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affairs.

Shortly after, the Duke of Orleans forming a league
againft the Court, and retiring to Boifgency, demanded
that the States of France might be affembled. He intend-
ed to annull the regulation already made, with refpecT: to
the Government of the King's perfon. But Ann of Beau-
jeu caufed the King to march againft him with fuch expe-
dition, that he was forced to accept of fuch terms as were
granted him, becaufe his friends were not yet ready to
affift him. By this agreement, the Earl of Dunois and
Longueville, who was conlidered as his chief advifer, was
baniftied to Ajl in Piedmont, a Town belonging to the
Duke of Orleans, with a command not to ftir from thence
without the King's exprefs licence.

The Duke of Orleans being thus compelled to difmifs
his Troops, caufed the greateft part to lift in the Duke
of Brctagne's Army againft the condemned Lords. On
the other hand, Ann of Beaujeu fent likewife to the Ba-



rons part of the King's Troops. LanJais's death, which t^S-
happened foon after, was not capable to make the Duke
of Orleans defift from his project. He flood in need of
the Duke of Bretagne to fupport him againft the Court,
and even hoped one day to marry his Daughter. On
the other fide, the Duke of Brctagne having been greatly
perfecuted by Leivis XI, and knowing, Ann of Beaujeu
was of the fame character, and followed the fame maxims,
believed he could not do better than reft upon the affift-
ance of the Duke of Orleans. So, after fomc private
negotiations, thefe two Princes formed a league together,
into which came John de Chalon Prince of Orange, Ne-
phew to the Duke of Bretagne, the Duke of Bourbon, the
Earl of Dunois, the Duke of Lorrain, and fevcral other
Princes and Lords. Some time after, the Earl of Dunois
returned into France without leave, and withdrew to his
Seat at Partenay in Poitlou. The King was yet ignorant
of the Duke of Orleans's defigns. But the Earl of Du-
nois 's return convincing him, (bme Plot was contriving in
favor of that Prince who was gone to Blois, he fent him
a pofitive order to repair to Court. The Duke obeyed
upon a fecond fummons ; but next day being informed
fome ill was intended him, feigned to go a hunting, and
retired into Bretagne, where he was quickly followed by
the Prince of Orange and the Earl of Dunois. This was
in the beginning of the year i486. We muft now fee
what pafted in the Low-Countries.

Since the death of Maria of Burgundy, Maximilian of -if-"'" '■'
Aujlria her Husband had been involved in troubles, on ac- 'c ^ n Z'-..
count of the guardianfhip of Philip her Son, become So-
vereign of the Low-Countries by the death of the Duchefs
his Mother. Brabant, Holland, and Zealand, had willing-
ly received him for Guardian ; but Flanders and Hainault
refufed to obey him as fuch.

The obftinacy of the Flemings obliged Maximilian to
make peace with Lewis XI upon thefe terms : That the
Dauphin Charles, Son of Lewis, fhould marry Margaret
Daughter of Maximilian, as foon as they were of fuch
an age : That Margaret fhould have for Dower, Ar-
tois, Franche Comte, Macon, Auxerre, and be educated at
the Court of France. Purfuant to this Treaty, Lewis
kept thefe Provinces which he had already feized, and
took Margaret home, till the marriage could be confum-
mated.

In 1483, Maximilian fuccefsfully made War upon the
Liegeois. This fame year Hainault owned him for Guar-
dian of his Son Philip.

In 1484, the Flemings ftill perfifting in their refufal to
acknowledge Maximilian for Guardian, appointed Gover-
nors for Philip, of whom Adolphus de Clevcs Lord of Ra-
venjlein was the chief. Their obftinacy occafroned be-
tween them and Maximilian a War, in which Charles VIII
concerned himfelf by affifting the Flemings.

This War ended in January 1485, in a Treaty, im-
porting, that the Flemings fhould acknowledge Maximilian
for Guardian of his Son, upon the exprefs condition that
he fhould not remove him from Flanders till of Age. The
Treaty being figned, Maximilian made his Entry into
Gaunt, where a few days after was a Sedition, but which
was happily appeafed. During the reft of the year, the
Low-Countries enjoyed a Tranquillity which affordedMaxi-
milian time to take a Journey into Germany, to be elected
King of the Romans. Let us now fpeak of the Spanijh
Affairs.

Henry VJ, firnamed the Impotent, King of Cajllle, died ■¥■? '"' f
in 1474, leaving only a Daughter called Joanna, who plin
was univerfally believed to be fuppofititious. For which
reafon, Ifabella Sifter to Henry, and Ferdinand Prince of
Arragon her Husband, took poffeffion of theThrone of Ca-
Jlile. They had a fierce War to maintain againft Alphonfo
King of Portugal, who being affianced to Joanna, fup-
pofed Daughter of Henry IV, pretended to the Crown of
that Kingdom. This War ended in 1479, to the advan-
tage of Ferdinand and Ifabella, who compelled Alphonfo to
defift from his pretenfions. By the Treaty, upon this
occafion, it was agreed, that Alphonfo, the King of Por-
tugal's Grandfon, fhould marry Ifabella Daughter of Fer-
dinand, when the Parties were of Age to confummate the
Marriage.

John King of Arragon died this year, leaving to his
Son Ferdinand the Kingdom of Arragon, with a War to
maintain againft France, the occafion whereof was this.
King John had mortgaged to Lewis XI, Rouffdlon and
Cerdagne, for three hundred thoufand Crowns. After-
wards, the Inhabitants of Pcrpignan revolted from the
French, whofe Dominion did not pleafe them. Upon this
news, John came to Perpignan, to try to perfuade them
to remain in fubjedtion to the French, till he could re-
deem Rouffdlon, by payment of the mortgage. But whilft
he was labouring to appeafe them, Lewis XI caufed



No. 33. Vol. I.



(1) And was of a very infirm ConftitutioUi Pi Dar.'sd, Tom. VI. p- 573.

8 C



654



The HIS TORT of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



Again tf

Scotland.

Buchanan*



the place to be befieged, and John himfelt was ifliut up-.
The Siege lafted tour months, and at laft, Ferdinand boa
of John, coming to his relief, obliged the French to retire.
Shortly after, John being gone from Perpignan, Lewis
ordered the place to be re-invefted, and alter a long Siege
became matter of it. From that time the King of Arra-
*on pretended, the King of France ought to reitore Rouj-
ftllon without receiving the Money lent, either by reafon
f his expence in protecting his Subjects, or becaufe the
French had levied large Sums upon the mortgaged Coun-
tries But the King of France did not think himlelt
obliged to this restitution, without he was paid the three
hundred-thoufand Crowns he had lent.

In 1485 Charles VIII lent an Ambaflador to Ferdinand,
•who refufed to receive him, without a pofitive power to
refign Rmffllon and Cerdagne.

About the latter end of this year was born Catharine
Daughter of Ferdinand and Ifabella, who was afterwards
Queen of England, and will have a great fliare in this
Hiftory. Ferdinand and Ifabella had fcveral other Chil-
dren, namely, Ifabella affianced to the Prince of Portugal,
John born 1477, and Joanna born in 1479.

I (hall clofe this digreflion with the affairs of Scotland.
James III continued to govern his Kingdom with oppref-
fion and violence, regardlefs of the affection of his Sub-
jects. I have before obferved, the Duke of Albany his
Brother furrendered Dunbar to the Englijh, and after the
death of Edward IV retired into France, where he ended
his days at a Tournament. From that time the Englijh
kept poffeffion of that place, though Richard III promifed
to reitore it. This promife being unperformed when
Henry VII afcended the Throne of England, James re-
folved to recover Dunbar by force of arms. For that
purpofe, about the end of" this year, or perhaps the begin-
ning of the next, he beficged and took the Town. The
Seafon and the important Affairs which Henry had in the
beginning of his reign, permitted him not to prepare for
its relief.

Such was the pofture of the Affairs of the States with
whom Henry VII had any concerns during the courfe of
his reign. It is time now to return to our Hiftory.

Hovv great an aversion foever the King might have in
his mind to the Houfe of York, he had toofolemnly pro-
mifed to marry the Princefs Elizabeth, not to perform his
word. Befides, this Marriage was neceffary to arriufe the
Englijh, who ftill flattered themfelves, that the King's In-
tention was to confound his Rights with thofe of the Houie
of York, notwithstanding his precautions to hinder her be-
ing mentioned in the Aft of Settlement. The Nuptials
were folemnized, the 1 8th of January, with much greater
demonstrations of Joy on the people's part, than on the
King's. There was much lefs Satisfaction cxpreffed on the
days either of the King's Entry or Coronation : Which
was a clear evidence of "the people's affection for the Houfe
of York, and particularly for the Family of Edward IV.
But this was not to be thought very ftrange. The Houfe
of Lancafter, of which there remained no branch, but
v. hat was defcended from the Daughters, had been forgot
during the reigns of the Kings of the Houfe of York.
Though Henry refted upon his defcent from the Houfe of
Lancafter, he was known to be Grandfon of a Weljh Gen-
tleman, and his Mother to be fprung only from a Baftard
of that Houfe, whom the credit of his Father, and the cir-
cumftances of the times had caufed to be legitimated. As
for the Princes and Princeffes defcended from the lawful
Daughters of John of Gaunt, as they happened to be in
Portugal, Cajlile, and Arragon, and were unknown in
England, it was not furprizing there was no great In-
clination for them. Henry did not like to fee the people's
Jov for his Marriage. He perceived, Elizabeth had a
greater mare in it than himfelf, and confequently he was
thought really King only in right of his Queen. This
consideration infpired him with Such a coldnefs for her,
that he never ceafed giving her marks of it fo long as She
lived. He deferred her Coronation two whole years, and
doubtlefs, would have done fo for ever, if he had not
thought it prejudicial to him to perfrft in refufing her that
honour. Nay, perhaps he would have dealt with her, as
Edward thi ' had formerly done by his Queen,

Daughter of Earl Goodwin, had not the defire of Children
caufed him to overcome his averfion. He had conceived
'** fo mortal a hatred to the whole Houfe of York, that he



5486.



Jan. iS.
Hall.
Stow.
H llii ■;.



tbt tS»g*t
C Idncfifm



of France a three years Truce, which war, to expire J a- 14S&,
nuary the 17th 1488-9. Charles V III, who began to
form projects againft Bretagne, willingly confented to this
Truce, to tie up the hands of the King of England, and
hinder him from affifting that Dukedom. On the other
fide, Henry who was ignorant of his defigns, believed it
could not but turn to his advantage to live in a good un-
derstanding with that Monarch, becaufe he thereby ren-
dered himfelf more formidable to his domeftick Enemies,
who could no longer expect any diverfion from that
quarter.

Shortly after, the King made Thomas Stanley Earl of^£ J "'ef
Derby High-Conftable, and William Stanley his Brother t f rl J.™S
Lord Chamberlain. Thefe, of all the Kingdom, were/w/?.
the two Perfons the King was molt indebted to, fince Ib - P- : ?5-
they enabled him to gain the Victory of Bofworth, which
procured him the Crown. The Lord D'Aubeney was p. 19 s -
made Governor of Calais for feven years.

Henry and Elizabeth being fprung from the fame Stock, Diffafiaim
namely Edward III, had wanted a difpenfation to marry, ^''7 -.^
becaufe they were Coulins in the fourth degree. It was ,,-,ȣ,.
the BiShop of Imola, Legate a Latere in England and Scot- March jo.
land, that had granted the Difpenfation, by virtue of his p-I9+ ' >'''
Commiffion, which empowered him to grant that favour
to any twelve Perfons he Should pleafe. The King thought
at firil this Difpenfation was Sufficient, and without far-
ther reflection, confummated his Marriage. Afterwards
he conlidered, occalion might be taken from hence to
qucliion the validity of his Marriage, and to maintain,
that a Power granted for twelve Perfons in general, could
not be extended to Sovereigns. To prevent therefore any Ttot
Such objection, he debred Innocent VIII, who then Sat In
the Papal Chair, to grant him a Difpenfation immediately
from himfelf, and peculiarly adapted to his cafe. Where-
upon the Pope ordered a Bull to be drawn accordinglv.
But as this Bull was dated March the 1 3th, about two p.
months after the Marriage, and mentioned not the con-
summation, or the Legate's difpenfation, Henry defired to
have another with thefe two Articles inferted, which was
granted him the July following. This (hews how careful p-
he was, to prevent whatever would afford his Enemies a
pretence to disturb him. But the precaution he took at
the fame time makes this appear Still plainer.

With the SirSl Difpenfation he received a Bull, confirm- Tb' Bill
ing the Act of Succeflion made by the Parliament. The "jf'^S s j-
Pope declared, " He had heard, that though the Crown Stttkaau
" of England was fallen to Henry, not only by Conqueft March 27.
" and an unquestionable Hereditary Right, but moreover ^ n



7/7s tmrtal



York.



XIJ. p.



m






loft no opportunity to humble the Yorkifts, behaving always
to them not as a juft King, but like the head of a Party.
In the courfe of his Hiftory will be feen divers proofs of
his disinclination to that Houfe.

The day before the King's Marriage was folemnized at
London, his Envoy it Paris had concluded with the Court



" by the unanimous Confent of the Nobles and People,
" and by an Act of Parliament (1), and though undoubt-
" edly and rightfully it belonged to him and the Heirs of
" his Body, yet, to put an end to the troubles which had
" long diffracted the Kingdom, he was defirous to marry
" Elizabeth of York, eldeft Daughter and Heir of King
" Edward IV of glorious memory : That therefore hav-
" ing confidered, with his Brothers the Cardinals, his In-
" tention in the Spirit of Charity, he had granted the
" Difpenfation neceffary for the Marriage, and pro-
" nounced the Children, that Should be born of it, lawful,
" and capable of fucceeding .'0 their Father and Mother :
" That he had granted this favour, not at the requeft of
" Henry or Elizabeth, or any other in their Name, but
" of his own Motion, certain Knowledge, and pure Ge-
" nerofity, as it was more largely exprefled in the Let-
" ters of Difpenfation, to which he gave the fame force
" as if they were inferted word for word in thefe pre-
" fents : That therefore he decreed, declared, and pro-
" nounced lawful, the Succcffion of the Children iffuing
" from this Marriage, and confirmed the Act of Parlia-
" ment concerning King Henry's Title, and the Succcf-
" fion of his Children, Supplying by his Apoftolical Au-
" thority, all defects of Right or Fact that might therein
" occur.

" That of his own Motion, and by his Authority, he
" admoniShed and required all the People of England,
" and all the Subjects of King Henry, of what rank fo-
" ever, to obey that Prince, and exprefly forbid them
" to raife disturbances about the Succeflion, or upon any
«' other account whatfoever, or to infringe in any man-
" ner the Difpenfation, Declaration, and Act of Parlia-
" ment.

" That he pronounced iff failo excommunicate all
" Perfons that Should raife any fuch disturbances, or in-
" fringe the forefaid Letters and Acts, to beabfolved only

by the Holy See, or fuch as Should be impowered by

her, unlefs at the point of death.

" That if Elizabeth Should happen to die before Henry

without Iffue, he decreed, agreeably to the forefaid Act



XII. p. 297.



1.



fO Nonmodo lure Belli ac notorio & mdobitaro proximo Suc.-cff,oni S Titulo, verum etiam omnium Prxlatcrum, Proccrum, Magnatum, Nobiliuni

non Dscreto SaWtP * OioiaKione ifOus Angus Regm I " : > m^orum wnvenw,

Ryiiur's FkJ, Tom. Xli. p- *97<

' of



Book XIV.



19. HENRY Vlt.



^S



ibis Bull.



14S6. " of Parliament and Confirmation, that the Children of
' Henry by any other lawful Wife fhould fucceed him
" by Hercditaiy Right, pronouncing excommunicate, as
" above, all perfons that fhould oppofe the Succeffion of
' his Children. Granting on the contrary his Benediction
" and plenary Indulgence for all their Sins, to thofe who
" fliould, in that cafe, affift Henry or his Poflerity.

" Moreover, he enjoined all Archbifhops, Bifhops,
" Abbots, Deans, Archdeacons, Curates, Rectors, Priors,
" and Superiors of Monafteries, upon the Penalties ex-
" preiled in the holy Canons, to excommunicate publick-
" ly, and to pronounce excommunicate, whenever they
" were required, all perfons that fhould breed any diftur-
" bances upon that account, or oppofe in any manner
" wliatever the execution of the faid Acts, notwithftand-
" ing all Conftitutions and Ordinances Apoftolical to the
" contrary, &c."

Nothing fliews more how much Henry was himfelf con-
vinced of the weakneis of his Title, than his procuring
the Pope's Confirmation. This precaution was not only
needlefs, but even unlawful, fincc it was directly againft
the Statutes of Prtemumre, of which the Englijh were fo
jealous. Accordingly, he had taken care to have it faid in
the Bull, that the Pope granted the Difpenfation of his
own motion, and without any previous requeft ; a Claufe
evidently falfe. It is certain, the Bull of Difpenfation ran
in exprefs terms, that the Pope granted it upon what was
reprefented to him by Henry and Elizabeth. Befides
what the Pope affirmed, that the Crown of England was
fallen to Henry by Hereditary Right, that heap and con-
fulion of other Titles, namely, the Confent of the No-
bles and People, the Act of Parliament, the King's Mar-
riage with Elizabeth ; all this, I fay, correfponded fo ex-
actly with Henry's uncertainty concerning his Title, that
doubtlefs, it proceeded not from the Pope's own Know-
ledge, but rather from the King himfelf, who had as it
were dictated how the Bull fhould be worded. In fine,
the Pope would never have thought of confirming the Act
of Settlement, if he had not been requefted. But it was
not convenient the King fhould appear to have defired
fuch a Bull, fince nothing could be more difagrceable to
the Engliflj. For taking fuch a ftep, even before the Sta-
tute ot Praemunire was enacted, King John entirely loft
the affection and confidence of his Barons, with the Crown
which he meant to fecurc by that expedient. Henry III
was like to undergo the fame fate, for taking fome pre-
cautions of this nature. Accordingly, it will hereafter
be feen, that this Bull was not capable of hindering the
King's being frequently molefted. The Engliflj were not,
as formerly, fuch Bigots, as to imagine, the Pope's Au-
thority could give Henry a Title which he really had not.
97* Klngi Though the King had happily attained his ends, with
*""/ j refpect to the Act of Settlement and Succeffisn, he knew
u the Hmfc however, what the Parliament had done was not agreeable
•f York, to the fentiments of the People. He had been called into
England to deliver the Nation from the Tyranny of Ri-
chard III, and not todifpoffefs entirely the Houfe of York .
This is fo true, that in cafe the Yorkijls had not joined
with him, in order to preferve the Crown in that Houfe,
by means of his marriage with Elizabeth, the LancaJlrians
would never have been able to raife him to the Throne.
The Queen, Widow of Edward IV, the Duke of Buck-
ingham, the Lord Stanley, were not friends of the Houfe of
Lancajhr, tho' private enemies to the perfon of Richard.
To thefe however Henry wis chiefly indebted for his great-
nefs. If the People had been confulted, and at liberty
to chufe a Sovereign, Richard III indeed would have been
difpoffefTed, but Elizabeth placed on the Throne, and the
Earl ot Richmond left in his exile in Bretagne. Henry
therefore was confidered only as the inftrument of their
deliverance from the Dominion of a Tyrant. But as it
was reafonable to reward him, the giving him a fhare of
the royal dignity, by means of his marriage with the Prin-
cefs Elizabeth, was thought a great recompence. And if it
was readily agreed, that his right from the Houfe of Lan-
cajier fhould be united with Elizabeth's, it was rather to
avoid frefh troubles bv that expedient, than out of a belief
of the lawfulnefs of his title. He had himfelf gladly ac-
cepted the propofal, and upon that foundation it was that
he formed hisenterprize; otherwife he would have doubt-
lefs met with lefs affiftance and much greater oppofition.
But he had no fooner gained the Battle of Bofworth, but
he formed the defign of reigning in his own right only,
and excluding entirely the Houfe of York, wherein he de-
ceived the expectation of the Englijh, and abufed their
confidence. This is what he had always in his thoughts,
tho' he concealed his uneafinefs with all poffible care.
The King's As the Houfe of York had moft Adherents in the nor-
P'cgr'f, inu thern Counties, Henry refolved to take a progrefs into

the North. J x o

Hall.

Bacon.

Hallingfih



thofe parts. He hoped that his pretence, with fbme Acts i486,
of Grace and Favor he might have occafion to difpenfe,
would be capable of producing a good efFect. With this
view, he departed towards the middle of the Spring, and
kept his EaJlerzt Lincoln. During his ftay in that City, JUbtUltH <.f
he heard, the Lord Lovcl, one of Richard the Third's' 1 * ' " d
Favorites, Humphrey and Thomas Stafford, Brothers, who ':
had refufed to accept of the general pardon, were gone out Staffed;,
of Sanctuary ( 1 ), but to what place was unknown. As he
was ignorant what their defign could be, he continued his
Journey to York. Shortly after, he received more certain T. • Kleg it
intelligence concerning the Fugitives. He was told, the*'"*''"".
Lord Lovel was advancing towards York at the head of Y
three or four thoufand men, and that the Staffords were
in arms in JVorceJlerfliire before the City of IVorceJler.
This news gave him no fmall uneafinefs. He faw him-
felf in that part of the Kingdom where he knew he was
not beloved, and where it was not eafy to raife forces.
Befides, he had reafon to fear the Lord Lovel had corrcf-
pondents in York, and among the Nobility of the County ;
confequcntly there was no time to lofe. He muff fpeedi-
ly rcfolve either to quit York, or take fome courfe to op-
pofe the Rebels. In this ftrait, he chofe to feem uncon- " ■
cerned, perceiving that flight could not but produce a very'"" '
ill effect. So, without fhewing any fear, he armed fuch
of his Followers as were moft proper to bear arms, and
commiffioned fome trufty friends to raife Men in and about
York with all poffible diligence. He was fo fortunate, and
fo faithfully ferved as to alfemble in a fliort time three
thoufand Men, of whom he gave the Command to his
Uncle the Duke of Bedford. But thefe Troops were fo ill
armed and in fuch diforder, that they were not much to
be relied on. Befides, they were raifed in a County where
the Inhabitants were not well-affected to the King. For
this reafon, Henry exprefly charged the Duke of Bedford
to avoid fighting if poffible, till reinforced, but however
to (hew no fear, and proclaim, in his name, pardon to all
that would lay down their arms. This precaution fucceeded
to his wifh. The Duke of Bedford approaching the Mala- Ti< '
contents, ordered the Proclamation to be publifhed in *""/ jrd J 1 *'
terms denoting great fuperiority and confidence. It had/w
however little efFect on the Rebels. But the Lord Lovel UmI /■■•:■
their Commander, fearing they would accept of the par-
don, forfook them firft. He retired all alone, and hii
himfelf in Lancajhire at his friend Sir Thomas Broughton's,
and fhortly after pafTed into Flanders to the Duchefs Dow-
ager of Burgundy. His Army being without a Leader,
fubmitted to the King's Mercy. The Staffords, who were
befieging IVorcefter, hearing what pafTed in the North,
raifed the Siege, and abandoning their Troops, took San-
ctuary in the Church of Colnham, a little Village [near
Abington.~\ But that Church enjoying no peculiar privi-
lege, it was judged in the King's Bench to be no fuffi-
cient Sanctuary for Traitors. So the two Brothers being One of tie
taken thence by force, Humphrey the eldeft was fent to n3ff ^ s
London to be executed at Tyburn ; but Thomas, as bein" "" '
feduced by his Brother, was pardoned. This Rebellion,
the firft in this Reign, was like a Blaze which lafted not
long. It was quenched with the blood of one finale Perfon.



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