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Bacon. Elizabeth. This declaration was abfolutely neceflary at
the prefent juncture, becaufc of a rumour that he was
contracted to Ann, eldeft Daughter of the Duke of Brc-
tagne, and had not acted with fincerity when he pro-
mifed to marry the eldeft Daughter of Edward IV. Be-
fides, though his defign was not to derive his right from
this marriage, it was however proper the people fhould
think fo, till he had obtained his delirc of the Parliament,
for fear meafures fliould be taken beforehand to obftruct
it. Indeed, he was refolved to perform his promife, but
was bent not to confummate his marriage before his
Coronation, left his Queen fhould be crowned with him,
and her title fupported by that junction. Nay, he had
reafon to fear, that in cafe his Nuptials were celebrated
befoie the Parliament met, fome Claufe in favour of the
Houfe of York might be inferted in the Act to fettle the
9S« Sweat- About the middle of September, the City of London was
iiall." afflicted with a difeafe then unknown, which threw the
Stow. Patients into a prodigious fweat, and carried them off" in

Bacon. f (mr an j twenty hours. Thofe that died not within that
fpace were almoft fure of recovering. Happily, it kilted
but till the end of Odober; however, it f wept away multi-
tudes of people before proper remedies were found (3). The
method of cure was to keep the Patient neither tot) hot nor
too cold, with temperate Cordials, which, without too
much increafing the heat, helped Nature to expel the hu-
mours that caufed thefe extraordinary fweatings.
TbeEarlnf About this time the new King make the Earl of Ox-
^d-G"v C rf ord W Conftable of the Tower, who had always been at-
Tur of ib; tached to the Houfe of LancaJUr, and after his efcape out
Town-. of the Caftle of Hammcs joined him at Paris, and had
Xil' PU - b 6 f' nce ^ one h' m % lla l fervices, particularly at the Battle of

Truce with Some time after, the King iffued out a Proclamation,
notifying that he had concluded a Truce for one year with
the King of France, from the laft day of September.
It was no fmall advantage to fhew the people that Charles
VIII acknowledged him for King, even before he was de-
clared fo by the Parliament.
Tlx Offer of The Coronation-day approaching, it was neceffary to
higb-Stcw- f ett ] e t h» places and claims of thofe who were to officiate
tiH iyCo'r,- at this Ceremony. For that purpofe, it was requifite to
wijimers. create a Lord High-Steward. But as this Office for fome
""* time had been enjoyed only by Princes of the Blood, and

there were none then in the Kingdom ; the King, not to
raife jealoufies among the great Men, caufed it to be exe-
cuted by Commiffioners(5).
Creation. Mean while, he would no longer delay to fhew his
Hall. gratitude to three Lords who had faithfully and eftectu-

HoninKih. a "X ferved him in his greateft diftrefles. Thefe were
Bacon. J a fp er Earl of Pembroke, his Father's Brother, Thomas
Lord Staidey his Father-in-law, and Sir Edward Court-
ney. The full had been a Father to him in his youth,
and delivered him from the fnares of Edward IV,
when he was concealed in Wales. After that, he was
his conftant companion in Brctagnc, and had helped him
to overcome all the difficulties which occurred in his un-
dertakings. In return for his fervices Henry gave him
the title of Duke of Bedford, vacant ever iince the death
of the famous Duke of Bedford, Brother of Henry V.
The Lord Stanley, who had been very ferviceable to the
King at the Battle of Bofworih, was created Earl of
Derby. Sir Edward Courtney, who had ventured to ingage
in his party, and favour in the Weftern Counties, the
Duke pf Buckingham 's plot, was honoured with the title of
Earl of Devonjhirc (6). Henry thought not proper to di-
fpence his favours to others, being willing, according to


the cuftom of his predecefibrs, to referve his creations till 1485.
the fitting of the Parliament.

The Coronation had been fixed to the 30th of Ott-brr, ■
and the Parliament was not to meet till the -th of No- c {
vember. Hence it is evident, that Henry did not mean 1
bring his Title into queftion, or leave to the Pari
care any more than to confirm his Coronation, without
fuftering the foundations to be examined. The examples
of Edward IV and Richard III had taught him, th.it the
belt way to gain the Parliament's approbation, was to take
poffeflion. Indeed, there is a great difference between de-
bating, whether a Prince who claims a crown has a right
to pretend to it, or whether he is to be dethroned when in
actual poffeflion. The former of thefe things may be
done by reafons, arguments, and ftudied fpeeches : The
hitter requires an At my ready to give weight to the rea-
fons. So Henry may be faid to fet the Crown himfclf on
his head, fince he alone difpofed of his right, without the
authority of the Parliament, who would have had much to
fay, if they had examined or been at liberty to examine,
by what title Henry afcended the Throne. The Ceremony
of the Coronation was performed by Cardinal Bouribifr
Archbiihop of Canterbury, who fuppoling Henry's right to
be indifputable, thought it not proper to inquire into the
validity of his title (7). The fame day Henry inftituted a "
guard of fifty Archers (8) to attend him and his Succeflbi
lor ever, covering with a pretence ol Grandeur and AJ.i-
jelty, a precaution which he believed apparently neceflary
in the prefent juncture.

The Parliament met eight days after the Coronation. "'' '
Henry's ends in calling a Parliament were chiefly four. V, ',''
The firit was to he declared King de Jure, as he was al- Ba n.
ready King de Facto, and to fecure the Crown to his po-
fterity, by an Act in form. The fecond, to rcverfe the
Attainders of all his party (9). The third, to attaint thofe
who had exprefled a great animofity againit him, and moft
zeal for the late King. The fourth and laft, was to fhew,
that tho' he had by his fole authority placed himfclf on the
Throne, to prevent his title from being questioned, he in-
tended however to govern the Kingdom like his Prede-
cefibrs, by way of Pailiamcnts, and not aflume a defpo-
tick power. This ftep was abfolutely neceflary for a Prince
whole title was fo dubious, and who afcended the Throne
without being called to it in the ufual way.

It was requifite, for the people's fatisfaction and the King's Df
fecurity, that the Parliament fhould fettle the Crown '',^'J"'^
upon him by an exprefs Act; otherwife obedience to him Bacon! **
might not be thought indifpenfable. Though he had been
powerful enough to caufe his authority to be owned without
fuch an Act, his Heirs were not certain to be always in
fo favorable a fituation. Mean while, it was not eafy to
pen this Act. Henry would not hold the Crown either
by the People's election, or by the Parliament, or by the
Princefs he was to marry. He did not even intend that
Elizabeth fhould fhare in the Royalty, otherwife than any
other foreign Queen. Neverthelefs, in this beginning of
his Reign, it was proper, the People fliould not know too
much, but have fome caufe to believe, the King refred
upon all thefe titles. The reafon was, the Englijh were
extremely jealous of the authority of their Parliaments,
and generally much better affected to the Houfe of Tori
than to that of Lancajler. Wheiefore the King finding
the Parliament difpofed to do whatever he could defire,
intimated or dictated himfelf the words of the Act, namely,
That the Inheritance of the Crown Jliould rejl, remain, Hall.
and abide in the King, and the Heirs of his Body, pcrpc- Zt{ "■
tually fo to endure, and in none other. Which ambiguous
words left it undecided, whether he had a prior Right,
which was doubtful, or was only King in fact, which
could not be denied. As for the limitation of the Entail,
he was contented it fhould go no further than to himfelf
and to the Heirs of his body, leaving the reft to be de-
cided by the Law in cafe his Line came to fail. Thus
by not mentioning the Houfe of York, the Act left it un-
determined whether that Houfe was entirely excluded, or
might inherit after the Heirs of the new King. In this
obfeure and ambiguous manner did the Parliament draw
and pais the Act:, which was afterwards confirmed by the

C 1 ) There were three, on one of which was the Image of St. George, in the fecend was a fiery Dragon upon white and green Sarcenet, the third was of
yellow tartern on which was painted a dun Cow. Hail, fbl. I. Hollingfhecid, p. 1425.

(2) In the Bifhcp o( London 1 s Palace, where he lodged for fome time. Bac.n, p. 580.

(3) Two Mayors, and fix Aldermen died of it within one Week. Hall, fjl. 3.

(4) JobnVere.

(5) J'fper Earl of Pembroke, the Earls of Oxford and Nottingham, the Lords Stanley and FitX-Wauter, R^,ert Morton, Mailer of the Roll?, Sir 72 «WI
Brian, Chief juitice of the King's Bench, Sir Humfrey Starkey, Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and Sir Richard Croft. Tiealurer of the Houlheid. Rymer'a
Feed. Turn. XII. p. 277.

(6) The Bannerets made at this Crci-tion, were th.-fe, Sir Gilbert Talbot, Sir John Cheney, Sir rVtiiiam Stonar, Sir William Tmuback, Sir John Mortimer,
Sir Richard Crojhy, Sir John Fortljau, Sir Edward Bedingfeld, Sir Th.17.ai C.kcjcy, Sir James Bafkemjile, Sir Hunfey Stanley, Sir Richard etc la Bert. Stow,
p. 471.

(7) Hall and Hollmgfhead fay, King Henry was crowned by the whole aiTent, as well of the Commons as of the Nobility, fbl. 2. p. 142 -.

(S) Under a Captain, by the name of Yeomen of the Guard. There are at prefent a hundred in daily waiting, and fevenly more not in waiting ; and as one
of the hundred dies, his place is tilled up out of the feventy.

(9) And among the reft of Henry Lord Clifford, who had bien concealed, and ohfeurely brought up in the mjuntainous parts of Cumberland, and at Lanf-
bar.w in "

. 1 ■ . 1 ... - ■ .1 ■.!..., iiij fsiuws- *j I'lievi W£- uvk VI lilt. ILf E.IHJ*

And among the reft of Henry Lord Clifford, who had been concealed, and ohfeurely brought up in the
in Torkjhire, ever line; the Battle, of Tmuten, See Dugiale'% Ba.cn. Vol. I- p 343,





Vol. I.

14S5..J Pope's Bull. But Henry took care to have all his titles
'"' infcrted in the Bull, namely, his defcent from the Houfe
of Lancajter, his marriage with Edward the Fourth's eldeft
Daughter, his victory at Bofworth, and the Act of Par-
liament : To which might be added alfo the Papal Bull of
Confirmnti ,n. All thefe titles joined together, are a clear
evidence of his uncertainty, with refpect to his right, and
of his trouble caufed by that uncertainty.
Stytfion in The Act of fettlement and fucceflion being paffed, it
: ;' was moved for another to reverfe the Attainders of the
..'.'. King's friends, whilft only Earl of Richmond. But feveral
Bacon. * of thefe attainted perfons were actually members of the
Koufe of Commons, elected by the favor they had found
with the People fince the Revolution. There were like-
wife fome in the Houfe of Lords. It was therefore repre-
fented to be incongruous, that thefe perfons fhould give their
Votes in an affair which particularly concerned them, and
be Judges in their own caufe. The King was troubled
that the Acts palled in the late Reign fliould be deemed
valid, and his friends wanted to be purged of the Crime of
efpoufing his quarrel. He concealed however his concern,
and only infinuated, that he wifhed the Judges to be con-
fulted upon the affair. The Judges being met (1), gave
It as their opinion, that the Members attainted by courfe
of Law, fhould abfent themfelves till their Attainders
were reverfed.
Anther re. But whilft they were debating upon this queftion, an-
V. .''". '// other was ftarted with refpect to the King himfelf, who
,.':. Ltbe was of the number of the attainted, having been declared
Judges. Traitor and Rebel by an Acl: of Parliament. This que-
Ibld- ftion was much more embarraffing than the other. The

King could not be disjoined from the Parliament without
a diffolution, neither was it probable that he would fub-
mit to a Parliamentary Examination. In this puzzling
cafe, the Judges unanimoufly refolved, That the Crown
takes away all defeils and flops in blood : And that from the
time the King ajjiimed the Crown, the Fountain was cleared,
and all Attainders and Corruption of blood difcharged.
This deciuon, more conformable to Politicks than to the
Laws, eftablifhed a principle that might be attended with
terrible confequences.
An again/! This Affair being ended, the Parliament paffed an Act
Richard ill f Attainder againft the late King, by the name of the
W*«" ' "Duke of G 'keeper, and againft his principal Adherents.
HolIinBfli. Of this number were the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of
Bjcon. Surrey, the Lords Lovel, Ferrers, Zouch, Sir Richard
Ratcliff, Sir William Catesby (2), all Minifters or Favo-
rites of Richard III, of whom fome were killed at Bof-
worth field, others executed fince the Battle. If the
Plots which were afterwards formed againft Henry himfelf
had taken effect, he would doubtlefs have been ferved in
the fame manner, with all his Adherents. So dangerous
is it to carry feverity too far in cafes of this Nature.
Accordingly we fhall fee hereafter, that Henry perceiving
the confequences, caufed an Act to be paffed to prevent
the abufe of fuch a precedent. The defign of the pre-
fent Act was to fatisfy the King's vengeance, and procure
him the forfeited Eftates of the attainted. Thefe confif-
cations brought him in immenfe fums, which rendered
the demand of a Subfidy unneceffary in this firft Parlia-
ment, efpecially as the Nation was in Peace, or Truce
with all the neighbouring Princes.
A General After the King was revenged of his enemies, and had
Pardon, filled his coffers, he publifhed the Royal Proclamation,
Hall. offering pardon to all that had been concerned in any Plot

Hollfngfli. againft him before he came to the Crown, or borne arms
B-a<n. for the late King, provided they fubmitted themfelves by
fuch a day. His firft defign was to procure this general
pardon to be paffed in Parliament, but recollecting it
was an Act of Grace, he chofe rather that it fhould wholly
flow from himfelf. Many who were apprehenfive of being
profecuted, readily came and took the oath of Allegiance,
in order to enjoy the benefit of the pardon. But others
chofe to remain in Sanctuary, till the character of the
new King was more known. The Lord Lovel, one of
Richard the Third's Favorites, took this laft courfe.
Crtathr. Before the Parliament broke up, Henry was pleafed to

of P'en. reward fome of the companions of his exile, by creating
them Peers of the Realm. The Lord Chandos of Bre-
tagne was made Earl of Bath ; Sir Giles D'Aubeney re-
ceived the title of Baron of D'Aubeney, and Sir Robert
Willoughby that of Lord Brooke. At the fame time the
King reftored Edward Stafford to the dignity of Duke of


Buckingham, forfeited by his Father's attainder, and to all 14S5.
the polfeffions belonging to his family, conafcated in the
late reign. This was a piece of juftice he could hardly
refufe to the Son of a Lord, who had loll his life in his
fervice, and been the firft author of his advancement to
the Throne.

The Parliament being diffolved about the end o(No-T' fSr.g
vembcr, Henry fent into France, Oliver King, Archdeacon r p ff s L V
of Oxford, with money to repay King Charles what he Krancc,
had lent him, and his charges in fitting out the Fleet Hill,
which brought him to England. Whereupon the Mar- E ^," p t
quifs of Dorfet, and Sir 'John Bourchier, left as pledges at XII. p. 27S.
Paris, had leave to return home. At the fame time,"^ #" "
Henry gave his Envoy power to prolong the Truce T"L°'™& lbc
with France, if he found King Charles's Council in-

Probably his want of ready-money to pay the King of He hmwi
France, put him upon fending to the City of London to ¥.°"V "f' ht
borrow fix thoufand marks. His demand met at firft . , ['._
with great difficulties, becaufe he was not yet well known. B-on.
However, he obtained at laft two thoufand pounds (3),
which he thankfully received, and punctually repayed af-
terwards. He often borrowed money in this manner in
the courfe of his reign, and always paid at the day. His
view was to eftablifh his credit in that powerful City,
that he might ufe it upon any prelfing occafion.

About the end of the year, he called to his Privy- Mo-ton aid
Council John Morton Bifhop of Ely, lately returned from Fj * °" .
Flanders, and Richard Fox (4). He lay under great obli- *CmMi ,■"!
gations to Morton, particularly for his intelligence of what Bar, m.
was plotting againft him in Bretagne, and had a great
value for Fox, knowing him to be a perfon capable of
doing him great fervice, and of a temper very like his
own. In time, Morton was made Archbifhop of Canter-
bury, Lord Chancellor, Prime Minifter, and at laft Car-
dinal. As for Fox, the King made him firft Lord Keep-
er of the Privy-Seal, then Bifhop of Exeter : After that
he tranflated him to Bath and JVells, from thence to Dur-
ham, and laftly to Winchejler, the richeft Bifhoprick in
England. Thefe two Prelates, with Urfwick the King's
Chaplain, were almoft always employed in the molt im-
portant CommiiTions, Embaffies, and Negotiations. Hen-
ry loved to employ Ecclefiafticks, becaufe he had always
Church-Preferments ready for their reward. But he took
care to promote them by degrees from fmaller to more
confiderable Sees. Herein he found his own profit ; for
by tranfiating Bifhops from one See to another, he made
the more vacancies, and confequently the Firft-Fruits
which accrued to the King, were greatly multiplied.
Never did Prince more ardently feek occafions to heap up
riches. Avarice was his predominant palTion, influenced
even his meaner actions, and caufed him to take many
falfe fteps, as will be manileft hereafter.

The events of this reign have fuch a connexion with
thofe of fome other States, that it is abfolutely neceffary
to fhew in few words the fituation of the affairs of divers
Princes. Otherwife the motives of Henry the feventh's
conduct would be but imperfectly known, who made in
his time a very great figure in Europe, though not fo
much by his arms as policy. I fhall begin with Bre-

I have elfewhere obferved, that Peter Landais, favorite Affairs of
of the Duke of Bretvgne, entirely governed that Prince, Bretagne.
who was old and infirm, and very much impaired in his ^ mKl
underftandins : That feveral Lords of Bretagne had made
a league againft that Minifter, and intended to feize him ;
but having miffed their aim, were expofed to the venge-
ance of the favorite, who had caufed them all to be con-
demned to die. In the beginning of this year 14^5,
Landais, in the name of the Duke his mafter, levied an
Army to execute the fentence, and the Lords on their
part took arms in their defence. While Bretagne was
thus divided, and the two parties ready to come to a Bat-
tle, the condemned Lords caufed it to be reprefented to
thofe who ferved Landais, that in the prefent affair, the
intereft not of their common mafter the Duke, but of
only his unworthy favorite, was concerned : That it was
unjuft to fhed the Blood of their Countrymen in the quar-
rel of a man, who had notorioufly abufed his matter's con-
fidence : That therefore, to appeafe at once the troubles
of Bretagne, there was a much more natural and ready
way than that of arms; namely, to rid themfelves 'of the
Minifter, after which, not a man would refufe to render

(1) In the Exchequer Chamber, which is the Ccuncil Chamber of the Judges. Bacon, p. 581.

(2) And Robert Midleton, William Barkley, Robert and James Harrington , Robert Bracken/jury, Richard Charlcton, Tbimat Pilkinton, Walter H-pton,
Roger Wake, William Saf cole, Humphrey Stafford, William Gierke of Wen/ocke, Geffrey St. Germain;, Richard Watkyns, Richard Rtuell, Thomas Putter,
J Jon Walcbe, Andrea Rat, William Brampton, John Kendal Secretary to Richard III, and John Buck, a Relation of George Buck, the Author of the
Life of Richard III. This John Buck was a creature of the Duke of Norfolk, and loft his head at Bvfzmrlb. Hollingjh. p. 1425. Cottipl. Hiji. p. 581.

(3) Which was leviod of the Companies, and not of the Wards. Srow, p. 471.

(4) The reft of his Privy-Council were, John Vcre Earl of Oxford, Thomas Stanley Earl of Derby, Sir William Stanley Lord Chamberlain, Robert
Willoughby Lord Brooke, Steward of his Houlhold, Giles Lord Daubeney, John Lord Dynbam, Sir Reginald Bray, Sir John Cheney, Sir Richard Guilford,
Sir Richard Tunftall, Sir Richard Ed^cambc, Sir Thomas Lm/ell, Sir Edward Pe-wnyngcs, Sir jthn R'jley, &c, Hall, fol. 3.

Book XIV.



1485, due obedience to the Duke. The Lords of the Duke's
party deeming this expedient very reafonablc, were of
opinion that in effecl: it was for the intereft of the Coun-
try and the Duke himfelf, that Landais, fole caufe of the
troubles, fhould be facrificed to the good of the publick.
Landais hearing that the Lords of the two Armies were
contriving fomething againft him, caufed a Declaration to
be drawn, wherein the Duke ordered that all Perfons of
his own Army, who held intelligence with the profcribed
Lords, fhould be deemed Traitors and Rebels. But this
only ferved to haften his ruin. The Chancellor, who
was in the Plot againft him, refufed to feal the Decla-
ration, and informed the Lords of it, who refolved to
have no further regard for the Favorite. So, without
giving him time to take other meafures, they went in a
body to the Palace, and feized Landah in the Duke's own
apartment, who was forced to deliver him on condition
they would fpare his life. But that was not their inten-
tion. On the contrary, they brought him to a fpeedy
trial, and convicting him of a thoufand crimes, made him
atone for them on the Gallows, before the Duke was
informed of the fentence. How much foever the Duke
was troubled at the death of his Favorite, he could not
help granting the Lords of the two Armies letters of
pardon. Thus Brctagne would have been reftored to her
former tranquillity, had not the Duke imprudently con-
cerned himfelf with the troubles of the Court of France,
which proved the ruin of himlelf and Dukedom. This is
what muft now be fhewn, fince it was the occafion of
the War which broke out between Charles VIII and the
Duke of Bretagne, and wherein Henry VII was con-
jifiin of Lewis XI, King of France, dying in the year 1483,
trance. i^ t j, e government of the perfon of Charles VIII, his
Son and Succeffor, to his Daughter Ann, Wife of Peter de
Bourbon Lord of Beaujeu. Charles was fourteen years old,
and confequently of Age according to the ordinance of
diaries V. But as he had been ill-educated (1), the
King his Father thought him uncapable of governing.
The moment Lewis XI was in his grave, Lewis Duke
of Orleans, firft Prince of the Blood, refufed to acknow-
lege Ann of Beaujeu for the King's Govcrnefs ; affirming,
a Woman had no right to meddle with the affairs of the
Kingdom. The States being aflembled at Tours in 'Ja-
nuary 1484, ended the Difpute by their authority. They
confirmed the late King's will, and ordered the Duke of
Orleans mould be Preirdent of the Council in the King's

Whilft the States of France were aflembled, the Lords
of Brctagne made their firft attempt upon Landais before-
mentioned , which proved unfuccefsful. The fentence
which was given againft them, creating a dread of the
Favorite's revenge, they applied to Ann Lady of Beau-
jeu to obtain the King her Brother's protection. On the
other hand, Landais feeing his enemies had recourfe to
the Lady Ann, thought he could not do better than rely
upon the affiftance of the Duke of Orleans. To that end,
he intreated him to come to the Court of Bretagne, put-
ting him in hopes, the Duke would give him in marri-
age Ann his eldeft Daughter and prefumptive Heir. The
Duke of Orleans had efpoufed againft his Will, Joanna
Daughter of Leivis XI ; but had made againft this forced
marriage a fecret proteftation, which he meant to ufe in
order to annull it at a more favorable juncture. So,
pleafed with the hopes Landais had infpired him with,
he came to Brctagne, where he was extremely carefled.
But he could make no long ftay, being obliged to affift at
the King's Coronation, which was performed in June this
year. Probably, whilft he was in Brctagne, he concerted
with the Duke and his Favorite meafures to difturb
the Government of Ann of Beaujeu, who was become
abfolute miftrefs of the King her Brother's perfon and

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