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river Eske. Henry, who had an admirable talent at turn- Scotland.
ing all things to his advantage, thought this a good op- A r a Pub '
portunity to be rid at once of the Queen his Mother-in- \ .1^.
law, and her two Daughters, by marrying them in Sect-
land. For that purpofe he fent to King James, Richard
Fox Bifhop of Exeter, and Sir Richard Edgccomb, who
agreed with him (z) upon the following articles, with
their Mailer's plealure.

?.';..:■ a-

: -
Nov. -
p. V-o.

I. That purfuant to a former agreement, the Marquifi
of Ormond, a Scotchman, fticuld marry Catherine, the
third Daugh;er of Edward IV.

II. That King James fhould efpoufe Elizabeth Widow
of Edward IV, and Mother to the Queen of England.

III. That James Duke of Rothfay, elded Son of the
King of Scotland, fhould marry another of Edward IVs

IV. That the King of England fhould rcfign for ever
to the King of Scotland, the Town of Berwick

V. That, in order to fettle the Articles and Conditions
of the three Marriages, Commiffioners on both fides fhould
meet at Edinburgh the 24th of January next, and ano-
ther afiembly be field upon the fame fubjoft in May.

VI. That the two Kings (hall have an interview irt

VII. Laflly, That the Truce concluded between the
two Kingdoms, being to expire July the 3d, 1488, fhould
be prolonged to the cdof September 14S9.

As for the fuccours which James expected from Henry,
they were not mentioned in thefe Preliminaries. Pro-
bably, King James's Ambailadors were faiisried witii a
verbal promife.

Henry ratified thefe Articles, the 20th of December, but p. 351.
the King of Scotland's ratification is not with Henry's in
the Collection of the Publick Afls. Perhaps Jan.es was
prevented by the troubles in his Kingdom, which dailv
increafed, and caufed likewife this project to vanifh i'.to
air, as will be fern under the next year.

The War continued all this time in the Lr.v-Ccnr.'.rics, Afairief
between Charles VIII and Maximilian, to the advantage lit Low -
of the fird, whofe Troops furprized St. Omcr, and Te- £ u j£j*\
rouenne. Some time after, Alaximilian having caufsd the
Lord Ruffingheim to be carried away and conducted to
IFihorde, the Prifoner found means to efcape and retira
to Gaunt. Upon his arrival, he dirred up the Ganfois to
revolt, and take arms againd Maximilian. This war was
of very great Confequence with regard to the affairs of
Brctagne, of which it is neceffary at prefent to give a
particular, though brief^account, becaufe they are to be
the fubjecf. of the Hidory of the five following years.

The King of France, and the Lords of Bniazne had .* t »
treated together with very different views. l he Lords Breta|tn«>
imagined, it Was an excellent means to fecure them from Arpentri.
the defigns of their Duke, and Charles perceived, it was Baion.
an infallible wav to conquer Bretagne.

In the beginning of the Spring 14S7, Charles fent four C>wfe»-
armies into Brctagne, from four different quarters. The

gnat p»

fird alone was fix thoufand drong, which exceeded al-
ready the number he had promifed to find by the Treaty. Bicugns*
Upon news of this Invafion, the Duke of Bretagne feeino-
himfelf forfaken by almolt all his Borons, retired into the
Center of his Country, being accompanied by the Duke
of Orleans, the Prince of Orange, the Earl of Lhinois,
and fome other French Lords of the Duke of Orleans's
Party. He daid fome time at Malctroit, where he very
hadily aiTembled an army of fixteen thoufand Men. ill
armed, and undifciplined, by reafon of the long Peace £•■-
tcgne had enjoyed.

The Duke's Court was in fo great Confternation, that
none knew what courfe to take to refid fo formidable an
Invafion. Indeed, means were found to engage the Lord
d' Albret, then in Navarre, to take the Duke's part, on
promife of a Marriage with the Prmcefs Ann, Heirefs of
Bretagne. The Duke himfelf, and all tie red of the
Lords, the Duke of Orleans excepted, gave it under thcif
hands to procure him this Marriage, but without inten-
tion to perform their word. The Duke of Bretagne did
not think him confiderable enough for his Daughter.
The Earl of Dunois defined to marry the young prin-
cefs to the Duke of Orleans, and the Prince of Orangi
was privately labouring to procure this rich match for ths
King of the Romans. Thus this engagement was only
intended to perfwade the Lord d' Albret to withdraw two

(1) f/a.V and Hotting/bead fay, That it was during his flay at Ktwccijlle, where he (pent the reft of ihe Surrnner. foj. ir. p 143a. £tyu\
p. 471.

(21 On Ntvemb. ;S. Ryrr.er's Fad. Tom. 12. p. 329,


Book XIV.



gntbifj if

France to

Henry about





The Frrnch

JifcLwfe to
tie King,

The King*!

The King ha I
a "wrong No-
tion of the
War of

Troops of Men at Arms, which he had in the French
Army, and fend them into the Duke of Bretagne's Ser-
vice. Poor refuge upon fo preffing an occafion !

Mean while, the French being joined in one body, ad-
vanced into the Country, and laid Siege to Ploermel.
The Duke of Bretagne immediately marched to the re-
lief of that place, but had the mortification to fee him-
felf forfaken by his army, of which thcie remained not
with him above four thoufand Men. Surprized at this
unexpected accident, he retired to Varum. But the French,
now mailers of Ploermel, purfued him fo briskly, that he
was obliged to embark in great diforder, and (hut him-
felf up in Nantz. The French improving this Confter-
nation, took Vannes and D inant, and then befieged Nantz.
Some time before, the Duke had fent the Earl of Dunois
to England to defire affiftance. But though the Earl had
embarked four feveral times, contrary winds had ftill hin-
dered him from purfuing his Voyage. Mean while, the
Marfhal de Rieux head of the Male-contents, perceiving
King Charles fo ill obferved the Treaty, complained of
it in ftrong terms. But inftead of receiving any fatis-
faftion, he was told, that great offence was taken at his

Whilft Charles was employed in the Siege of Nantz, he
heard, the King of England had obtained a fignal Victory
over his enemies, and the affair of the pretended Earl of
Warwick was entirely ended. 'Till then he had believed
him fo embarrafTed at home, that he had not vouchfafed to
fay any thing to him concerning the war with Bretagne.
But when he knew him freed from his troubles, he fent
AmbafTadors to try to divert him from any delign he might
have to interpofe in that affair.

The AmbafTadors found the King at Lcictjlcr, where
they had their Audience. They told him, that the King
their mafter confideiing him as his beft friend, had fent
them to impart to him the Succefs of his arms in Flanders,
and withal to congratulate him upon his Victory over his
rebellious Subjects : That they were moreover charged to
tell him, that the King their mailer was forced to enter
into a juft war with the Duke of Bretagne, who had re-
ceived the Duke of Orleans, declared enemy of France,
not to protect him, but folely with a view to aid him to
raife Commotions in the Kingdom, by lending him the
affiftance of his arms : That the King of France could
not omit taking proper meafures to prevent his pernicious
defigns, and therefore his war with the Duke of Bretagne
was properly defenfive only, though he had caufed an
army to enter his Dominions : That he that gave the
firft blow, was not to be deemed the Aggrcflbr, but he
that gave the Provocation : That the Duke of Bretagne
could not deny that he had harboured in his Dominions,
nay, in his very Court, French Rebels, and formed plots
with them very prejudicial to France, without being able
to complain of any injury : That therefore the King their
mafter hoped from his Wifdom and Juftice, that before
he concerned himfelf in the war, he would weigh the ill
Confequences of a Protection given to rebellious Subjects,
contrary to the Law of Nations, and the moft folemn
Treaties, particularly by a Homager : That if he was fome-
thing obliged to the Duke of Bretagne, on the other hand,
he had not, doubtlefs, forgot the aid he had received from
the King of France, when the Duke of Bretagne had not
only abandoned him, but was even going to deliver him
to his enemy : That this aid was given contrary to the
Intereft of France, fince it would be better for her, that
a Tyrant, odious to all his Subjects, fhould reign in Eng-
land, than fuch a Prince as himfelf: That therefore, the
King their mafter hoped, he would not undertake the de-
fence of the Duke of Bretagne in fo ill-grounded a quarrel,
but on the contrary, affift his real friend, or at leaft, ftand

The AmbafTadors avoiding, as a rock, to fpeak of their
mafter's defign to conquer Bretagne, the King thought not
proper to mention it in his anfwer, though it was not
difficult to perceive it through all their difguifes. He con-
tented himfelf with telling them, that of all perfons, he
was moft obliged to the King of France, and the Duke of
Bretagne. For which reafon he was extremely defirous to
give them both real marks of his Gratitude. That there-
fore he would, on the prefent occafion, difcharge the duty
of a true friend, by endeavouring amicably to end their dif-
ferences, and very fpeedily fend them AmbafTadors to offer
his mediation.

Henry was not fo blind, but he faw the King of France's
intent. But unhappily for Bretagne, he was poffeffed with
a notion, that Charles would never be able to execute his



defigns. His belief was founded upon the Force' of B,t-
tagne, which had hitherto fuccefsfully rcfifkd France; upon
the natural Levity of the French, who are eafily dif-
couraged by difficulties ; upon the troubles the Duke of Or-
leans could raife in the Kingdom, by means of his friends ;
and upon the diverfion, the King of the Romans could
make in Flanders. Purfuant to this principle, which ap-
peared afterwards to be very wrong, he refolved to become
only Mediator, without fending any effective Supplies to
the Duke of Bretagne. He did not doubt that V..
Charles would confent to an accommodation, for fear of
drawing upon him the arms of England. Indeed, it was
evidently the Intereft of the Englijh to prevent the ruin
of Bretagne, and therefore Charles muff have thought,
they would ufe their utmoft endeavours to oppofe his de-
fign. Accordingly, Henry building upon this foundation,
that Bretagne could not be fubdued, if England fcrioufly
efpoufed her quarrel, and that Charles would not believe
him fo impolitick as to fuffcr that Duchy to become a
Province of France, imagined he would readily accept of
his mediation, and defift from his enterprise. He hoped
to reap from thence two confidcraMe advantages, Firft,
the reputation of making Peace between the two Prince ,
to whom he was equally obliged. The lecond was much
more important to him. As he was naturally very co-
vetous, and as the defire of heaping up riches was the
chief end of all his projects, he perceived this affair would
furnifh an occafion to demand money of the Parliament,
under colour of affifting Bretagne, and that he might keep
this money without employing it (1).

Purfuant to this fcliemc, he fent AmbafTadors (2) to Ifel f" ! '

,17 , at in t»

and in cafe it v

biW tee

make the fame Princes.

King Charles to offer his mediation,
accepted, the AmbafTadors had orders to
offer to the Duke of Bretagne. Charles was then em-' 1 " 1 "
ployed in the Siege of Nantz, and as he hoped to be ',{'_'' "
foon mafter of the place, faw nothing more after that, B c i>.
capable of hindering iiirr: from entirely conquering .Br*- Stow.
tagne. So, all hL endeavours tended only to manage,
that the King of England fhould not ail,,, the Duke of
Bretagne before the taking of Nantz. When the Am-
bafTadors offered him the mediation of the King their
mafter, he anfwered with great diffimulation, he wil-
lingly confented, that the King of England fhould act
not only as mediator between him and the Duke of
Bretagne, but alfo as judge, and abfolute arbiter of the
peace. He was in hopes, either the Duke of Bretagne
would reject this propofal, or if he accepted it, he
fhould poffibly gain time till the taking of Nantz ; af-
ter which, he confidered himfelf as mafter of Bre-

The AmbafTadors imagining they had furmounted the Tie D^f-
greateft difficulty, repaired to the Duke of Bretagne, who "9* " ''•
was fhut up in Nantz, and made him the fame offer
from their mafter. The Duke of Orleans told them in
the name of that Prince, that at a time when his
Country v/as invaded, and ready to be f.vallowed up by
the French, he expected rather an effective fupply from
the King of England, than a mediation, which mult
be truitlefs, fince nothing was more eafy than to pro-
long the Negotiation till Bretagne was loft : That he
intreated the King to remember the favours he had re-
ceived in Bretagne, and confider of what confequence it
was to England to hinder that Dukedom from becoming
a Province of France. The AmbafTadors returning with Charles
this anfwer to King Charles, he took occafion to tell^^J*^
them, that for his part, he was very defirous of Peace, „ bis adz-an-
as plainly appeared by his propofal, but was forry to'^'.
find that the Duke of Bretagne, belet by the Duke of
Orleans, would never confent, without being forced by
the continuation of the War. This he artfully inftilled
into the AmbafTadors, who at their return into England,
told the King, it was proper to leave the Duke of
Bretagne in his prefent ill circumftances, that he might
be induced of himfelf to defire the rejected Media-

Mean while, the Siege of Nantz was vigoroufly carried T<* BtiTtf
on (3). Charles, probably, would have at laft taken £|J£tf,
the place, had not the Earl of Dunois been detained in.s,
lower Bretagne by contrary Winds. Whilft he was in Nam
thofe parts, the Inhabitants of the Country hearing their r "
Duke was befieged in Nantz, affembled to the number of
fixty thoufand Men, with a refolution to relieve him.
The Earl of Dunois perceiving them in this difpofition,
put himfelf at their head, and approached Nantz, the
French not daring to attack the undifciplined multitude.
On the contrary, they contracted their quarters for their


(1) Befides, he was poffeffed with many fecret Fears touching his own People, and therefore was loth to put weapons into their hands. Baan, p. 590.

(2) Cbrijhfher Urfwuk his Chaplain. Ibid.

{I) During this Siege, King Charles, the better to maintain his Diffimulation, fent Bernard Lord D'aubigney to King Her.ry, eameftlj defiring him, to
make an end ia fome manner or other of this War and Controverly between him and the Duke of Bretagne. Accordingly, Henry dilpatchid the Abbot at
dbingdm, Sir Richard Edgecombe, and Chrijlofbtr Urfwilk to France. Hal', foL 13. Bacon, p. 590. Hsllingfread, p. 1431.

No. XXXIV. Vol. I,

% E




Vol. I.

1487. better defence, and fo left the Earl of Dunois free to

throw fuccours into the Town. Which done, he fud-

denly retired, not defiring to fight the French Army

with fuch Troops. This fo feafonable a relief, obliged

Henry is the French to retire, in defpair of taking the place. The

tmfirn m rSL [f ln a f the Siege confirmed Henry in his belief, that

toll ivronp O ^ » '

» • 1/ tie the conqiieft of Bretagne was too difficult for France. So,
f pel filling ftill in his refolution to ftand neuter, he had
hot even the thought of fending fuccours to the Duke
of Bretagne. He pretended however, to have his intereft
at heart; but it was only to procure a Subfidy from the
Parliament, which he had fummoned for the 9th of AV

Hall. vernier. Mean while, he fent again the fame Ambalfa-

dors to King Charles and the Duke of Bretagne, under
colour of being perfedtly informed of the ftate of this
affair, in order to lay it before the Parliament, though
he knew beforehand what anfwer they were to bring

v.', iville About this time Edward Lord JFoodville, the Queen's
° jd , Uncle, defired the King's licenfe to go and ferve the Duke

'!. ■■ D:.i ■■ .1 ' of Bretagne with a Troop of Voluntiers. Henry denied

Bretagne. hj s requert, not thinking proper to aid one of the parties
when he was offering them his mediation. Neverthelefs
IVooilville failed from the IJle of Wight [of which he was
Governour,] with four hundred Men into Bretagne,
This aid, though inconfiderable, made agreatnoife at the
Comt of France. Charles publickly complained of it; but
as Henry denied that the Lord IFoodville had carried
thefe Troops to the Duke with his confent, was con-
tented with that fatisfaciion. He was very careful, at
fuch a juncture, not to quarrel with Henry for fo (hull a

The turds 0/ Before the Englijh Ambaffadors arrived in Bretagne,
retapnea™ t here had been in that Country a revolution prejudicial
to tne King or trances affairs. 1 he Lords of Bretagne
who had treated with him, plainly perceiving his inten-
tion was to conquer the Duchy, made their peace with
the Duke, and obtained a full pardon. The Marfhal de
Rieux, their head, was the laft to comply. He would
firft be thoroughly convinced of the French King's de-
figns, which yet he only fufpectcd. For that purpofe,
alter privately treating with the Duke of Orleans, he
fent a meiTengcr to the King to tell him, that the
Duke of Orleans offeied to quit Bretagne with all his fol-
lowers ; and therefore, fince the French Troops had en-
tered Bretagne only to expel that Prince, he moft
humbly befought him to recall them, purfuant to his
Treaty with the Barons. Ann of Beaujeu, who was




tie Duke.
June zo.

fcrve for foundation to demand a Subfidy for the defence 1 487.
of Bretagne, though he Hill believed the affair might be
adjufted, without drawing the Sword. His fole aim was
to make the Parliament apprehenfive of the lofs of Bre-
tagne, that they might more readily fupply him with
money, which he intended to put entirely into his Cof-

The Parliament met the 9th of November, juft after the " n " *"$—
return of the Ambaffadors. Care had been taken to di- "'■'■' '""'''•
vulge the report they had brought to the King, to prepare
the Commons to make a powerful effort in the defence of
Bretagne. The Archbifhop of Canterbury (1) as Loid
Chancellor, opened the Scffion with a Speech to both
Houfes to this effect :

" That the King thanked his Pailiament for the Acts Ti f Ciait-
" parted in his favour at their laft meeting : That he wasjT^j
" fo well fatijfied of their affection, that he had made it a Bacon.'
" rule to himfelf to communicate to fo good fubjecis all
" affairs, as well foreign as domeifick, that might happen,
" and that one now occurred, concerning which he deiired
" to have their advice.

" That the King of France (as no doubt they had heard)
" was making fierce War upon the Duke of Bretagne :
" That he alledged for reafon the protection given bv the
" Duke of Bretagne to the Duke of Orleans ; but others
" gueffed a very different motive : That both parties had
" applied to the King, one to pray him to ftand neu-
" ter, the other to defire a powerful aid : That the King
" having offered his mediation, found the French King
" ready to treat, but without difcontinuing the War :
" That the Duke on the contrary, though he was very
" defirous of peace, and moft wanted it, was averfe to a
" Negotiation, not upon confidence of his own ftrength,
" but upon diftruft of the French Court's fincerity : That
" after fundry Embaffies tending to an amicable determi-
" nation of this affair, the King had defifted from his me-
" diation, becaufe he could neither remove the Duke of
" Bretagne's diftruft, nor perfuade the King of France to
" ceafe Hoftilities during the Treaty: That this being
" the ftate of the cafe, he defired their advice, whether
" he fhould fend fuccours to the Duke of Bretagne,
" and enter into a defenfive league with him againft
" France."

After thus ftating the queftion, he alledged feveral ar-
guments pro and con, his aim being, under colour of leav-
ing the Parliament free to determine what they fhould

haughty and proud, imagining there was no need of any judge proper, to make them fenfible of the neceffity of

Tit Freixb
l.k. Do).

The Duie
Daugiter :o

tit King of
tie R imaci

farther ceremony, told the meffenger, the King had
gone too far to recede, and would lee the iftiie of the
affair. This anfwer obliged the Marfhal to follow the
example of the reft of the Barons, and be reconcil-
ed to the Duke, who gave him the command of his

Though Charles had raifed the Siege of Nantz, he
continued his conquefts elfewhere. Soon after his Troops
took the Town of Del by ftorm ; whereupon the Duke
not thinking himfelf fafe in Nantz., thought fit to retire
to Raines. He faw himfelf extremely preffed, and )et
did not hear that preparations weie any where making for

aiding Bretagne. This neceffity was in effect fo evident,
that there was need but of a very moderate knowledge
of the interefts of the State, to fee of what confequence
it was to England to prevent the conqueft of Bretagne.
However, it is worth noting, that the King knowing how
much it concerned the Englijh to defend Bretagne, alledged
thefe reafons by the mouth of his Chancellor, only to
obtain a Subfidy, without intending however, to employ
it in fupport of the oppreffed Prince. This will plainly
appear in his whole future conduct:. The Parliament, 7s.z- A Suhfidt
cording to the King's expectation, failed not to advife himf""^/"'
to undertake the defence of the Duke of Bretagne, and jjretagnef

his relief. In this extremity, he was perfuaded by the granted him for that purpofe as large a Subfidy as had ever

Prince of Orange, to promiie Ann his eldeft Daughter to
the King of the Romans, though he had already promifed
her to the Lord d'Albret. The Prince of Orange made
him believe that Maximilian, finding himfelf concerned
to defend Bretagne, would not fail to come to his affiiran.ee
with a powerful Army. But at this very time, the revolt
of the Gantois difabled that Prince to do any thing for
Hcmy's Am- Whilft thefe things paffed, Henry's Ambaffadors in
■■J' Bretagne had frequent opportunities to be convinced
that Charles was only amufing the King their mafter, and
intended to conquer that Duchy. Hairy knew this ftill
better than they ; but was willing, their report fliould

Kivg f



been given to any former King (2) on account of a foreign
War (3).

As foon as the Parliament broke up, Henry refumed f" K ■'"/
the way of Negotiation with Charles, ftill fancying that*;.;' J/
the terrour of his Arms would lead that Prince to silfej.
agreement. The only means however to fave Bretagne, ***"■
was to fend thither a ftrong aid, and declare War with HoUiiig/h.
France, according to the Parliament's intention. But
Henry had laid another plan, founded wholly upon his
extreme defire that the affair might be decided, without
his being forced to expend the money lately received.
He was content therefore with fending Ambaffadors to He finds an
King Charles, to notify to him the Parliament's refolu- EmWB »

° * > France.

(1) Dujch: Mcrr.n.

{z) Paljdore Virgil fay<, it was a Poll-Tax Tribute in fingula capita impoGto But, according to S.'.ss, every Man was taxed to pay tbe tenth

Penny ot all Lands and Goods, p. 473. See alio Weill, for. 16. Hillingjbtad, p. 1+34 In the firft Parliament of this King, the Taxes granted were

as tollow, : I, %utmagt, which was rhree Shillings on evci y Tun of Wine, of Denizens ; and fix Shillings of Aliens, z. Pondage, that is, rn; Shilling in
the Pound of all Merchandizes imported or exported ; except Tin, for which Aliens were to pay two Shillings. -,. Tie Subfidy 1} rVi.l aid Wwlfclb, which
was thirty thiee Shillings and Four-pence of Denizens, and of Aliens three Pounds fix Shillings and Eight-pence, for evciy Sack of Wool, and for two hun-
dred and tony Woollells. And for every LaJI rfffidti Drnizens were to pay three Pounds fix" Shillings and Eight-pence j and Aliens, tluee Pounds thirteen
Shillings and Four-pence. Rjtrnr', Feed. Tom. MI. p. 3^5. The Clergy granted then the King a Tenth. /«</. p. 323-

(3) In this Parliament, the Authority ot the & l , which before fubfilied by the ancient common Laws of the Realm, wa = confirmed in certaia

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