M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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(8) It w=re to be wimed, that fo good a Hiftorian as' Rapm had been more fpari'ng of God's Tudaments • fuch R-mark* ,r K,ft k • r

great Weakneft But when they are built on Falfit.es in Faft. as is fometimef theVe ^{&ifc Ot'Tl's I, r^ ^ an I^'cfe n
,n Rap,, himfclt. See above P . 6, 5 . Note (.1). As for the long Lift he has given of God's Judgments upon the Houfe of PlanLCa ? """•'"

_ extraordinary, uoihms but what is ^^,v rnmnn i^ ,h\, D»u ,„a ..,>.,. _:.l. .r.-i. ...A . .. "r!T"'i 1( contai

Nations




nothing extraordinary, Rutins but what is "very common in this' World, and "what might ca% be matched eu: ol the Hiftories" of hveraT "otk



HE NR y



6+3



The HISTORY of ENGLAND. Vol. I.



HE N R Y II, the firft King of this Houfe, was the
greatert of all the Englijh Monarchs with refpecT: to ex-
tent of Dominion. Beiides the Kingdom of England,
he poffeffed in France, Guienne, Poiilou, Saintonge, Au-
vcrgne, Limouftn, Perigord, Angounms, Tour aim, Anjou,
Maine, Normandy, to which he joined alfo Bretagne by
the marriage of one of his Sons with the Heirefs of that
Duchy ; and laftly, crowned all with the Conqueft of
Ireland. But with all this grandeur he was ever un-
happy. His conteft with Becket, the vexatious perfec-
tions from Pope Alexander III, the rebellion of his Queen
and Sons, and the unfortunate fuccefs of his laft War
with France, fuffered him not to enjoy a moment's repofe.

RICHARD I, rendered his name famous in the
Eaft, by the conqueft of the Ifle of Cyprus, by the ta-
king of Acta, and by a great victory over the Saracens.
But the fame he acquired in that expedition was a dear
purchafe to Chriftenilom, and particularly to England,
by the prodigious quantity of Men and money, exported
from thence, without the Chriftians of Palcjline reaping
any great advantages. Richard himfelf at his return into
Europe, underwent the rigours of a grievous and long
imprifonment, from which he could not be freed without
an exorbitant ranfom which quite drained his Kingdom.
In ftiort, after a feveral years ftruggle with Philip Au-
g'ljlus to very little purpofe, he unfortunately perifhed by
an Arrow at the Siege of Chaluz, undertaken from his
greedy defire of money.

'J O H N Lack-land enjoyed not a moment's happi-
r.efs during his whole reign. Perfecuted by the King
of France , then by Pope Innocent III, and laftly ,
by his own fubjecls, his reign was nothing but a con-
tinual train of misfortunes. He loft firft all the Pro-
\ inces poffeffed by his Anceftors in France. After
which, Innocent III, deprived him of his Crown, and
reftored it to him upon fhameful and difhonourable
terms. In fine, he had the great mortification to fee his
Barons in arms againft him, and to die at a time when
all England was paying Allegiance to a foreign Prince.

HENRY III, a Prince of a very mean Spirit,
lived in a continual ftate of fubjection, though feated on a
Throne ; one while a flave to his favorites and minifters,
another while to the imperious will of the Popes. At
length, flript of all his authority by his own fubjects,
he remained fome time captive to his greateft ene-
mies. And he was entirely indebted to a victory for-
tunately gained by the Prince his Son, for his reftoration,
and the tranquillity he enjoyed the two laft years of his life.

E D IV A R D I, rendered his name famous by the
conqueft of Scotland. But after fhedding torrents of
Blood in that unjuft quarrel, he had the mortification
to lol'e that acquiiition, and to die before he had recovered
it. His conqueft of IVales was the moft real advantage
procured for the Kingdom by any King of England.

The reign of E D JV A R D II, is remarkable only
for that Prince's ill-conduct, and misfortunes. He is the
firft inftance of a King of England depofed by authority
of Parliament. Happy, if the fury of his enemies had
flopped there ! but, with an unparalleled barbarity, he
was made to fuffer the moft cruel death that could pof-
Jibly be devifed, and which bore no proportion to the
indifcretions he was guilty of.

E D IV A R D III, was one of the moft illuftrious
Kings of England, as well for his perfonal qualities as
for his victories in France, and the famous Treaty of
Bretigny, which reftored to him with intereft the Pro-
vinces, John Lack-land had fuffered to be loft. But his
reign, though glorious, was not free from misfortunes.
His minority was fullied by the tragical death of Ed-
ward II his Father, and of the Earl of Kent his Uncle.
To punifh thefe horrid outrages, he was forced to keep
his own Mother in Prifon as long as fhe lived. Towards
the end of his days he had the mortification to fee
himfelf ftript of all he had re-conquered upon France,
without hopes of recovery. In a word, he ruined, as I
may fay, his own reputation, and died at a time when
his fubje£ts began to lofe their former efteem for him.

Thus far it is eafy to fee that the race of the Plan-
tagencts had enjoyed no great fhare of happinefs. But
their misfortunes, which were blended with fome prof-
perities, were very inconfiderable in comparifon of what
that race afterwards underwent. When a Man takes a
view of what happened to the pofterity of Edward III,
he fees nothing but Difafters, tragical or untimely Deaths,
Hatred, Animofity, Revenge, Civil Wars, Cruelties un-
heard of, among Princes fprung from the fame Stock.
England had never feen fo terrible a deftru£tion of her
inhabitants, nor had the Scaffold been ever dyed with fo
much noble and royal Blood as during the hundred years



between the death of Edward III, and that cf Ri-
chard 111. Let us briefly run over the feveral branches of
Edward the third's family, in order to fee their calamities.
EDWARD the Black Prince, one of the moft
accomplifhed Princes that ever was born, died in the forty-
fixth year of his age, having firft buried his eideft Sen
Edward but feven years old.

R I C HA R D II, his other Son, who mounted the
Throne after his Grandfather, was depofed, impnfoned,
and barbaroufly murdered.

LIONEL Duke of Clarence, third Son of Ed-
ward III, died in a foreign Country in the flower of his
age. He left but one Daughter, whofe marriage into
the Houfe of March was the occafion of all the calami-
ties England was afflicted with for thiity years together.

The Pofterity of John of Gaunt, Edward'; ''■
Son, were far from being happy. HENRI
ceffbr of Richard 11, pafled his whole reigi. ...
tinual apprehenfions of lofing a Crown acquired by ex •
traordinary methods, and preferved by the violent death of
Richard II, whom he caufed to be murdered in Prifon.

H E N RT V, one of the moft illuftrious Kings of
England, after fo great a progrefs in France as to be de-
clared Regent and Heir of that Kingdom, enjoyed that
confiderable advantage but two years, or rather, had
only a foretafte of what he had fo eagerly defired.
He died in the flower of his age, leaving a Son nine
months old, who afterwards proved very unfit to complea:
the work, his illuftrious Father had fo glorioufiy begun.

The Dukes of Clarence, Bedford and Glocejler, died all
three without Iffue. Glocejler was long expofed to the
fury of his enemies, and at laft facrificed to their ven-
geance.

HE N RTVl, Son of Henry V, loft all that the
King his Father had acquired in France. After which,
he was ftript of his Royalty, imprifoned, reftored for a
fhort fpace, and at laft murdered by a Prince fprung from
the fame ftock with himfelf.

E D IV A R D his Son, Prince of IVales, died after
the fame manner, and by the fame hand.

In furveying the other branch of the Houfe of Lan-
cajlcr, namely, that of Beaufort-Somerfct, hardly fhall we
find a Prince but what loft his life in a Battle, or on the
Scaffold.

The Houfe of York, of whom Edmund de Langley,
fifth Son of Edward III, was head, was ftill lefs fa-
voured. Some unfortunate Stars feemed to be contin-
ually fhedding their malignant influences upon that Fami-
ly. Excepting Edmund de Langley himfelt, firft Duke of
York, all the Princes his defcendents died a violent or un-
timely death.

E D IV A R D Duke of York, hb eideft Son, was
flain at the Battle of Azincourt.

R I C HA R D Earl of Cambridge loft hi> head on
a Scaffold.

RICHARD, third Duke of York, and his Son
EDMUND Earl of Rutland, perifhed in the Battle
of Wakefield.

GEORGE Duke of Clarence was afterwards
condemned to die in a Butt of Alalmfy.

E D W A R D IV, after enjoying the Crown of
England fome years, to which he had a better tide than
the Houfe of Lancajler, died indeed a natural death, but
in the two and fortieth year of his age.

E D WA R D V, and R I C HA R D his Bro-
ther, were fmothered in their Bed.

E D WA R D Prince of Wales, Son of Richard III,
was taken out of the World in the eleventh year of his age.
RICHARD III, was killed at the Battle of Bof-
worth.

In fine, we fhall fee in the courfe of the Hiftory,
E D WA R D Earl of Warwick, Son of the unfortu-
nate Duke of Clarence, and the only furviving Male of
the Houfe of York, end his days by the hand o( the Ex-
ecutioner.

Nothing more remains to complete the account of the
difafters that happened to the Pofterity of Edward 111,
but to take notice that THOMAS of Woodjlock,
Earl of Glocejler, feventh Son of that Monarch, died a
violent death in Prifon at Calais.

Were not all thefe misfortunes which fell on Edward
the third's Pofterity the effects of the divine vengeance
extended to the. fourth generation, for the barbarous
murder committed on the perfon of Edward II r At
leaft, it is difficult not to fee in thefe events the tra-
gical death of Edward II, revenged upon Richard II :
That of Richard upon Henry VI : That of H,
upon Edward V : and That of Edward tipon Ri-
chard III. (0

THE



(x) That R ■> trd Ill coined Money, appears by an Indenture, whereby he car-Xtfe with Robin Brat&erJury for the Coinage both of CcM anj Silver,

of




I



THE

HISTORY of ENGLAND.



BOOK XIV.



The Reigns of Henry VII; with the State of the Church, /row the beginning of the
Reign of Henry IV. 1399, to the end of the Reign of Henry VII. 1509.



19. HENRY VII.




He is in
fitfyinct about
taking tbt
Title of
King.
Bacon.



HE battle of Bofworth being ended,
as was faid, by the flight of the
Royal Army, and death of King
Richard, Henry caufed Te Deum to
be fung upon the place, all the
Troops falling on their knees to re-
turn God thanks for his Victory.
Prefently after, the whole army,
as it were by Infpiration, made the
air refound with the Cry of, Long live King Henry ! which
was not difagreeable to him. For, it was a fort of mi-
litary Election, which might have ferved him for founda-
tion to pretend to the Crown, though he had no other
title. Mean while, he was embarrafTed by the uncertainty
he was under, whether he mould keep to this Election,
or found his title upon a more folid foundation. He was
however, to determine without delay, either to reject the
title given him by his Army, till the Parliament fliould
confirm it, or accept it, and after t his Right independently
of the confent of the Eftates.



He had three titles, or foundations, whereon he could 148?.
ground his Right. The firft was, his defcent from the **• R "I">
Houfe of Lancajier, by Margaret his Mother Daughter ° f "'
° f a D " k £. of Somerfet. The Houfe of Lancajier had
been poflefled of the Crown above fixty years, and this
pofleffion had been confirmed by many AcSts of Parlia-
ment. But on the other hand, feveral Parliaments had
afterwards condemned this pofleffion as a continual Ufur-
pation, and adjudged the Crown to the Houfe of York, as
defcending from Lionel, third Son of Edward III. This
queftion, confidered originally, and independently of the
Circumftances which moved the Parliaments to come to
fuch oppofite determinations, could not have been decided
in favour of the Houfe of Lancajier, if the Laws and
Cuftoms of the Realm had been followed. But, if fetting
afide the ufual practice, it mould be confidered with re-
fpeft to the A&s of Parliament, it could not but be doubt-
ful, fince the Pro and Con were equally fupported by the
fame authority. It might alfo be objected to Henry, that
indeed fundry Parliaments had decided the point in favour



of the fame value and denomination with the Money of the fifth of Edward IV. Dr. Nitolfin defcribes one of his Groats, as inferibed with Characters of the
like Shape with thofe of Herry VI, and Edivard IV, weighing about two penny Weights three Grains, which was the exact Standard of Richard Ill's Create
Others in the polTeffion of the late Atchbilhop of Tori and Mr. Ibortjby, in which the Face fide wants the outer Circle, the Letters of the Infcription wh : ch
reach to the extremity of the Coin being generally imperfeft, fo that there was reafon for the Provifion made by Act of Parliament in the next Reien th-'t
the new Money (hould have a Circle about the outermoft Parts. That Coin which Speed gives of Rittard 11, is thought rather to belong to this Kine bv
the word AGLI/E inrtead of ANGLIC, in whofe Reign that way of writing was ufed. The Author of AW. Brit. Hi/1, has two DiecL of rhk Ki™ -J



fcri
The



ibed, RICHARDUS. REX. AKGLI. Reverfe, CIVITAS EBORACI. Another, RICARDUS. REX. ANCL. Reverie, CIVITAS LONDON
he (hortnefs of this King's Reign makes his Coin fo very rare, that Tborejly obfenrci, he bad l"een a Series of ancient Monies from Ed-ward the Ccnfeflcr to

the prefent times, Richard III excepted, which he had not chanced to light upon. SftetT s cafe was the feme, fo that he was force* to leave i B'ank tor this

King's Money.




No. 33. Vol.1,



8 B



6s o



Tie HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



14S5. of the Houfe of Lancajier, but it did not follow that the
Houfe of Sometfet could receive any advantage from that
decifion. The Somerfets were indeed defended from the
Houfe of Lancajier, but by a Baftard-branch, which could
pretend to the Crown only by virtue of their legitimation.
Now ii. was a queflion yet undecided, whether the Act
of Legitimation, and Richard the Second's fubfequent Let-
ters Patents, gave to that Branch, derived from a Baftard
born in Adultery, the right to fucceed to the Crown,
though mentioned neither in the Aft of Parliament, nor in
King Richard's Letters. Befides, even upon fuppofition
of this Right, another query {till arofe, namely, whether
the Polterity of this legitimated Baftard, were to have the
preference of the dependents of the Daughters born in
wedlock, of whom there were feveial in Cajlile, Portugal,
and Germany. To leave thefe points to the examination of
the Pailiament, feemed therefore too dangerous for Henry.
But on the other hand, he was not ignorant that in the
decifion of the differences between the houfes of Lancajier
and York, the Parliaments had not fo much regarded the
aumments of either Party, as the circumftances of time
anJ things. Now he could never have a more favorable
juncture than the prefent, jince he had juft delivered Eng-
land from a Tyrant univerfally hated. Henry IV, his Pre-
deceflbr, had not done more for the Englijb, when forr e-
ward, the Crown was adjudged to him, in prejudice of the
Houfe of March.

Henry's fecond title was, his intended Marriage with
Elizabeth, eldeft Daughter of Edward IV, which he had
(worn. But here, no lefs difficulties occurred. If he re-
lied upon this Title, he was to refolve either to reign only
in right of his Wife, or to confound together the Titles
of both Houfes. In the former cafe, he would have re-
linquifhed his own, to leave to the Houfe of York a Title
which had all along been contefted, and have owned that
Houle's Right, for the fole foundation of his mounting the
Throne. Befides, he conlideied, that in cafe Elizabeth hap-
pened to die without Blue, all her Rights would of courfe
devolve to her next Sifter, and he thereby be excluded
from the Throne upon the death of his Queen ( 1 ) : That
fuppofing he could get the Parliament to adjudge him
the Crown durrng Life, he fhould only have a perfonal
right, which would not defcend to his Children by a fecond
Wife.

In the latter cafe, on fuppofition of the confufion of the
Titles of both Houfes, by means of the projected Mar-
riage, purfuant to the Intention of thofe who had invited
him into England, this confufion, indeed, might be advan-
tagious to the Children born of this Marriage. But if un-
happily there fhould be none, and his death fall out before
Elizabeth's, he would leave the pofieffion of the Crown
to the Houfe of York, which his averfion for that Houfe
would not fuffcr him to behold, even at a diftance, with-
out extreme concern. But if, on the contrary, Elizabeth
fhould die before him, he lorefaw it would prove the oc-
cafion of renewing the troubles of the Kingdom, fmce, as
the reigned in her own right, her Sifter, or neareft Rela-
tions, might pretend to fucceed her.

Henry's third Title was, That of the Sword or Con-
queft, which his late Victory feemed to give him. But
he coniidered this Victory was entirely owing to the
afiiftance of the People of England, and therefore gave
him at moft but a right of Conqueft over the vanquifhed
Party. Befides, as he could fupport himfelf only by the
fame affiftance, he had reafon to fear, that in retting upon
this pretended Title, he fhould lofe his beft friends, fince
fuch a proceeding might be conftrued as a fettled defign
to rule with arbitrary power. He knew I Villiam the Con-
queror had wifely avoided that rock, by rejecting the title
of the Sword, trll he faw himfelf firmly eftablrfhed in the
Throne.

Thefe were difficulties confiderable enough to merit

Henry's mature deliberation before he refolved. But on the

other hand, there was no medium to take. He was ne-

ceflarily either to accept the Title given him by the army,

and thereby engage to profecute his Rights independently

of the Parliament's approbation, or by rejecting it, fhew-,

he miftrufted his own right, and be expofed to a trouble-

fome examination. After weighing the reafons on both

fides, as far as the time would permit, he refolved at laft to

Ik nfihts reft upon the Title of the Houfe of Lancajier. So taking

'b for granted, that the army in faluting him King, had

Ejton. only given him his due, he determined to affert the Lan-

cojlrian claim, without any mixture of that of York, and



without fubmitting it even to the examination of the Parlia- 1485.
ment (2). To that end, he refolved to be crowned before'""' be
he fummoned the Parliament, and to defer his Marriage l' w ^f
till he had obtained an Act to adjudge him the Crown as / ,-.
his own by Inheritance. He determined therefore to a f- <-''■'• '""
fume the title of King, and to iffue out orders as fuch, V"?"*'
fuppofing that the Crown was fallen to him of full Right,
though Margaret his Mother was ftill alive, and ought to
precede him. Notwithftanding all the teafons which ren-
dered his title dubious, he believed there were likewife rea-
fons fufficient to give him room to fupport it, efpecially at
a time when his Victory was capable of deciding; aH the
queftions in his favour. This refolution was the fountain
of all the troubles of his reign.

Mean while, though he affected to be convinced of the Hi » ar, a ;j
goodnefs of his Title, he diftrufted it in his own Mind, '"'? ,; " '
knowing, if it came to be contefted, the reafons whereon''
he fhould ground it, were of no great weight, unlefs (up-
ported by force of arms. In this ftate he continued alrnoft
during his whole Life. Always unconcerned in appear-
ance, and yet terrifying himfelf with the leaft thing, and
dreading that every little accident would be of dangerous
confequence. The Houfe of York was a perpetual terror
to him. He knew that they who had called him into
England, were not enemies to that Houfe, but only to the
perfon of Richard III. So the Rights of the two Houfes
remaining ftill doubtlul, as having been decided only by the
Sword, he was very fenfible that his could be maintained
but by the fame way, or by wife precautions, to prevent
all future decifions of that kind.

Upon thefe confiderations it was, that the next day after ¥? /}"f ,he
the Battle (3) he fent a detachment of Horfe under the Warwick to
command of Sir Robert Willoughby to the Cattle of Sheriff- '** Ttm-ir.
Hutton (4), to take from thence the Earl of Warwick, ^ a " -
and conduct him to the Tower of London. This young Holii'nglh.
Prince was Son and Heir to George Duke of Clarence, Bacon.
who was ftified in a Butt of Malmfey. After the death
of the Duke his Father, Edivard IV his Uncle caufed
him to be carefully educated, and created him Earl of War-
wick ; a title enjoyed by his Mother's Father (5). He
was unwdling to make him Duke of Clarence, left that
title fhould preferve the memory of an unhappy Brother,
whom he had facrificed to his jealoufy. When Richard
was on the Throne, lie ordered this young Prince his
Nephew to be confined in the Cattle above-named, know-
ing how likely he was one day to difturb him in the pofief-
fion of the Crown. After the Ufurper's death, the Earl of
Warwick feemed to have room to expect fome favor fiom
his fucceflor ; but it proved juft the contrary. So far
was Henry from releafing, that he made him clofe Piilbner
in the Tower, a rigour proceeding only from his jealoufy
and inward conviction that his title was not fo undoubted
as he affected to believe. But this was not all. It will
hereafter be feen, that he put this unhappy Prince to death
by the hand of the executioner, therein ftill more tyrant
than the tyrant himfelf, from whom he boafted to have
delivered the Kingdom.

The Princefs Elizabeth, whom Henry was to marry, 7 ^*"*^*
was kept in the fame Caftle by the late King's order, who l ^J"^ th
did not think fit to leave her at liberty to choofe a Hus- Lond.n.
band, intending to marry her himfelf. Henry refolving Hall,
to repair to Lindm with all poffible diligence, thought it h^JLj,
not proper to leave the Princefs at fo great a diftance, left
fhe fhould be told that (he had no need to mix her rights
with thofe of others. Wherefore fhe was defired to come
and remain with the Queen her Mother at London. I lis
defign was to make it believed, he intended to efpoufe her
very foon, tho' he was determined to defer his marriage
till after the SefTion of the Parliament.

A few days after, Henry let forward, by eafy journies, H™ 1 "? '
to London, taking care to avoid all appearance of ufing a ', r , ^
the right of conqueft. He was received in all places Ha 1L
with loud acclamations, the people coniidering him as Stow.
their deliverer, and as going by his marriage, to put an
end to all the Calamities occalioned by the Civil Wars.
He made his entry into London with great ftate (6). How-
ever, the People had not the fatisfaction to fee him as he
palled through the City, becaufe he was carried all the
way in a clofe Chariot till he came to St. Paul's. His Bacon.
Hiftorian afcribes this conduct to a motive of grandeur and
fecurity, as if having been profcribed in the reign of
Richard III, he difdained to fawn upon the people, left
they fhould think he expected all from them. But I do
not know whether this is better grounded than what the



•jtd



(r) The cafe would be the fame, fuppofing the Queen left Iffue, for the down would upon her rieith fall to htr eldeft Son or Daughter.
{-.) Or, as the Lord Bacon expreifes it, he refolved to reft upon the Title of Laiu after as the main, and to ul'e the other Two, that ot Marriage, ar.J
tri ■ 1 1 Battle, but ?s Supporters, {>• 579.

(3I Before his departure from Laiftcr. Halt, fol. I. Stow, p. 470.

(4) In rorijbirt.

(5) Ritbard Nevill.

(6) On 1 Saturday the 27th of Aug ufl ; and as he had alfo obtained the Viftory upon a Saturday, he counted cut of fancy, and chefe afterwards that
day as a day profperous to him. The Mayor and Companies of LaJ^n went out to meet him at Sbortditcb. Eaati, p. 570.

6 fams



Book XIV.



19. HENRY VII.



65 1



14S5. fame Hiftorian adds, that Henry caufed Richard's Standards
taken at Bofwarth [ 1 ), to be brought into St. Paul's Church,
that the people of London might not forget that he had
juft gained a Battle, and was entering the City as a Con-
queror. When a Prince has acquired a reputation for po-
liticks, fomething myfterious, fuitable to the notion formed
of him, is difcovered in his moft indifferent actions.
thntifiitbii Next day Henry aifembled a Council (2) of all the
"v\ ' ' ".'[' perfons of diflinction in the Court and City, before whom

ry Lhzabctn. r . J* . w

Hall. he fulemnly renewed his Oath to marry the Princels



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 274 of 360)