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We fhall fee, hereafter, others which coft the King more
to extinguifh the Flames.

On the 3d of July, the Scotch AmbalTadors, who had Aft. Pub.
been fome time at London, concluded a Truce with Henry, x "' p " 2S 5*
which was to end that day three years.

Cardinal Bourchier Archbifhop of Canterbury died about Dtatb f
this time. The King, defigning to procure the Arch- c ' r,l: ' :j!
bifhoprick for Dr. Morton Bifhop of Ely, gave him the MorwnjU
cuftody during the vacancy, thereby declaring his inten- ««• him.
tion, that no other Biftlop might make an intereft for the?' "'"' 3 '"'
nomination. Accordingly Morton was elected fome time
after, but received not the Pope's Bulls till December.

July the 2 2d, John de Boutcillier, Lord de Maupcrtuis,TrM fr>.
Ambaflador of Francis II, Duke of Bretagne, concluded '• ' *"'*
at London with the King, a Truce, or rather a prolonga- '".'-""'
tion of the Truce, which ftill fubfiftcd between England 312.
and Bretagne, till the death of one of the two Princes.
But the Trade between the two Nations, which was
fettled by feveral Articles of this Treaty, was to laft till
the death of the Survivor.

September the 20th, the Queen was delivered (i) of a **?' 'f
Prince, tho' fhe had been but eight Months with child. A ,
The King would have the new-born Prince called Arthur, Mall,
in memory of the famous Britijh Monarch, of whole race s ''"; .
he defired to be thought. The Family of the Tudors be- E
ing Britijh or Weljh, it was not unlikely that Henry de-
figned by naming his Son Arthur, to infinuate his being
defcended from that illuftrious Monarch. It is certain
however, this report was not fpread, nor Genealogies
forged to confirm it, till alter the time we are fpeaking

(1) At Colcbtfter, where they hsd been ever fince the Battle of B'-feirlk, Hull, fol, .}■
(2.) At Wmtbtft'.r. Hall, fol. y i'(w, p. 471,


The H 1 S T R Y of ENGLAND.

Vol. I.


il&'rmart <>f
tht Ft pit.

- ..

of. Thcfe who governed the State during Henry the
Sixth's Minority, were very far from this opinion, iince,
after the death of Catherine of France, the Prince's Mo-
ther, they ordered Owen Tudor Grandfather of Henry VII
to be fent to the Tower for prefuming to marry the Queen.
Nay, fome affirm, he was beheaded.

The King's Proceedings to deprive the Houfe of York
of their rights, had very much difiatisfied the People, who
expected quite another thing. They who had called in Henry
had been in hopes, that the titles of the two Houfes being
confounded by his Marriage with Elizabeth, there would
be no more diftindtion between Yorki/ls and Lancajlrians,
but all might equally expect the Places in the King's dif-
pofal. Thefe hopes were further confirmed by the Birth
of Prince Arthur, in whofe perfon were united the litigi-
ous rights of the two Houfes. But it was feen with ex-
treme'eoncern, that the King (till confidered the Houfe of
York as Rivals and Enemies, and that his Jealoufy reached
to the Queen herfejf, whofe intereft fhould have been as
dear to him as his own. For, not content to fhew by his
continual coldnefs, and by feveral mortifications he made
her indure, the little kindnefs he had for her, he had given
her a very fenfible mark of it, in deferring her Corona-
tion, as if fhe had been unworthy to fit on the Throne
with him. Nay, after fhe had brought him a Son, her
Coronation was no more talked of than when they were
firft married. This conduct plainly fhewed, the Houfe of
York was ftill odious to him, and that he feared to take
any Hep which might give the People occalion to believe
fhe had fome right to the Crown. It was impoffible but
this affectation fhould caufe great concern in the Yorkijls,
who were much more numerous than the Lancajlrians.
Ithrimautid This difcontent being alrnoft univerfal, fome malicious
i jf« perfons fpread a report, that the King intended to put
tut Warwick to death the Earl of Warwick, Prifoner in the Tower,
to Death, an d the fole Male of the Houfe of York. Their Defign
^ c ™" was, no doubt, to compare Henry with Richard III, who
and that mi had taken away the lives of his two Nephews to fecure
tf" Edward'* the Crown, and intimate to the People, that in changing
Kings, they had only received one Tyrant for another.
Moreover, it was openly rumoured, that one of Edward
the Fourth's Sons was ftill alive, having, as it were mi-
raculoufly, efcaped his Uncle's cruelty. All this plainly
tended to found the People's inclinations. The King
himfelf, whether he was the Author of this rumour, as
his Hiftorian affirms, or only fomented it by his car-
riage ( 1 ), was not forry the People ran after a Phantome,
becaufe it hindered them from too firmly adhering to the
Perfons of the Houfe of York, which really exifted. Mean
while, as the eagernefs wherewith the People fwallowed
this falfe report, was a clear evidence how ready they
would be, if a favorable opportunity offered, to lift againft
the King, fo it gave occafion to the Project I am going to
fpeak of.

A certain Oxford Prieft, one Richard Simon, perceiving
the People's ioy at the falfe report of one of Edward the
Fourth's Sons being alive, took it into his head to put
upon the World for Richard, Duke of York, Brother of
Edward V, a young Man, named Lambert Simnel, a Ba-
ker's Son, whom he trained up in his houfe, and believed
proper to play fuch a part. He was about the Duke of
York's age (2), of good natural parts, and in all his beha-
viour had fomething grand, and above his birth. Simon
had fcurce be^un inftradting his Pupil, when another ru-
mour was fpread, that the Earl of Warwick had made his
efcapeoutofthe Tower. This news, though falfe, caufed
among the People fo general a joy, that the Prieft thought
fit to alter his Project, and make Simnel pafs for the Earl
of Warwick. Simnel's age agreed better with the Earl's,
and the circumftance of his efcape was fuitable to the
Plot. His Pupil was to be well inftructed for this pur-
pofe, fince he was not to perfonate a young Man taken
out of his Cradle in his infancy, and concealed in fome
private place, but a Prince well known, and brought up in
the Court of Edivard IV. The Earl was about twelve
years old when imprifoned by Richard III. Simnel
therefore was to learn to talk pertinently of Edward's
Court, and to know particularly the Lords and Ladies
that frequenteu^it, as well as the King and Queen,
This gives #ccafion to prefume, that the Prieft was him-
felf inftructed by perfons well-informed, 'and the Plot
fuggefted to him. For, though he had the affurance to
form fuch a defign, it is not likely he could inftruct his
Pupil in many particulars, which he was neceflarily to
know. At lead, it is certain, the King imagined, the
Queen his Mother-in-law, and other friends of the Houfe




H<- malts

Simne! /■ 1/1
for the Earl


of York, were the real Authors of this contrivance, and I4S£,
only made ufe of the Prieft as an inftrument to execute
their Defigns. The Queen-Dowager was extremely in-
triguing. It was fhe that had fet on foot the Project in fa-
vour of the King when in Bretagne, and thereby fhewn
her credit with the Yorkijls. Befides, flic could not but
be very much difpleafed with the King's coldnefs to her
Daughter, and his refufing to have her crowned. This
alone was fufficient to caufe the King to fufpect her. But
it may be, there was more than bare fufpicions.

Be this as it will, Simon, or thofe that employed him, n ' f' r ''Jf
not thinking proper to produce Simnel firft in England, g- rr "\ ■ ,
where he might be examined too clofely, and by Per- Ireland,
fons too knowing, judged it convenient that he fhou'd act Ha ''-
his firft fcene in Ireland, where Simon the Prieft accom- j^]"' ^
panied him. In all appearance, fome meafures had been
taken for his reception in that Country. Since Henry's Bacon,
acceffion to the Throne, he had very much neglected the
affairs of that Iiland, reckoning that being mafter in Eng-
land, the Irijh were not to be feared. Indeed, lie made
the Duke of Bedford Governor of Ireland, in the room
of the Earl of Lincoln, Nephew of Richard III, but had
continued the fame Deputy, the fame Chancellor, and all
the reft of the officers placed there by Richard. So, the
Duke of Bedford being ftill in England, Thomas Fitz-
Gcrahl Earl of Kildare commanded in Ireland as Deputy,
and his Brother was Chancellor (3).

It is more than probable, that the Earl of Kildare was Simnel it
in the Plot, and had even begun to take meafures to caufe "p r "^J lm "^
Lambert Simnel, the pretended Earl of Warwick, to be King.
acknowledged in Ireland. Ever fince June laft, Hemy Ha "-
had received notice that fomething was contriving againft Bacon.
his fervice in that Country, though he knew not the par-
ticulars. Upon this information, he fent for the Deputy
to Court, but the Earl found means to caufe the Council
of Ireland to write to him, that the Deputy's prefence
was abfolutely neceflary in the Iiland. Simnel being ar-
rived at Dublin, addreffed himfelf to the Earl of Kildare
as Earl of JVarwick, and informed him how he efcaped
out of the Tower. If the Earl of Kildare had not been in
the Plot, or at leaft, wifhed the thing to be as Simnel re-
lated it, he would doubtlefs have feized the Pretender.
It was his duty, as he commanded in Ireland in the King's
name. But inftead of taking that courfe, he left him at Hall,
liberty, and fo ordered it, with his Brother the Chancel-
lor's help, that the arrival of the pretended Earl of War-
wick was divulged, without their appearing to be con-
cerned. They would firft fee how the People would
be affected with the news. The ImprefEon it made, was
as great and as fudden, as the Authors of the Plot could
defire. When it was known in Dublin that the Earl of
Warwick was arrived, the People exprefled fo great joy,
that the Deputy and Chancellor believed there was no
danger in acknowledging the Pretender. So, after a con-
ference with their friends and confidents, they folemnly
waited upon him at his lodging, and conducted him with
great pomp to the Caftle, where he was treated like a
Prince (4). Simnel received the refpedt that was paid him
with a countenance and. carriage that by no mean*
favoured of the meannefs of his Birth. In a few days
he was proclaimed in Dublin King of England, and Lord
of Inland, by the name of Edward VI. The Irijh re-
garded not the attainder of the Duke of Clarence his pre-
tended Father, having newly learnt by the example of
Henry himfelf, that the advancement to the Throne takes
away all defects.

The news of fo unexpected an event made the King ' rl ' c K ' : '

The k;- 7

very uneafy, becaufe it ftruck upon that firing, which Ha u, rr
he ever molt feared ; namely, his Title, of the goodnefs Bacon,
whereof he was not himfelf thoroughly fatisfied. Indeed,
the victory of Bofworth had given him an opportunity to
decide the queftion himfelf in his favour. But he was
very fenfible, that if the Titles of the two Houfes came
once more to be put in the balance, he fhould want a fecend
victory to confirm his, and the Houfe of York would have
reafons more than fufficient, if their affairs grew pro-
fperous. In the next place, Ireland, where the pretend-
ed Earl of Warwick was retired, was a Country wholly
,devoted to the Houfe of York, and confequently it was
not eafy to attack the Rebels there. For that purpofe, it
would be neceffary to lead thither a numerous Army,
which could not be done without immenfe charge. In
fine, it was to be feared, the flames which began to ap-
pear in Ireland, would reach England, and that there
was a fecret correfpondence between the Irijh and En-
glijh. In this ftrait, he called a Council of his moft inti- 41"**





(■) The Lord ferulam only fays, " Neither was the King's Nature and Cuftoms greatly fit to difperie thefe Mills, but cantrariwife, he had a fafllion ra- ° ian
" ther. to create doubts than aiTurance," p. sSj.

(2) About fifteen years old. Bacon, p. 5S3.

1 - Sit Jam 1 Ware fays, the Earl was called Gerald Fi:x Gerald, and the Chancellor, Tlnm.n.

(41 Th.y alio fent Meifengers to England, todcfire the molt conlidcrable Perfons, whom they knew to be well afi'ciled to the Htule uCi'.rt, to fupply the
ywios pretended King tfith Money. IUU, fill. 7.

3 in ate

Book XIV.


i 4 s6.

Kenry con-
fact bit
"M. btr-in-

Ltiv to a
and ftissel

htr EJlare.
H ;i.n E ft.

mate friends ( 1 ), privately to confult with them upon
what was to he done in the prefent emergent./. It is to
he prefumeil, he tolii them, the Queen Dowager his Mo-
ther-in-law had raifed this ftorm, whether he had any
proof, or it was only a fufpicion thought by him to be
Well grounded.

Be tin's as it will, prefently after holding this Council,

tion that he fhould eafily dcflroy him, when he Kad made
him his inftrument to dethrone Henry. So, upon the
firft news of Simnel's being received and proclaimed King
at Dublin, he embarked for Flanders, to concert with the
Duchefs Dowager of Burgundy, the means to accomplilh
this undertaking.



Since the death of Charles Duke of Burgundy, Mar- n i ' ',' "
he ordered his Mother-in-law to be confined in the Nun- garet of York his Widow. Sifter of Edward IV ' and R - "r" "'
,- j) j/-... r:_ C....1. l -1 r\/i u_ /-..:- -/..,..,/ in 1:.. ■ • tm ■ , - J .

nery of Jisrmondjey [ in Soutlnvark. ] Moreover he fciz
ed all her Eflate, which was very confiderable. But as he
did not care to difcovcr to the publick the reafon of this
rigorous ufage, becaufe he could not perhaps give fuifici-
ent proof of her crime, he caufed it to be reported,
that fne was thus punifhed for delivering the Princelles
her Daughters into the hands of Richard III. This
pretence rendered his action ftill more enormous with the
people. They could not help thinking it very ftrange, that
the Queen Dowager fhould he (b feverely punifhed for a
fault, which might rather he deemed a weaknefs than a
premeditated malice. In the next place, it could not be
conceived, why the King had fo long neglected to in-
quire into this pretended crime. In the third place, fince
he had married her Daughter, he feemed to have owned
that fhe was innocent, or at Jcaft had forgiven her.


chard II], lived in Flanders where her Dower was aC- i"" 1 *° '*»
figned her. As fhe had no Children by the Duke her *
Husband, (lie carefully attended the education of the
Archduke Philip, Son 'of Maximilian of Aujiria, and
Maria of Burgundy her Daughter-in-law. She had with
extreme concern, feen the revolution which reftored the
Houfe of Lancajler to the Throne, in prejudice of the
Houfe of Tori. SI"" would however have been patient,
if Henry VII in uniting the two Houfes by hi; marriage
with Elizabeth, had held the balance even, and difpenfed
his favours impartially to the friends of both parties.
But flie altered her mind, when fhe faw fi delayed
marrying her Niece till the Crown was adjudged to him-
felf, without any mixture of the Title of the Houfe of
York. She could not fee without trouble, that, everi
after his marriage, he refufed to let Elizabeth be crown-

Lafily, all knowing her to have been one of the principal ed, an honour no Queen of England had been debirrcd
inftruVienrs of his advancement to the Throne, they of h nee the conqueft; and the birth of a- Son had

could not but abhor his ingratitude. This fevere ufage
was thought to be a plain indication of a fettled defign,
to ule all pretences to complete the ruin of the Houfe
of York and its adherents. But it was not only com-
panion for the Queen's fufferinsrs, which gave rife to
thefe reflections ; her example ftruck terror into all the
Kingdom, there being very few families but what were
guilty, either of having affifled Richard III, or of not
having oppofed him. When it was conlidered there-
fore, that the King's Mother-in-law was reduced to this

induced him to do her that juftice So, perceiving his

hatred of the whole Houfe of York was implacable, fhe

did not think herfclf obliged to have much regard for

him. On the contrary, fhe believed, fhe might "without

fcruple, labour his ruin. Indeed, it is uncertain whether

this Princefs was concerned in the Prieft's and Simnets

plot, before Ireland declared for him. It is however very

likely, fhe had helped to manage, together with the

Queen Dowager, the Earl of Lincoln, and fome other

friends of the Houfe of York. For, the Earl of Lincoln's

fad condition, for not having been wiiling or able to re- voyage into Flanders, upon the firft news of SimnePs ar-

iift the Tyranny of the late King, every one was afraid rival in Ireland, gives occafion to prefumc, he held pri-

of being called to account for the like crimes, which vate intelligence with the Ducheis of Burgundy, and

SbeJUsin were fuppofed to be buried in oblivion. Notwithftan- fiom her expected the fuccefs of the enterpri/e. The

penfinemaii. j^g n ]j this, the Queen Dowager was confined to the Lord Level , who was in Flanders before him , was

day of her death, which happened not till fome years likewife in the Plot as well as Sir Thomas Erowhton,

after (2). who ftaid in England to fend them notice of what was

Ttr Earl of It was thought at firft that the Queen Dowager's tranfacting there.

Warwick ri misfortune proceeded from the caufe published by the Whether the Duchefs of Burgundy contrired this Plot sir f-,~,/>,
>*™"'" King. But it was quickly perceived to be an effect of herlelf, or was only informed of it by the Earl of List- '» fJRft lb '
die decrees of the fecret Council called by the King coin, fhe readily embraced this opportunity, which fhe F - arl "f
upon Simnel's affair. Shortly after, purfuant to another believed fuflicientlv favorable to infp-re her with hopes HaV *




decree of the fame Council, the King ordered the true
Earl of Warwick to be fhown in pubhek, who was led
through the principal ftreets of London, and then con-
ducted in folcmn proceffion to St. Paul's, where multi-
tudes were aifembled to fee him. There, all had time
allowed them to view him attentively. Nay, he was
made to talk with thofe that knew him beft, and par-
ticularly with fuch as were known to be well aftec-ted to

of defeating Henry's eftabliflimcnt. Having advifed with Bacon.
the Earl of Lincoln, Lord Lovel, and fome other Fugi-
tives, fhe promifed to furnifh them with two thoufand
veteran German Soldiers, under the command of Martin
Swart an Officer of note, with whom they fhould pafs
into Ireland, to ftrengthen the new King's party. She
did not at- all doubt but thefe fuccours coming from a
foreign Country would encourage the Yorki/h to take


the Houfe of York ; after which, he was again conveyed Arms in England. In this fituaijon were the Kind's

to the Tower. But the Irijh maintained, that the Earl affairs about the end of the vear 1486. But before we

of Warwick, fhown at London, was an impoftor, and proceed to the occurrences of the next year, we muff,

their's at Dublin the true Earl. They even took oc- briefly fee what had palled in the neighbouring Coun-

cafion from hence to exclaim againft the King, for pro- tries, efpecially in France and Brelagne durinf the courfe

ftituting the ceremony of a proceffion to fuch a cheat, of this year.

The King fearing the mifchief would gain ground,
thought to flop it, by proclaiming a general pardon to all
that ftiould quit the Rebel?, and by promiling a reward
to thofe that ftiould difcover the fecret of the plot. At
the fame time he fent orders to guard the Ports, that the
Male-contents of England might not pafs over and join
their friends in Ireland. But all this was not capable
to break the meafures ot his enemies.
lb, Ear! of It was not only in Ireland that troubles were preparing
Lincoln jc« for him. The readinefs wherewith fome Englijh Lords

I left the Duke of Orleans in Bretagne with the Prince Afminaf
of Orange and the Earl of Dunois. Thefe Princes were ^"P"-;
no fooner in that Country, but many of their friends A ' 2 "'""
came and joined them, and even brought them fome
Troops. 'Fhe Duke of Brelagne was old and infirm
both in body and mind. Since the death of Landais he
did not know who to truft with the adminiftration of
his affairs, confidering his Barons but as fo many enemies,
though he had granted them a pardon.

The Duke of

Orleans finding him thus embarralfed, gained fuch an

'T'h'hlf an ^ Gentlemen embraced this opportunity to endeavour afcendent over him, that he governed Bretagne as if he

Bmsimdy. his ruin, plainly ftiowed, the confpiracy had been laid had been the Sovereign. The advantages he enioved

fome time before in England. Indeed, it is not likely, in that Country, where almoft everything was in 'his

a fingle Prieft fhould have formed fuch a project, with- difpofal, drew thither many Frenchmen, who came to

out imparting it to perfons more able than himfelf to offer him their fervice. Mean while, the Duke of Bre-

accomplifh it. Be this as it will, John Earl of Lincoln, tagne affembled the States, and caufed ha eldeft Dauffh-

declared by Richard III his Uncle, prefumptive Heir of ter Ann to be declared Heirefs of the Duchy and" in

the Crown, was the firft that openly appeared to main- cafe fhe died without iflue, it was decreed her vouncer


tain the intereft of the pretended Earl of Warwick He
was Son of John dc la Pole Earl of Suffolk, and Elizabeth
Sifter of Edward IV, and Richard III. This Earl how-
ever feemed to act contrary to his own intereft in taking
part with the Earl of Warwick, who was nearer the
Throne than himfelf. But as, probably, he was not ig-
norant, the perfon in Ireland was a cheat, he did not quef-

Sifter Ifabcl ftiould fucceed her.

The Lords of Bretagne newly reconciled to their So-
vereign, perceiving, the Duke of Orleans ruled abfolutdy
in the Duke's Name, and that the French flocked to hi.n
in Crowds, began to entertain Sufpicions of their Prince.
They were afraid, he had fent for all thefe'Stfahgek to
help him to be revenged of them for their outrage upon

(j) At the Cbarttr Hmfe at Sinn;, now railed RictmrJ. Halt, fbl. 7. Bacon, p. 584.

(%l She v«s bored at l^na'fir, by her Husbina King Edward IV.' She compleated the rounding of Sutzn'l College In C*mbri&l b-irj- >-»
Margate!, K\ni Henry IVs Ojietn. Halt, fol. 4. Bacm, p. 585. * ^° * ' '* " 7

No. 3 j. ' Vol. I.

$ D



Vol. I.

Treaty cf
ivith the
t-o<tu Coun-
Jan« 2*
Aft. Pub.
XII. p. 3*8,
.— 320.

Fox « made
Bijhop of
p. 3 zi.

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frjebis £nr



Bi.: n-



bis Favorite In this belief, they afTembled at Chateau-
briant to confult what was to be done to prevent the dan-
ger with which they thought themfclves threatned. They
were headed by the Lord of Rieux Marfhal of Bretagne.
Charles VIII, who was apprehenfive, the Duke of Or-
leans intended to make ufe of the Duke of Bretagne's
' orces to raife frefh troubles in France, thought it his
Intereft to cherilli the Brilijh Lords difcentent. He
hoped thereby to hinder the Duke of Bretagne from affift-
ing the Duke of Orleans. To that end, he fent to the
Barons affembled at Chateaubriant, Andrew a" Epinay
commonlv called the Cardinal of Bourdeaux, with an of-
fer of his Protection. The offer was gladly received by
many of them, fome of whom perhaps were already gained
by the Court of France. Others, forefeeing the Incon-
veniences that might follow, were for rejecting it. They
alledged the feveral attempts oi Charles's PredecefTors to
become mailers of Bretagne, and how dangerous it was to
admit the French into the Country. In fine, to prevent
this mifchief, it was agreed, that a Treaty fhould be
made with the King of France, to determine the number
of Men he was to find them, and to fet bounds to his
pretenfions. Purfuant to this refolution, they figned with
the Cardinal a Treaty, importing, that the King fhould
fend them an aid not exceeding four hundred Lances, and
four thoufand Foot ; that he fhould not take or befiege
any place, neither make any demands upon the Duchy
before Duke Francis's death. Charles ratified the Treaty,
but as he afterwards fhowed, not with defign to ob-
ferve it.

The Cardinal of Bourdeaux being returned to the King,

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