M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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told him, that during his ftay at Chateaubriant, he had
learnt, that the Prince of Orange was fecretly treating of
a Marriage between Maximilian of Aujlria, and Ann, el-
ded Daughter and Heirefs of the Duke of Bretagne. This
difcoverv obliged King Charles to form the project of
feizing Bretagne, if perhaps it was not quite formed al-
ready. The pofture of the affairs of Europe was extreme-
ly favorable. Ferdinand and Ifabella King and Queen of
Arragon and Cajlile, _ little regarded the prefervation of
Bretagne. Bcfides, they were then employed in their
wars wit!) the Mcors of Granada. But though Charles
might have feared, that Ferdinand would enter into fome
League for the Duke of Bretagne's defenfe, he had an in-
fallible wav to prevent him : And that was, to reftore
him Roujfilhn, which was of much lefs confequence than
Bretagne to the Crown of France. Henry VII, who had
a manifeff. Intereft to oppofe this enterprize, was em-
baraffed with affairs that, probably, would hinder him from
medling with thole of others. It was precife'y at the
time, when the pretended Earl of IVarwick began to ap-
pear in Ireland. As for the Low-Countries, Charles had
not much to fear from thence. Philip, the Sovereign,
was ftill a Minor. Maximilian his Father and Guardian,
who governed thefe Provinces in his name, was but little
regarded. Though he had made Peace with the Flemings,
there was however a mutual diflruft, which would not
fuffer him to fend his Forces out of the Country. Be-
fides, the war with France was renewed this year, on ac-
count of Teroucnne, furprized in full Peace by the Gover-
nor of Douay. In fhort, though Maximilian was the
Emperor's Son, and chofen King of the Romans in Fe-
bruary this year, he was ever in extreme want of Mo-
ney, his new Dignity having made no addition to his
power (1).

In the beginning of the year 14S7, Henry concluded
with Maximilian a Treaty wholly relating to Trade, and
which was only provifional, till certain Articles could be
fettled, upon which the Englijh and Flemings with diffi-
culty agreed. The Trade between England and the Low-
Countries was fo neceffary for the Subjects of both Princes,
that it could not be interrupted without both being fuf-
feiers. But for that very reafon each ftrove to reap fome
advantage from the fituation of affairs, which rendered the
Treaties very difficult.

The Bifhcp of Exeter being translated to Winchejler,
the King promoted to the vacant See, Richard Fox, who
was already Keeper of the Privy Seal. Of all the Cour-
tiers, he was the perfon in whom the King placed the
moft Confidence, next to the Archbifhop of Canterbury.

Mean while, Henry was not eafy, fince the Earl of
Lincoln's retiring into Flanders. He 'knew the Duchefs of
Burgundy to be haughty and enterprifing (2), and power-
ful enough to affift fuch as would attempt to difturb him.



.48



The Earl of Lincoln's retreat into Fianderl, prefently alter
Simncl's arrival in Ireland, left him no room to queftion,
there Was a defign formed between the Earl and the
Duchefs of Burgundy, to fupport the pretended Earl of
[Warwick. So, fearing the (form would divide and fall
upon him both from Flanders and Ireland, he refolved to
have two armies, under the command of the Duke of
Bedford and the Earl of Oxford, to be ready at the fame
time to oppofe the defcent of the Flemings and Irijh, if
they mould think of attacking England. Mean while, #,,,#,,
as he was not afraid of an Invafion before Summer, he Norfolk »H
refolved to improve the leifure the Winter Seafon afforded s ^ kk
him, in taking a progrefs into the eaftern Counties of Suf- b^ob.
folk and Norfolk. There was moft danger from thofe &c -
parts, by reafon of the neighbourhood of the Lczv-Coun-
tries. When he was come to St. Edmundsbury, he heard
the Marquifs of Dorfet was haftening to clear himfelf of
fome Imputations laid to his Charge, and to offer his fer-
vice. But the King believing, that after what he had
lately done to the Queen Dowager, the Marquifs her Bro-
ther could have no great affeftion for him, rcfufed to re-
ceive him, and fent the Earl of Oxford to meet him, with
orders to carry him to the Tower. He let him know
however, that after the troubles were appeafed he fhould
willingly hear him, and if he caufed him to be arrefted,
it was purely to provide for his own fafety, by preventing
his hearkening to thofe that might give him ill advice (3)°
Then, he came to Norwich (4), from whence he went n* retire, «
in Pilgrimage to our Lady of IValfmgham (5), after which London.
he returned to London (6).

It was not till the beginning of May, that the Earl of Ti ' Bm .' r
Lincoln, the Lord Love/, and Martin Swart, failed for L " c " ln "•
Ireland, with the two thoufand Germans raifed by the fcri"„"
Duchefs of Burgundy , at her own expence. Prefently M *y- '
after their arrival at Dublin, they proceeded to the Co- Sin " Kl "
ronation of the pretended King, which was performed Dobl'a "
with great Solemnity, in the prefer.ee of the Earl of Kit- J- w »«-
dare, the Chancellor, and the reft of the great Officers.
He was crowned with a Crown taken from the head of
the Virgin's Statue in St. Mary's Church. There were
but two or three Bifhops that refufed to acknowledge the
new King (7). The Hiftory of Ireland fays, that the Hi » .
pretended Sovereign fummoned a kind of Parliament,
where the Clergy granted the Pope a Subfidy, for fear the
Court of Rome fhould take occafion from thefe proceed-
ings to trouble them.

The Coionation being over, a great Council was held &,,*&«
to confult what was next to be done. Their fuccefs in «M«n
Ireland, where not a Sword was drawn for Henry, made | n s lanii -
them expeel great matters in England. The Leaders ""'
fancied, they were in a much better Condition to over-
throw Henry, than Henry himfelf was when he palled in-
to England, to overthrow Richard III. They i'carce
doubted of Succefs, being fure, as they imagined, the £&■
glifi) for the moft part would rife in their favour. How-
ever, fome were for making Ireland the Seat of the war.
They alledged, as the chief reafon, that Henry would never
venture to come over in perfon, or in cafe he quitted Eng-
land, his abfence would occafion in the Kingdom Infur-
redlbns which would greatly promote the Affairs of the
new King. Had this advice been taken, Henry would
have been very much embaraffed. In that cafe, he muft
have had two ftrong armies on foot, one to fubdue /«•
land, the other to keep all quiet in England. It is eafv
to fee, that at fuch a juncture it would not have been pru-
dent to leave England without Troops, both by reafon of
the Correspondents, the Rebels might have there, and the
neighbourhood of the Duchefs of Burgundy, who would
have taken advantage of fuch a neglect. Accordingly,
Henry, as I obferved, had already refolved to have two
armies. But others on the contrary represented, that
Ireland was not able to pay the German Troops, much
lefs maintain a long war. That befides, the (landing up-
on the defenlive in Ireland wjs not the way to dethrone
Henry, but the attacking him in England, where it was
likely, they fhould meet with many friends. This ad-
vice was Strengthened by another reafon, which was net
alledged, but however was the real motive thereof name-
ly, that the Germans and hijlt were in hopes of making
their fortunes in England, whereas in Ireland, they had
fcarce wherewithal to fubfift. So, it was refolved to pafs
immediately into England, in the fame Veflels that had
tranlported the Germans. Mean while, Henry hearing of*
the Earl of Lincoln's arrival in Ireland with the foregn






(1) This year., on Ncrvcmh. zy , King Henry granted Bernard Andrew,, his Poet Laureat, an Annuity of ten Marks. Rymtr', Fad. Tom. la.

(») The Lotd Bacon ebferves, flae had ,he Spirit of a Man, and the Malice of a Woman, p. 585.

(3 Adding, That he fhou id always be able, (when he had cleared himfelf) to make him Reparation. Bac.n, p. 586.
H, Where he kept his Cbr:Jlm.,Js. Hall, fol. 9.

(5) This place was once famous throughout England for Pilgrimages to the Virgin Mary. For in thofe days, whoever had not made a ViCt and
an Ottering to our Lady of ff-a/fingban,, was looked upon as impious and irreligious. Camb. in Norf.ii.
(o) By the w ,y ot Cambridge, hat:, fol. 9. H'.Itingfb. p. 1430.
(7) Namely, the Archbilhops of Cajbet and Tuam, and the Bifliops of Chgber and OJbry. Bymtr's Ftd. Tom. is. p. 332.



Troops,



Book XIV.



19. HENRY VII.



6J9



,487. Troop.", was no longer embaraffed, fince he had only to
Henry "f- defend himielf from one quarter. So, giving orders, that
femilti t>n a ]| |jj g jr ofCes fhouk! affemble near Cm/entry, he repaired
Cowntry. '" perfon to that City, which lies in the Center o, the
Hill. Kingdom, till he had certain advice of the defigns of his

enemies.
simnel ar- Some time after, he heard that Simncl was I.mded in
rims m Lancajhirc (1), in Company with the Earls of Lincoln and
HjSl" ' Kildare, the Lord Lovel and the German General. Sir
Baron. Thomas Broug'jton joining the Rebels with a fmall body

Hollingft. f Englijh, they all marched together towards York, with-
out committing any Act: of Holtility in their rout, in or-
der to draw the People to their fide. But they found
themfelvcs deceived in their expectation. Not a Man,
except what Broughton had brought, took arms in their
favour, the Englijh not liking at all to receive a King at
Eacnn. l ' K hands of tlie Irijh and Germans. The Earl of Lin-
Hnll. cob'., who commanded the Army, had refolved to avoid

•the Earl of fighting, in expectation of being joined by great numbers
(»/*>« ro ot Male-contents. But feeing the People's coldncls, lie
fight, thought he fhould come to a Battle as foon as poffible,

left his A-. my, which was but eight thoufand (hong,
fhould diminifh inliead of incrcafing. So, changing his
rout on a fudden, he marched to wards Newark, in hopes
to become mailer of that place be;ore the King fhould
arrive.
llv Km* Mean while, Henry was advanced as far as Nottingham,

marcbti to where he held a Council of War. He had yet drawn to-
Hall! n8lUJn " S ether lnlt fix thoufand Men, and for that reafon feveral
Eicon, advifed him to decline fighting till the reft of tiie Troops
which were expected, had joined him. But he was of
another opinion. As he could not believe that the Earl of
Lincoln had formed fuch an enterprize, without aifurances
of being affifted, he judged it requilite to give him Battle
without delay. Two days after he faw his Army reinfor-
ced with five or fix thoufand men (2), whereupon all the
rcafons againlt the rcfolution, he had taken, entirely vanifh-
cd. As foon as he had reviewed thefe new Troops, he
detached feveral parties of Li^ht-Horfe to difcover the Eail
of Lincoln's defigns, and being informed, he was advan-
cing towards Newark, refolved to prevent him. To that
enJ he marched with fuch expedition, that he encamped
Battle of between the Enemies Army and Newark. The Earl of
Sroke. Lincoln advanced that day to a little Village called Stoke,

jj^jj ' where he encamped on the fide of a Hill. Next Mom-
Bacon, ing being Jane the 6th (3), Henry offered him Battle,
Hollingth. leaving only in the Plain a fpace to ferve for the field.
But he was debarred of one great advantage, in that the
ground being narrow, would not allow him to extend the
Front of his Army, which was more numeitous than that
of the Enemy. For which reafon he was forced to draw
up his Army into three lines, having taken care to place in
the firft all Iks beft Tioops to the number of fix thou-
fand Men. Probably the Earl of Lincoln had delignedly
chqfen that ground, in hopes, that if he could defeat the
King's firft line, they would fall foul on the reft of the
Army and put them in diforder, as it happened to Ri-
71* Kin? chard III in the Battle of Bofwartb. In effect, it was the
;.-fs the King's firft line only that fought. They ftood for three
Viliory. Hours the efforts of the Germans, who being ufed to War,
and well difciplined, fought with great order, and infpired
Eirl of the Irilh with Courage. At length the Earls of Lincoln
Lincoln and Kildarc (4), and Afartin Swart being flain on the
£?'?' pl.ice, and molt of the Germans killed or wounded, the
Stow. Irijh took to flight, not being able alone to refift the Eng-
H llingfh. l\jh. It is faid, there were at leaft four thoufand killed on
the fide of the Rebels, and half of the King's firft line.
Which fhows with what obftinacy it was fought on both
fides (5).
Simnel ti Among the Prifoners were found the new King of Ire-
tak : n and land, become Lambert Simncl as before, and the Prieft his
IsnJiScuL Companion and InftruSor. Henry, either out of Generality
lion, tbm or Policy, was pleafed to give Simnel his life, and to honour,
Faulaitr. w j tn the office of Turn-fpit in his Kitchen, the Perfon that
had boldly aipired to the Throne, and even worn a Crown.
Some time after he was preferred to be one of the King's
Tbt Pritjl Faulconeis [in which office he died. ] As for the Piieft,
"'""^ he was immediately committed clofe Prifoner, and heard
B ic ^n. of no more. Some imagined he was privately put to
Hoilinglh. death, others that the King was pleafed to (pare his life,
in order to learn the moft fecret circumftances of the con-
fpiracy, and it may be, to confront him with the guilty,



if there was occafion. However it docs not appear in Hit- 14X7.
tory, that Henry made any difcovery by that means. At
lea!*, there was nothing divulged. If the Queen Dowager
wa* in the Plot, fhe could not be more rigoroufly punilh-
ed than fhe was already, unlels (he was brought to the
Scaffold. As for the Duche's of Burgundy, fhe had no
occafion to fear any Proceedings againft her. It is faid
the King was extremely forry for the death of the E^rl
of Lincoln, which robbed him of the fatisfaction of know-
ing all the particulars of the Plot. As for the Lord Lo- ibtU
vel, fome fay he was drowned in attempting to fwim the Lr,vd V-
Trent, others affirm, he was (lain in the Battle. Some ££" "'
again report, that he fpent the relidue of his life in a Hal/.
Cave. Be this as it will, he appeared no more from that BjCon -
time.

Prefcntly after the Battle, the King marched to Linc;ln, Swat
where he made fome ftay, and then went to York. In Mf< ' •
his way, weie tried many perfons accufed of holding in- sHf" ,mn
telligence with the late Rebels. It is true, moft of them C " c '„.
were punifhed only by Fines, the King's (ble aim being " '•
to fill his Coffers. A, id therefore he chol'e rather that "' '
thefe Trials fhould be ended by Commiifioncrs ot his own
appointing, or by a Court Martial, than by the ul'u 1
courfe ot fuftice, which was not (0 favorable to hi
fign. For, in accufations of this Nature, the Laws of
England admit ot no medium between death and abfo-
lute discharge, and the King would have neither. Bi.t
Commhfioners and Court Mart.als are not fo fni.tly con-
fined to the Letter of the Law (6), but judge in a mora
arbitrary manner. Therefore the frequent incroachment,
of what is called in England the Martial Law, upon the
privileges of the People, lias been the caufe of reducing it
within juft bounds, fo that it cannot take place but bv^an
Act of Parliament made for that purpofe (,). As for ad-
minillring jaftice by Com miff ioners, it is true the K'-.y
has (fill that prerogative, but then he feldom ufes it, and
in certain cafes only by Com millions of Oyer and Termi-
ner (a 1 ) as they are called. It is certain, Henry ttraon this
occafion difcovered his covetous and fellifh Temper. He
pretended to favour the guilty in (paring their lives: But
this Clemency was more than balanced by his feve.itv,
in ftripping them of their pofleffions. The crime thev
were charged with was not of having affifted the Rebel.-,
but of having railed and difperfed a report Come days be-
fore the Battle, that the Royal Army was cut in pieces.
The King ("uppofing that fuch a report was fpread only to
difcourage his friends, and hinder them from bringing
him Troops, made ftrict Inquiry after tho r e that were
fufpected of this new ioi t of crime. As his fole aim was
to make an advantage of the Fines and Confiscations, the
perfons commiffioned for judges were more read/ and
lefs fcrupulous to favour his detign, than if the lives of the
parties accufed had been at ftake. It may be eafily gueli-
ed the King made choice of the fitted: perfons for his pur-
pofe. His Hiftorian fays, that Henry's progrefs to Lin- ^
coin and York, ^was more like an itinerary Circuit of Juf-
tice, than a King's progrefs to vilit his Counties.

When the King had drawn what he wanted from the
guilty or fufpeited perfons, he fent for a papal commif- Bj " "/*'
(ion, to impower the Archbiihop of Canterbury to abfolve KAdi. "
thofe that had incurred the Penalty of Excommunication A "B- -•
decreed by the Bull before-mentioned. Fhe Pope in this £,[' P ""!'
Commmiflion took for granted, that they who had at- p5;+ '
tempted to difturb Henry in the poffeffion of the Crown,
weie (truck with bitter remorfe, and therefore he was
willing, from a motive of charity, to eafe their ronfeience.
But it was evident, that this was only for a further Sup-
port of the King's title.

At the fame time Innocent VIII fent a Bull to reftrain Another en.
a little the privileges of Sanctuary. It ran, That if"""
Thieves, Murderers, Robbers, regiftered as Sanctuary- %";*''"'
Men, fhould ("ally out and commit frefh offences, and en-
ter again, in fuch cale they might be taken out of their
Sanctuaries by the King's Officers. That as for Debtors
who had taken Sanctuary to defraud their Creditors, their
perfons only fhould be protected, but their goods out of
Sanctuary fhould be liable to feizure. As tor Traitor:;,
the King was allowed to appoint them Keepers in tiieir
Sanctuaries to prevent their efcape. Certainly it was a
great abufe to make Churches i'erve to protect Villains.
It had been long complained of in England, and probably
the King had applied (or a reformation, but could obtain



(1) He lardsd at the Py/e of Foivdrey nenr Lancajler. Hall, fol. a.

(a; With them came George Talbot Earl cf Shrewsbury, the Loid Strange, Sir John Cheney, and of other Knights and Gentlemen at ieaii three -
tcore and ten. Bacon, p. 5S7. Polydore Virpil hath a Lift of them. Vit. Hen. 7.
(3) Hall, St:v> and Hollinfjhead fay, it was the 16th j and Sir J. Wa^e the 20th.
(+) s, r ?*!"" Ware lays, it was nomas Fitzgerald, who according to h;m is etioneoufly called the Earl, that wai killed.

(5) In this B?.lt;e Sir 'tbmas Bmiglttm is faid by cur Hiftorlans to fall alfo j but Camden fays, it is a nultake, and thai he efcaped to Wither*
fiack, a M.'nor of his in Wejlmorelard, where he lived a gocd while incognito among his Tenants, and where he died and was buried: nis Grave be-
ing lenewn, and to be fcen at this day. Camden. Lar:c.ijh.

(6) Martial Law depends upon the iuft but arbitrary Power and P.leafure cf the King, or his Lieutenant. : ee Jacob fub voce Martial Law.

(7) Th; putting any man to death by Mattial Law, in time of Peace, was adjuoged to be againlt Ma^r.a Cba-ta, aid Murder. 3 Iniit - 2
But ten-forary Acts of Parliament fav; of late eiatlcd our Kinos to hold Couits Martial in urn: pi Peace. See 4 and 5 ;/';.'/. and Afar. \. i\

18} Two old Frenct words, fignilyiig to hur and %i;lemiiw, ' ''

only



6 So



the B 1 S T R T of E N G L A N D. Vol I.



14.87-. en!) What We have juft feen. Alexander VI confirmed
I , [Jul! in 1493.
.-. , .. i,i the Kinr's progrefs to Lincoln and York, he had fre-
' '• quent occafion to perceive that his partiality to the Houfe
of York, and injurious Treatment of" his Queen in refu-
fjng to have her croWhed, were the main Springs of the
!u .iiwih. p£ a „i e ' 3 difcohtent. So, contrary to his inclination, and
with a fole view to prevent future troubles, he refolved at
Lift to do her that Juflice. He came to London the be-
ginning of November, where he made a triumphant entry.
Next day he went in Proceffion to St. Paul's, and had Te
Daan lung for his victory over the Rebels. He was ve-
ry glad to render it as confpicuous as poffible, in order
Afl. l'ub. t0 drike terror into his Enemies. Then he commiflioned
XII. p 328. (he Duke of Bedford to execute the office of High-Stew-
ard at the Queen's Coronation, which was performed on
the 25th of November, with the ufual Solemnities. The
Queen was then one and twenty years old, and had now
been married two years. So the King's affected delay of
her Coronation, could not but be deemed a confequence
of a fettled defign to humble the Houfe of York, and the
Queen in particular, whom the King confidered as his
Rival. Accordingly, as it was ealily perceived, that his
refolution to have her crowned immediately after Si/nnel's
Affair, was the effect of his fear, he was not thanked for
fjfartyiifi if it, becaufe he was believed to do it with regret. He
,/.''"!/"' likewife releafed the Marquifs of Dorfet without examina-
B«on. ''"n, probably to give the People Tome fatisfaction. He
Hulling, intended to have it thought an Act of Grace, and withal
to leave the Marquifs in the fear of being ftill called to an
ftccount. But it is to be prefumed, that fince he was fo lit-
tle inclined to fliow mercy to the York'ijh, he would not
have difcharged the Marquifs fo eafily, had there been
proofs to convict him.
Fnb.i[Ty 10 Towards the end of the year, Horry fent a folemn
tie ['ope. Embairy to the Pope, wherein the AmbaiTador that was
Bacon. Spokefman diifinguifhed himfelf by his exceifive Encomi-
ums of the King his Mader. His praifes would have
pafTed for extravagant, if his commendations of the Pope
had not made them feem very moderate.
i-y'h'l '" Dur '"g tne King*s ftay at York (1), after the Battle of
l.uchana'n. Stoke, publick difturbances in Scotland gave him an oppor-
to«ll. tunity to enter into a Negotiation with 'James III, from

which he hoped to reap fome advantage. I have fpoken of
James's Character in the Reign of Edward IV, and
Ihown how odious he had rendered himfelf to his great
Men, even to their being forced to hang his Favorites.
The War made upon him by Edivard IV, and hie danger
of being dethroned, feemed to have fomething moderated
his pailions, or at lead, obliged him to fhow them lefs.
But the Death of Prince Alexander his Brother, and of
Edward IV, and the troubles in England during the
Reign of Richard III, giving room to believe he had no-
thing more to fear, he returned to his former courfes.
Without reflecting any more on the risk he had run, he
entirely gave himfelf up to a new Sett of Favorites, Men
of mean Birth, and no lefs odious to the Nation than the
former. But this was a trifle in comparifon of the defign
he afterwards formed. As lie harboured in his Bread a
violent delire of revenge upon the great Men who had of-
fended him, he refolved to difpatch at once all thofe whom
he confidered as his principal Enemies. To that end he
careffed them exceedingly, and became very familiar with
them, the better to furpnfe them. When by this difii-
mulation he had drawn almoft all of them to Court,
he communicated his defign to the Earl of Douglafs,
and told him, he did not intend to neglect fo fair an
opportunity of deftroying all his Enemies at once. Doug-
iafs feigned to approve his refolution, but privately warned
the Lords of their danger, and retired with them from
Court. The King being difappointed, refolved to execute
his defign by open force, and levied Troops for that pur-
pofe, but the Lords likewife armed for their defence. As
all mutual confidence was dedroyed, and nothing to be
expected from an agreement with fuch a Prince, they
found means to gain his Son, by making him apprehen-
five, they were going to deliver Scotland to the King of
England, if he would not put himfelf at their head. As
foon as the Prince had joined the Lords, their party grew
fo powerful, that the King beginning to repent his enter-
prize, propofed an agreement. But he was told, there
was no other way to a reconciliation than the King's re-
fignation of the Crown to his Son. All hopes of Peace
vanifhing upon this propofal, James fhut himfelf up in the
Cattle of Edinburgh, from whence he difpatched Ambaffa-
dors to the Pope, and the Kings of France and England,
to defire their affiftance.



HJlingfh.



It was in September, whilit Henry was at Yafk, that the T4S-.
AmbafTadors of Scotland came to him, under coloar of T na b "f
treating of fome .differences concerning the riiherv of the lcr ;"" 7 - ■"■



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