fiv5



<z He was brought in that manner to Leicefter, behind a Purfuivant at Arras, called blauncbt Samlie.
(3) He was buried in St. Afury's, belo '



Jier. Hall, fol. c,%. Stew. v. i?o.
try s, belonging to a Monaflery of the Grey-Friers. Henry VII put over him a Toiih of v,ri,„. I j .» l,
Alabarter. This Monument Hood till the diObiution of the ibbies u'nder Henry VlJ, when , "* SlUJ i

being over-grown with Weeds and Nettles, is become very obfeure and not to be found , o n \y thYsVn"



utterly defaced ; fince which his Grave being over-gro'

Coffin, wherein his Corps lay, was made a drinking Trough for Horfes, at the 'wh



comn, wnerein nis corps lay, was made a drinking I rough for Horfes, at the rVbite-Horfe-Inn in Lticeflcr. — - Richard was n„r Z - !.
four and thirty years old when he was killed. He gave five hundred Marks a year to S^eins Ccllege in Cambridge Tardf»d T\^ "'

(4) H,s Enem.es leem to own that excepting his Cruelties to gain and keep the Crown, one might judee h,m to be a good Kins • ' Particular^
,n h,s care to check Vice, and promote Sobriety and Virtue; witnefs his Circular Letters to the BiflJL and in his concern in? h Zn r -2
vernment and Eale of his Subjefts, as may be .een in his reclamation againlt the Rebels in Ken,. Se= P "cn.pl. Hifi vT I n c, 6 ^ I *
Icruiam fays of him, that hs was in military Virtue approved, jealous of the Honour of the Er. g t*h Nation, and likewi'e a pori f .w M,i
He founded the Society of Heralds, and made them a Corporation, &c. See the Charter in Rimer's Ford. Tom 12. o. ,, E Law-Maker.



(5) George Buck, Efq; has endeavoured to reprelent King Richard III as a Prince of



(6) In his Patent he is called Job-, of Gloccjlcr. See Rymcr't Feed. Tom. 12. p. 265.

of

2nd



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 273 of 360)