M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Cafes by Aft 01 Parliament. This Comt cunfiTted oT'Cpunfellorsi Peers, Prelates, and chief Judges. It took cognizance of Forces, Frauds, Advances to-
wards heinous or capital Crimes not aftually commits. The other remarkable Statutes now enacted were thefe: r. That it any of the King's Servants,
tinder the degree ot a Lord, did confpjre the death 01 the King, or any of the King's Council, or Lord of the Realm, as the Lord Steward, Tiealurer, or
Comptroller, it (houjd be Felony. This Law was th, ught to lx- procured by the Lord Chancellor, who being a ftern and haughty Man, and finding he had
f.me mortal enemies in Court, provided for his ou n Safety, z. The taking and carrving away Women, having Lands and Goods, (excrpt Female-wards and
E- nd-llaves) forcibly, and againft theil wills, and the abetting of it, was made Felony. 3. It was ordained, That Clerks convict !h< uld be burned in the
Hand. 4. That the MiuiSi (hall certifj the namef of all his Prilbners at the Goal-Delivery. 5. That all Deed, of Gift made to djtraud Creditors (ball
k void. 6. That Culls (nail bu awarded to the Plaintiff, where the Defendant fueih a Writ uf Error before execution had. Sec Stent. 3 Hnrf VII ; and
Baeen, p. 504.


Book XIV.






tion. But withal, as if he was afraid of going too fat,
he declared that the War on the part of England fhould
be only dcfcniivc, and folely with rcfpect to Bretagne.

The Court of France eafily perceived by thefc pro-
ceedings, that the King of England had no great delire

King of England, the Duke of Lo-rain, had feemed to 1488,
efpoufe their quarrel ; but it did not appear that any of
them were preparing to affift them. In this extremity, a
Council wai held to confider what courfe was to be taken.
Molt were for marching to the relief of Fougeres, and

vigoroufly to pufh this affair, fince, when he ihould have joining Battle rather than fuft'er that place to be loft. The
been preparing for War, he contented himfelf with fend- Marfhal de Rieux oppofed in vain this dangerous advice,
ing Ambaffics. So, Charles told the Ambafladors, that by rcprefenting that the lofs of a Battle would infallibly

he was always ready to accept of the King of England
for Arbiter of the differences between him and the Duke
of Brctagnc ; but did not intend to fuffcr himfelf to be
amufed with a Treaty, which would only ferve to give
the Duke time and opportunity to reflore his affairs.

be attended with the ruin of Bretagne. That it would
be much wifer to delay the time till the neighbouring
Princes fhould fee their own intcrcft, fince it could not
but be extremely prejudicial to them to fufFcr Bretagne
to be fwallowed up by France. To this it was replied,

1 Duke
}>■■ ta] ik
nr.i ku 1 1
f, 1 .,

That he fhould be always willing to treat, provided it that probably Bretagne would be loft before any Succours

was not meant to require a Truce deftruitive of his in- arrived, and therefore the only way to fa\e it was a vic-

terefts. tory. The Duke of Bretagne's underloading was fo im-

The Winter procured the Duke of Bretagne a ceffation paired, that he was little able to judge foundry of an Affair

°f of Arms, which all the inftances of the King of England of fuch confequence. So fuffeiing himfelf to be governed

had not been able to obtain, as it obliged the King of by the Counfels of the Duke of Orleans and the Prince

France to put his Troops into quarters, and return to Pa- ot Orange his Nephew, he refolved to march to the re-


r/s. Moreover in March 1488, the Marfhal de Rieux re-
took / 'amies and Dinant, and garrifoned Ancennis and Cha-
leaubriant. On the other hand, the Lord d'Albret's two
Troops of Men at Arms deferted the French fervice,
and joined the Duke's Army. But this little turn of
fortune was of no long continuance. In April the King
'nts and' l0o ' c tne "^ a 6 aul > an d having retaken Ancennis and
St. Aubin. Chuteaubriant, razed them to the ground. After that, he
marched to Fougeres, and belieged at once that place and
St. Aubin du Cormier.

Mean time, the Lord d'Albret having accepted the pro-
pofal made him in the beginning of the War, came into
Bretagne to ferve the Duke with a thoufand Horfe. Upon
his arrival, he prefled the Duke to perform his promife
concerning the marriage. The Duke, who had privately
promifed his Daughter to Maximilian, being greatly em-
baraffed, put the young Princefs upon declaring, fhe
would never efpoufe the Lord d'Albret, tho' (he was not
then above eleven years old. This oppofition gave the
Duke a pretence to elude d'Albret's purfuits, till the Prin-
cefs 's obftinacy could be conquered.
He fin fir Mean while, the unfortunate Duke finding himfelf lit—
£""J? fi 'tle able to refill the French, and receiving affiftance nei-

Charles it-

•Tb, Lord
arrii es in
a: ..' f 1 ;. 1
tie Duke
about Lis
•Ibe Duke
evades bis

H. <>/

ther from Maximilian nor the King oi England, fent the
Earl of Duuois to Charles to fue for peace. Charles did
not think fit to return a pofitive anfwer. He was willing
firft to fee the fuccefs of his two Sieges. On the other
hand, he was in Treaty with Henry for a Truce which
he expecled fhortly to conclude ; and that was to deter-
mine him, either to refufe peace to the Duke, or enter
into Treaty with him. So, keeping the Earl of Dunois
ftill at Court, under divers pretences, he put him off" from
day to day, till he had received certain advice from England.
Nno Trua Shortly after, he heard that Henry had figned at IVindjor
a Truce, to commence the 14th of "July this year, and

Ennce and


Aet. Puii. to fear from England, he wholly applied himfelf to continue

xl '- P- 337»his conquefts.

Ren]ffrk on Moll certainly Henry, in leaving the Duke of Bretagne

Henry'j to the mercy of his Enemy, a£ted direEily contrary to
the Parliament's intention, which had granted him a Sub-
fidy for the affiftance of that Prince. This Truce, made
without any neceffity, when the Duke of Bretagne was
mod preffed, plainly fhews, he fuffered himfelf to be blind-
ed by the Court of France, or rather by the defire of keep

lief ot Fougeres. But upon his approach, he found the
Town had already capitulated. Then he determined to
relieve St. Aubin du Cormier, but the Governor, for want
of Provifions and Ammunition, had furrendered a few
days before.

Whilft the Duke of Bretagne was marching to St. Au-TtcDuhof
bin, all the Forces of France joined in one body, under?' 1 "
the command of Lewis de Trimouillc, for fear the Duke ,'
had intended to retake that place. In a few days, the ■• -
two Armies were fo near one another, that it was not
poflible to part without giving Battle. Whilft they were
preparing on both fides, a rumour being fpread among
the Bretons, that the Duke of Orleans and the Prince of
Orange were going to betray them, they were upon the
point ol disbanding. But the two Princes removed their
fears, by going amongft them to charge on foot. The
Battle was fought the 28th of July, with fatal fuccefs to* ':*£"' lt
the Duke of Bretagne, who was defeated with the lofs of D-.
his beft Troops. The Duke of Orleans and the Prince u V c ,'l
of Orange being taken Prifoners, the King commanded •,,.,
the firft to be confined in the Tower of Bourgcs, but fet Aig
the other at liberty. The four hundred Englijl? brought Wocdrille
over by the Lord Woodville, were almoft all (lain with '
their Leader (1). As the Englijb were then diftinguifhed
by a Red-Crofs, twelve hundred (z) Bretons were joined Hl!l -
to them with the fame Badge, to make the French be- l; **'
lieve, that frelh Succours were arrived from England. It r " : . '/'*«
may be, this gave occafion to fome to affirm, that King fejjf
Henry had already fent a frefli body of Troops to the
Duke of Bretagne. The Lord Verulam, who has writ the
Hiftory of this Reign, does not fay this, but allures us,
that eight thoufand Englijh arrived within a few days, and
offered the French Battle, who did not think proper to
accept it. Pclydore Virgil and feveral others fay the fame
thing. But herein they are miftaken. Henry had not

nam in


to end the 17th of January 1490. Thus having nothing yet made any Treaty with the Duke of Bretagne, and it

was not till after the Duke's death, and in March the next
year, that he fent, as will be feen, fix thoufand Men to
the Duchefs his Daughter.

In a few days after the Battle of St. Aubin, Leivis deRennt*
la Trimouille ordered the City of Renncs, Capital of Bre- n M" "
tagne, to be fummoned, but the Inhabitants continued firm^"'
in their Allegiance to their Sovereign.

Whilft thefe things palled in Bretagne, Henry was irf jm a it*
levying in England the money granted by Parliament, <« tteNtnb

ing the money granted by the Parliament for the aid of That was a principal Affair which he haftened extremely, "^ E n gh n a.

Bretagne. The Duke's occafion for a powerful affiftance on pretence of the Duke of Bretagne's preffing occafion s,o-.v.

could not be more preffing. Charles was in the heart of for a fpeedy affiftance. AH the Counties, except Tori/hire, Baccji.

his Country, at the head of a ftrong Army, taking his and the Bifhoprick of Durham, readily paid the Tax HolhD ^ {h -

Towns one after another, and he not able to make any impofed by the Parliament. But in thefe parts, where the

friends of the Houfe of Tori were very numerous, it was
not collected with the fame eafe. Soihe factious perfons
ftirring up the People, the Commiffioners for gathering
the Subfidy met with fo much oppofition, that they were
obliged to make application to the Earl of Northumber-
land (3), who immediately gave the Court notice [and
defired the King's direction.] The King anfwered, he

refiftance. At the fame time Henry was concluding with

France a Truce which tied up his hands, and afforded King

ami ufm an Charles time and facility to conquer Bretagne. Wherefore

7iif'" '^ h " n ' s Hiftorian, prepoffefled no doubt in his favor, and not

Bacon. " imagining, he had thus caufelefsly forfaken the poor Duke

in his diftrefs, mentions not this Truce made with France

at fo unfeafpnable a time. Moreover, he makes the Suc-

cours fent by Henry into Bretagne, to arrive there the be- would not have one penny abated of the monev granted

ginning of Augujl this year, whereas it is very certain they by Parliament, both by reafon of the urgent occafion, and

came not tilt March feven months after. Thefe affected becaufe other Counties might be incouraged to defire the

delays, which furprized all the world, proceeded wholly like mitigation. Upon this anfwer, the Earl of Northum-

from the King's wrong notion of this War, and his defire berland allembled the principal Juftices and Free-Hol-

to end it, without being obliged to ufe the money given ders of the County,' and in very imperious Terms declared

Bretagne "
nfijva to

f- -■■
An', ntie.

by Parliament.

Mean time, the Duke of Bretagne, the Duke of Orle-
ans, the Prince of Orange, and the Marfhal de Rieux, were
in the utmoit confufion. The King of the Romans, the

to them the King's intention. The rough manner in
which he fpoke to them, without fhewing any regard for
perfons who were but too much incenfed, gave them rea-
ibn to think, lie himfelf advifed the King to fuch an an-

fn jjefidi s them, there were fix thoufand Bretons flain; and twelve hundred of the Frenti,

(2) Halt fay;, feventeen hundred, fol. 15.

(3) Henry Percy, chief Ruler ef the north parts, lia'.l, hi. 16,

tUU, hi it. folBngfi. p. 1433.




Vol. I.

1488. fwer. This being rumoured in York, the Mob rofe, and
TktEarUf aflaultJng the Earl's houfe, forced it open, and murdered
WrbnT/V nim wltn feveral of his Servants. But the Mutineers did
killed by ite not reft there. Prefently after, being inflamed by one John
£?*• a Chamber an Incendiary, they fet Sir John Egrcmond at

tofilbTtb? their head, and publickly declared they were marching to
King. London to give the King battle.

The Earl if Henry being informed of this Infurredtion, fent into the
Sumy dif- North a body of Troops under the command of the Earl
' '■'"'■ of Surrey ( 1 ), whom he had releafed out of the Tower, and
received into favour, preparing to follow him in perfon
with more confiderable Forces. But whilft he was on
his way, he heard that Surrey had beaten and difperfed the
Rebels, and John a Chamber was taken Prifoner. As for
Egremond, he had the good fortune to efcape and retire
into Flanders to the Duchefs of Burgundy, whofe Palace
ihe King was a Sanctuary to all the King's Enemies. Though this
goes m to Affair was ended, Henry however purfued his Journey to
pumfha ite York, where he ordered John a Chamber to be hanged on
adcrt. a Gibbet railed in the midft of a fquare Gallows, on which
twelve of his Accomplices were hanged round about him.
Alter that, he returned to London, leaving the Earl of Surrey
Prefident of the North, and Sir Richard Tunjial his prin-
cipal Commiilioner, to levy the Subfidy, of which he
would not remit a denier.
Hi f jm to Mean time, the news of the Battle of St. Aubin being
, „ brought to the Kin?, he feemed refolved to fend a powerful

u aid Bie- . - -

aid to the Duke of Bretagne. But it was ftill in hopes
that the terror of his Arms would oblige King Charles
to confent to a Peace. This Artifice was not however ca-
pable of deceiving the Court of France, which plainly
faw through all his defigns.
Sad condition The lofs of a Battle had reduced the Duke of Bretagne
Dukt to a State worthy of pity. He could no longer fupport
Ha,-Eu S . £ne ' himfelf with his own forces alone, and faw no preparati-
on, ons for his defence, either in. Flanders or England. Henry
Holl-ngfli. nac j p Ut hj m jj, h p es of afllftance, but was not in hafte to
fend him any. As for Maximilian, inftead of being able
to aflift his future Father in-law, he was himfelf detained
Priloner in a Sedition againft him at Bruges, where feveral
of his Officers were killed. His Captivity lafted from the
beginning of January to the 15th of May, and his re-
leafe then was owing to the Emperor Frederick his Father,
who had marched into the Low-Countries at the head of
an Army to his relief. So inftead of thinking to aflift
Bretagne, he was himfelf feeking on all fides for foreign
Succours againft the Flemings. To that end, forgetting
his engagements with the Duke of Bretagne, he fent this
very year to the King and Queen of Spain, to demand in
marriage Ifabella their eldeft Daughter, and at the fame
time Jar.e their fecond Daughter for his Son Philip. The
firft of thefe demands could not be granted , Ifabella
being already promifed to the Prince of Portugal. But
Maximilian the other was effected in time. At laft in September, Phi-
r /""' "''' Up de Cleves Lord of Ravenflcin, heading the Gantois and

Germany. r L . . , ~. - _. ■/ ,,,.?,. . , .

lurprizing the City of Brujpls, Maximilian retired into
Germany, leaving in the Low-Countries, Albert Duke of
Saxony to command in his place, in the name of the Arch-
duke his Son.
The Duke f There was therefore no appearance of aid for the Duke
™fi a of Bretagne, either from England or the Low-Countries,
, r ;,or in fb- olt > from any other place. In this diftrefs, the
Charles ' unfortunate Duke humbly fued to the King of France for
Hau!-"' P eace > wno ver y re adily complied with his requeft, not
Badon, from a motive of Generality, but to put it entirely out of
his power to defend himfelf, by caufing him to lofe the
afliftance of the King of England, whofe intereft it was
to fupport him. 7'hough Henry had agreed to a Truce
with Fiance, which was not to expire till January 1490,
Charles was afraid however he would change his mind,
and aflift the Duke his Ally with all his Forces next
Campain. In order therefore to divert him from this
thought, he very willingly concluded a Peace with the
Duke of Bretagne, intending to keep it no farther than
was confiftent with his Intererts. For in his whole Con-
dud, with regard to Bretagne, he did not feem more
fcrupulous than his Father King Lewis XI was in all his
t -.. r!e S The difcuflion of Charles's pretenfions upon Bretagne,

x ' Pr '- delayed for fome time the conclufion of the Peace which
was negotiating at Verger, a Seat belonging to the Mar-
fhal de Rieux, where the King then was. Charles pre-
tending, that after the deceafe of the Duke of Bretagne,
the Guardianfhip of his Daughters belonged to him as So-
vereign Lord of the Duchy, this pretention was difputed
by the Bretons, who affirmed the Dukes of Bretagne had
never done Liege- Homage to the Kings of France, and
confequently they had no right to claim the Guardianfhip
in queftion. It was no favorable Juncture to decide, to

the advantage of the Bretons, this fo long, and as yet un- 148?.
determined difpute. But this pretenfion of Charles was
a trifle, in comparifon of another of much greater confe-
quence. He maintained, that the Duchy itfelf belonged
to him, by virtue of a certain Grant to King Lewis XI,
from the Lady de la Brojfe, Heirefs of the Houfe of Blois,
who had formerly difputed Bretagne with the Anceftors of
Francis II. This was renewing an old quarrel, which had
been ended by feveral Treaties, and particularly by that of
Guerande, whereby the Houfe of Blois relinquifhed all claim.
However, Charles infilled not obftinately upon thefe two
Articles, contenting himfelf with having intimated his
pretenfions, in order to profecute them in time and place.
So, the Treaty was concluded about the end of Augujl, Treaty of
importing, that Charles fhould remain with the places he Xf 6 " ° r
had conquered, and withdraw his Forces out of the reft Aigentre.
of Bretagne. But he did not intend to obferve this laft M< «rai.
Article. The Duke ratified the Treaty at Coyran, where
he then was, and therefore it is called by the Bretons, the
Treaty of Coyron, and by the French, the Treaty of Verger,
or Vergy.

A tew davs after, namely, on the 9th of September, Olffaijcm
died Francis II, Duke of Bretagne, in a very advanced sTetwa upon
age, and with his underftanding fo impaired, that for fomerfc death «/"
years paft, he had been uncapable of governing the State. ft ' D ""'
Ann his eldeft Daughter, about twelve years old, fucceeded
him. The Duke her Father had appointed her for Guar-
dian, the Marihal de Rieux, who was to be aflifted by the
Earl of Cominge. But Philip de Mmtauban Chancellor of
Bretagne found means to carry away the young Duchefs
to Guerande, where under colour of giving her advice, he
made her fpeak as he pleafed. This occafioned between
the Marftial and the Chancellor a quarrel, which proved
extremely prejudicial to the Duchefs, and to all the Bretons
in general.

Henry hearing of the Duke of Bretagne\ deceafe, open- Henry pn-
\y declared, that he confidered the Intereft of the y oun g't? :j! D '°J.fl
Orphan Duchefs as his own, and feemed to prepare in Hall.
earneft to aflift her. But as he knew likewife that, a few
days before the Duke's death, a provifional Treaty had
been concluded till all the King of France's pretenfions
were fettled, he did not queftion that the affair would be
ended by way of Negotiation. The Bufinefs was only to
hinder King Charles from taking advantage of the prefent
Confternation of the Bretons. This he imagined could be
effected, by loudly proclaiming his concern for the Du-
chefs's affairs. He ftill believed, Charles feared him, and
rather than break with him, would refign much of his
pretenfions. So, his aim was to become arbiter of this
difference, and avoid a war which would have forced him
to empty his Coffers.

For this purpofe it was that he fent Ambaffadors to the HtfaiisEm-
King of the Romans, to the Archduke his Son, and tb^ a "ca/es
the Kings of Spain and Portugal, to make the King of Aft. Pub.
France believe, he was labouring to form a League againft xiI - P- 33+»
him. He fent alfo an Embafly to Charles himfelf (2), 336 ~ 355 '
to prefs him to end entirely the affair of Bretagne by a
Treaty. At the fame time, he fent Edgccomb and Ainfe- and agin ta
worth to offer his affiftance to the Duchefs, and empowered A ""'
them to promife in his name, to find her fuch a number
of Troops, upon fufEcient Security for the re-payment
of the Charges. We fhall fee under the next year, to
what all thefe Embaffies tended. But before we proceed,
it will be neceffary briefly to mention the revolution in

The affair of Bretagne fo employed the Kings of France W'in 'f
and England, that James III could obtain no afliftance B ^ c t h ^ d '
from either, againft the Lords who had the Prince his Hall.
Son at their head. The Male-contents would have been
very glad to decide the quarrel by a battle. But the King
ftill kept in the Caftle of Edinburgh, where it was not
poflible to force him. Though Charles and Henry had pro-
mifed him aid, they were not very defirous to efpoufe his
quarrel. Mean while, he was ftill in hopes, and there-
fore kept clofe, expecting the performance of their pro-

Whilft his affairs were in this fituation, he was advifed
to quit the Caftle of Edinburgh for Sterling as the more
convenient place, and there expect the foreign fuccours.
James taking this advice, began his march with his few
Troops, and prefently the Lords were clofe after him.
He was however far enough before them to be fecure,
if the Governor of Sterling, bribed by his enemies, had
not refufed him admittance. So, not knowing where
to go, he refolved to return to Edinburgh ; but meeting
the Army of the Male-contents, was forced to fight ,
though much inferior in number of Troops. He was J^mes m «
killed in the Battle which was fought in the month of 'i"^'^
June. After his death, James IV, his eldeft Son, about bis s«i fie-

cads bim.

(i) Tbcv:js Howard.

(a) The Amballaaors were, Cbijlipber Urfeu/yit, Thomas Wirdt, and Stephen Frprt.

Rjmtfs FxJ. Tom. XII. p. 347.


Book XIV.

19. H E N R Y VII.





P- 34 S

! -J SQ.


j 1


•■ bn


|i ■.. .■:

A in

fifteen years old, was proclaimed in his room, by the
Lord - who had placed him at their head. But all the
Seats were not fatisfied with this change. There were
many thai refufed to own the young Prince, whom they
taxed with being the murderer of his Father, and gave
him sjreat difturbance tor fome time. In July the new
Kins lent Ambairadors to Henry to notify his acceffion
in the Crown (1 ).

On the 10th of February 14S9, the Amhafladors,
ll-nt into Bretagne, concluded a Treaty with the Duchefs,
of which the principal article was, that the King ingaged
' to fend into Bretagne an aid of fix thoufand Men. I o
confider this alone, one would be apt to imagine, Henry
acted only from a principle of generofity, or at leaft for
the intcreit of his Kingdom. But he had no fuch thought.
His fole aim was firft to hinder BretagM from being
over-run by a fudden invafion of the French., in order to
give room for a Treaty. In the next place, to draw
a, pecuniary advantage from the fuccours, fent the Du-
chefs, the expences whereof he was willing to advance,
in order to he afterwards re-paid with ufury. As this
Treaty manifeftly fhows his intereftcd views in this af-
feir, it will not he improper to infert the fubftance of
each article : Which added to what will be faid hereafter,
will ferve in great meafure to give a juft idea of this
Prince's character.

I. The antient Treaties between England and Bre-
tagne fhall be obferved.

II. There fhall bs a conftant friendfhip and alliance
between the King of England and the Duchefs of Bre-

III. They fhall mutually affift one another in cafe ei-
ther is attacked.

IV. If the King fhall carry War into France for the
recovery of Guienne and Normandy, the Duchefs fhall find
him Troops according to her power.

V. The King fhall alfo aid the Duchefs, if fhe car-
ries the War into France for the recovery of her right,
without prejudice however to the Truce concluded be-
tween England and France, which is not to expire till
the 17th of January 1490.

VI. Neither of the two parties fhall admit into his
Dominions the rebellious Subjects of the other.

VII. The King fhall fend the Duchefs at his own
charge an aid of fix thoufand Men ; upon condition,
that a fufficient number of thefe Troops be allotted to

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