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4.-5.' ' Cu " rcil ['• «■ Servant] and Page, Eighteen-pence a day : For cveiy hill' Lance, Nine-fence a day : And for t?ery Archer, either an foot or hurfe-back, Six-

H.,11. P ence a da y* See R >' K f's Fad. Tom. XII. p. 477 4.S0.

Houingft. No. 34. V 1. I. 8 G number



670



The HISTORY of ENGLAN D.



Vol. I.



149;. number of Troops, vanquifhed the ftrongeft armies of
France. He would thereby hifmuate, that he was no lefs
a Warrior than Edward III, the Prince of Wales his Son,
and Henry V. In demanding an aid of Money propor-
tionable to the greatnefs of the cnterprize, he exhorted
the Commons to fpare the purfes of the poor, and lay the
Tax upon the rich, not at all queftioning, whether what
he required would be granted. Certainly great fault
miffht have been found with his management of the for-
mer Subfidy. It was granted for the defence of Bre-
tagne, and yet the Duchy was loft without his ufing the
Tie Kinft ] c ad endeavours to prevent it. But the Conqueft of the
private ."n. j^jjjgjQjjj f France was a very proper decoy to draw in
the Parliament. The truth is, the King had no defire to
imbark in fo hazardous an undertaking. He knew that
France being now at unity with itfclf, the Conqueft of it
Bacon. would be too difficult a tabk. Of his two Allies, the one
had Will but not Power, and the other had Power but
not Will j Ferdinand's aim being, by {hew of war to at-
tain a Peace, which might procure him the reftitution of
ReuJJillon. Befides, as he had but newly ended his war
with the Moon, he was not in condition to begin another
with France. However, Henry exprefied to his Parlia-
ment and Council, an ardent defire to render his name
famous, by the Conqueft of France, or at leaft of Nor-
mandy and Guienne. Herein he had a view to his profit
two ways, upon his Subjects for a Subfidy for the War, and
upon his Enemies for a Peace, which would fecure him
the payment of what was due to him. He eafily fore-
faw, that the defection of the King of the Romans, and
of Ferdinand, would afford him a plaufiblc excufe to defift
from a war he was undertaking with fo much noife.
Ibid. The Archbifhop of Canterbury, and the Bifhop of Exe-

ter, were the only perfons that knew his real Intentions.
Shortly after, the laft was removed to the Seeof Bath and
Wills.
•Hi Pailia- The Parliament took fire, as the King expected, and
""'"/"'""''granted him a very confiderable Sum, which, purfuant to
Halt '.'"' '' bis defire, was to be levied upon the rich, by the name of
Bjc.n. Benevolence ( i ). This fort of Tax was introduced by
Echvard IV, and raifed without confent of Parliament.
Richard III, to ingratiate himfelf with the people, abo-
lifhed it, but this Parliament revived it(z), and gave it
the Seal of their Authority (3).
Embrffyfrim Shortly after, Henry received Ambaffadors from King
France. Charles, with propofals that were not made publick. There
Aft Pub. was reai'on to believe, nothing was concluded in their Con-
XII. p. 470. ferences with the Archbifhop of Canterbury, and Bifhop
Fox, fince the warlike preparations were (till feen to con-
tinue. However, very likely, thefe Ambaffadors laid the
firft foundations of the Peace, which was made before the
end of the year.
Birth of In 'June (4) the Queen was delivered of a Prince,

who fucceeded the King his Father by the name of Henry
VIII.

Succours fent The preparations which were making in England were
t- the Arch- ver y feafonable for the Archduke Philip. Since the laft
H a lj year the Gantois had revolted once more, and let at their

Baom. head Philip de Clcves, a gieat ftickler for France. Some
Holling/h. truu bles in Holland preventing the Archduke from endea-
vouring to fupprefs this revolt, it was the middle of this
vear before he marched againit Philip de Cleves, and be-
Jieged him in Sluice. He would have found it difficult to
take that place, if Henry had not fent him twelve Ships,
and two thoufand five hundred Men (5). With this aid he
was enabled to compel the rebels to fiie for Peace, and de-
liver Sluice into his hands.
Tbt viarlikt As the King had no Intention to pufli vigoroufly the
Preparation war w i t h France, he haftened not his preparations, being
%mlt. g^d to begin the Campain late, in order to end it the
Emhaffyto fooner. Mean while, he fent Ambaffadors to France (6),
Fiance. t0 f new ne was willing to try fair means before he pro-
i>. Is"' ceeded to arms. But it is extremely probable, this Em-
baffy was fent only to finifh, with King Charles, the
Terms of Peace. Moreover, the King's honour was to
be fecured, who after making fo much noife, was unwil-



p,

Henry.



Stow.
Hullinsfli,



ling to defift, without a feeming neceffity. To that end 1492.
he muft at£l in concert with the King of France. At Hc ""> "&■
the fame time, Henry fent Ambaffadors (7) to the King^°j| an ^
of the Romans, and to Ferdinand, to fummon them to Ferdinana i«
take the Field and enter France according to their Treaty. '"*"*
But he knew they had neither Power nor Will to per- Hiii _
form their engagements. Maximilian had no army, and Bacon-
Ferdinand was now in Treaty with Charles, for the re- H «l">sfl»«
ftitution of Roujfllon. And yet, Henry pretending Igno-
rance of thefe things, feemed to have great dependence
upon them. In the beginning of Augujl, he iffued out He noka
orders for the levying a (ireater number of Forces, and on"'™ iK "i*
the 2 2d of the fame month, appointed Commiffioners toxii. p , Ai
confer at Caldftream, with thofe of Scotland. All this +83.
afforded him pretences to delay his expedition. At length, '' / < , A# S » - "
though not till the zd of Oflober ($), he came to Dover p ". + s 7 is™,
in order to imbaik(9), luving constituted by Patent bis Bacon.
eldeft Son JrthurPiince of U ales, Guardian of the Realm. '„'
Such of his Courtiers who were ignorant of his defigns,
could not forbear telling him, it was very late to begin a
Campain. But he anlvveied, That he intended not to make
a Summer's Bufinefs of the war, and therefore it did not
fignify when it began. That he had Calais at his back,
where he might winter, in order to be ready to open the
Campain early next Spring. He arrived the fame day at Bacon«
Calais, where his whole army being affembled, amount-
ed to twenty five thoufand Foot, and fixteen hundred
Horfe ( 1 o).

Before he embarked, Henry received a Letter from the He receive*
Marfhal Defquerdes, offering a Negotiation of Peace in Ad ™ c "'.

r> 1 1 1 \ t> 1 t ! ■ ■ 1 "which gift

England {\\). But he thought it more proper, in order Mm a bandit
to falve appearances, to treal in France itfelf. He was tomakeP eta.
fcarce landed at Calais, when the Ambaffadors fent to the Ba a c ,
King of the Romans arrived, and told him, that Maxi- Aft. Pub.
milian was wholly unprepared to enter Frame as he had X1I> P- 43*
promifed. This news was immediately made known to
the whole army. Some days after, he received from his
Ambaffadors in Spain, Letters which were likewife made
publick, importing, that Ferdinand had concluded a Peace
with the King of France, upon promife to reftore Rouffil-
Ion, without demanding the three hundred thoufand
Crowns lent by Lewis XI upon that Country. Henry
knew all this before, but had fo ordered, that thefe ad-
vices came together after his arrival in France, that it
might appear, he was forced to the Peace he intended
to make. Upon thefe advices, at which he feigned to He appeinn
be very much furprized, he agreed, that Richard Fox Bi- Ccmnajfunen
fhop of Bath and IVells, and the Lord d'Aubcney Governor . ',"^ ' ti gu
of Calais fhould enter into Conference at EJlaples, with Bacon,
the Marfhal Defquerdes. He marched however the 15th
of OHober, to beiiege Boulogne, and in four days appeared
before the Place. It muft be remarked, that King Charles Remark <n
was then at Tours, and though the warlike preparations '*' £*f l
in England had made great noife, there was no army in
Picardy ta oppofc the Invafion of the Englijh ; at leaft
Hiftory mentions no fuch thing. This is a clear evidence
that all Henry's proceedings were concerted with the
King of France, who was not fo unprovided with Troops,
but he could have fent an army fufficient to flop his pro-
grefs. So, this pretended Siege of Boulogne was only an
artifice to difcourage the Englijh, that by confidering the
difficulties of a Siege at fuch a Seafon, they might be the
lefs furprized at a Peace. At the end of eight days, Henry
received at the Camp before Boulogne, the Articles of Peace
agreed by the Commiffioners of both parties, with the ap-
probation of the two Kings, the fubltance whereof was as
follows :

I. That the King of France fhould difcharge the debtArticfn
contracted by his Queen for the defence of Brctagne, "S. r " d "P°*
which debt, according to the Englijh Ambaffadors ac- 'Zji-ncTcf
count, amounted to fix hundred and twenty thoufand the two
Crowns of Gold, French Money, which is 124,000/. 'pY'-

„ J Aft. Pub.

Sterling. xilp.490.

II. That the King of France fhould pay the King of
England the Arrears of the yearly penjion of fifty thou-



(1) The Citizens of London paid 9682/. 17 z. 4.*/. Stoic, p. 474.

(2) Hall makes a pertinent Remark upon this occafion ; namely, By this a Man may perceive, that what is once praftifed for the Utility of a Prince - ,
and brought to a Precedent by matter 01 Record, may be turned to the great prejudice of' the People, if rulers in authority will fo adjudge and determine it.

(3) Bifhop Morton the Chancellor is faid tn make ufe of this Dilemma, in his Inftruftions to the Commiffioners, which fome called his Fort, others his
Crutch, that if they met will any rear we,e [paring, they Jhould tell them, That they mujl needs Have, becaufe they laid up; and if they were Spenders, thej
muft needs Have, becauje it tvas •vijible in their manner of living. Bacon, p. 602.

(4) The 22d, at Giecnwicb. Stow, p. 474. Sandford fays, it was the 28th, p. 479.

(5) Which were commanded by Sir Edward Poynings. Hall, fol. 23. Hollmgjhead, p. 143S.

(6) Richard Fox Bifhop of Bath and tVelh, Sir Giles d' Aubeney Lieutenant of Calais, Sir John Kcndalc, Sir William Hufey Chief- Juftice, Sir James Tyrreh,
Captain of Gmfr.es, and Henry Aynefworth, Doftor of Laws. Rymer's Feed, Tom. XII. p. 481.

(7) Chrijiopher Uijwiekc, and Sir John Rifelcy. Hall, fol. 26.

(8) He let out from Greenwich, September 9. Bacon, p. 604.

(9) Robert Lord fVilhugbby of Broke was Admiral of the Fleet, and Sir Robert Poyntex, Vice- Admiral. Rymer's Faed. Tom. XII. p. 484.

(10) There were with him, Thomas Grey, Marquifs of Dorfet, Thomas Fitz-Ahn, Earl of Arundel, Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby, George Talbot, Earl of
Shrewsbury, Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Sujili, Edward Courtney, Earl of Devon/hire, George Grey, Earl of Kent, Henry Bmribier, Earl of F.Jix, Tbimat
Butler, Earl of Ormond, Sec. Bacon, p. 604. Speed , p. 7 36.

(.Jij The Lord Bacon obl'ervw, th*t for. this fealbn he hovered fo much the longer near the Sea-fide, p. 604.

? ftnd



Book XIV.



19. HENRY Vir.



671



J492. fand Crowns paid by Lewis XI to Edivard IV, amount-'
ing in all to a hundred twenty-five thoufand Crowns,
which is 2 j, 000/. Sterling.

III. That the King of France fhouid pay thefe two
debts at feveral times, namely, fifty thoufand Livres every
year, every Livre at twenty Scutz, or Crowns, and to
be paid half-yearly, till the whole was paid.

IV. Whereas in the obligation given by the Duchefs of
Bretagne to the King of England, there was no Sum fpe-
cified, the King of England i\\o\i\& be obliged to makeproof
of his debt before Commiffioncrs of Bretagne or France,
to be fent to England for that purpofe.

V. That the two Kings fhould name fuch of their Al-
lies as they meant to include in the Peace, who fhould be
obliged to declare within four months, whether they would
be included or not.

VI. That in cafe the King of the Romans, and the
Archduke Philip his Son dcltred to be included in the
Treaty, and if afterwards the King of France fhould, in
any manner whatever, invade their Country, it fhould be
lawful for the King of England to a/lift them. But if,
on the contrary, they fhould attack the King of France,
the King of England fhould give them no aid.

VII. That in cafe the two Kings approved of thefe
Articles, they fhould give each other Hoftages till the
Treaty was drawn and figned in form.

Henry ash As thefe Articles cxaclly correfponded with Henry's

tbe cpinifn of . .. ■ . c . . . J . _ \ __ r - „ J

y, s L,„ a , a i intentions, trom the beginning of the War ot Bretagne,

Vjfiur-, there is no queftion that they were framed by himfclf or

his own Ambaffadors. And yet, he would have them

pafs for Propofa^ from the French King, and feigned to

doubt whether he fhould accept or reject them. For

that purpofe, he called a Council of all the Lords and

general Officers, and fent them the Articles, with his

tvfo ad-fife orders to give him their real opinion. As probably this

l.u. k peace. Council was managed by fome perfon of great credit who

was in the King's fecret, all that were prefent unani-

moufly agreed, he ought to accept of the Terms. They

gave their reafons in a long memorial under all their

hands, which in fhort, omitting the Exaggerations, were

as follow :

tttir nafir, 1 T he flrfl. rea fon was taken from the length of the
^llo."" g n 'g nts > tne coldnefs of the Weather, the want of Provi-

fions as they were to come by Sea, the fear of Diftem-

pers, and the like.

II. The fecond reafon was founded upon the confidera-
tion of the Sum offered, far exceeding any ever yet paid
by Franc: to the King's Predeccffors ; and likewife, upon
the appiehenfion of the Murmurings the refufal of a Peace
might occafion in England and in the Army.

III. They alledged as a third reafon, the great advan-
tage that would accrue by the Peace to the King of the
Romans and the Archduke : The benefit they had already
received in the reftitution of Sluice : And laftly, the fruits
which the Englifli Merchants would reap, fince the Peace
would fecure their Commerce with Flanders.

FV. They faid, the King had honorably kept his word
with his Allies, notwithstanding the inftances of his Coun-
cil, who follicited him to deler his expedition to a more
convenient Seafon, and till his Allies fhould be ready :
That he had led his Army into France, put himfelf in
condition to encounter alone all the Enemy's Forces, and
expofed his perfon to the greatefr. dangers, at a time when
his Allies difappointed him. That therefore, if the War
was not continued, he might very juftly caft the blame
upon them.

V. That the King was far from being in the fame
fituation with Edivard IV, when he led an Army into
France : That Edward was joined by the Duke of Bur-
gundy with all his Forces, and by feveral French Lords
who were in his intereft : That he was in poffeffion of all
the Towns as far as the Somme, and began the War in
the midft of Summer : That, on the contrary, the King
was not aflifted with any foreign Troops : That when he
marched out of the Gates of Calais, he entred the Ene-
my's Country, and was advanced to Boulogne : That he
had razed feveral Places, as Ardres and Montory, and had
flood four and twenty Days ready for Battle, defying the
Armies of France.

VI. That very likely, the People of England would
thank the King for a Peace which would put an end to
Taxes and Exactions, and reftore the publick Tranquil-
lity.

VII. They added once more, that the reftoring the



nil



Archduke to his Dominions, would redound to the King's 149*^
honor, and the Nation's advantage, by reafon of their
Trade with his Subjects.

VIII. They faid, that before the Siege of Boulogne, it
was thought to be a weak Place and eafy to be taken ; but,
on the contrary, it was found to be well fortified, ftrongly
garrifoncd, and plentifully provided with Artillery and
Provifions. That therefore, in all appearance, if the
King continued the Siege, he would be forced to raife it
with difgrace, whereas by making a Peace, he could retire
with honor.

IX. Their laft reafon was, that it was impracticable to
continue the War during the Winter, without utterly de-
ftroying the Army, which would extremely afflict the
whole Kingdom .

If thefe reafons are never fo little confidcrcd, they will Bimtrh «i
be found to be all falfe and deceitful, except the Article M'M**
of the money, whi h was the only true one. Without
weighing them too ; arti daily, I (hall only cbferve, that
of all the inconvenience illedged by the Officers, there
waj net one but what the K ight have forefeen, md

actually did forefee. He could biamc himfelf only tor
beginning the Cam pain fo late. All in the 5th Art'de
concerning Edward IV is evidently falfe. As for the
murmurs oi the People, which were pretended to be feared
in cafe the King rejpifkd me Peace, it was much more
probable, on the contrary, that the Nation would niu.nur
to fee the money given for a War with France, employed
in making a difhonorable Peace, advantagious only to the
Kins. In a word, the Kind's precaution to caufe this
Peace to be approved by the Officers of his Army was a
clear evidence, he was himfelf convinced of the little ad-
vantage it would be to England.

Flenry feigning to be determined by thefe reafons to ac- Tndiy «k«
cept of the Peace, the Treaty was drawn up in form,'.'' * "'
and figned at Ejlaples the 3d of November (1). Charles aa. Pub.
ratified it the 6th of the fame month. He was then at Xil. p. 479.
Tours, unconcerned at the feemingly threatened invafion, „ '
though an Englijl) Army in France had ever made liis Hollingfh.
Predeceffors extremely uneafy. What was peculiar to
this Treaty, was, that tho' it was called a Treaty of
Peace, it was however to expire with the Lives of the
two Kings. But the Succefibr of him that died firft, was
to ratify it within a year after his Acceffion to the Crown.
I imagine this was an expedient devifed to excufe the
filence concerning the Kingdom of France, or at lcaft,
Guienne and Normandy, of which there was no mention;
though the War was proclaimed folely upon that occahon.
Mean while, this Treaty, which properly concerned only Acl. Pub.
the payment of two debts, was to be approved and con- '"'■ r-5°-»
firmed by the States of France, and the Parliament of J
England. This fhews, it was not confidercd as a bare
Truce, and indeed it was called a Treaty of Peace. But
on the other hand, it is hard to conceive how a Treaty,
wherein the principal difference was not fettled, and
which was to be in force but till the death of the two
Kings, could be deemed a Treaty of Peace. Can any
thing be more like a Truce? However this be , Henry Art. VJ*
took great care to fee that the King of France ratified xl \ P - ;o6 «
every particular Article of the Treaty, and efpecially thofe | lo j j,;'
concerning the payment of the money. Charles was s-4-3-
likewife, on his part, very punctual in paying the fifty P- i i6 > &c *
thoufand Livres every year (2), as was alio Lewis XII
his Succefibr.

After this manner ended the War of Bretagne, which RegtBlmt
had lafted lince. the year 1+87. I fay the War of fir^* faF'"
tagne, becaufe That I have been fpeaking of, was only a
confequence thereof. Flenry reaped the intended advan-
tage, that is to fay, large Sums of money which were
not employed in the fervice of the publick. In the firft
place, he obtained of the Parliament a Tenth of all the
perfona! Eftates of his Subjects, of which he expended no
more than was neceffary for levying and maintaining fix
thoufand Men for eight months. But this expence was
only advanced, the money being repaid him with intereft.
We have feen that he mounted his charges to fix hun-
dred and twenty thoufand Crowns of Gold, a prodigious
Sum in thofe days, when money was much fcarcer than
at prefent (3). In the next place, he borrowed money
throughout the whole Kingdom, which probably was ne-
ver repaid. There was likewife granted him a Subhdy
under the name of Benevolence, which amounted to a
very great Sum, much beyond what was neceffary
for the maintenance of his Army, the two or three
months it was on foot, partly, he received a hundred



(1) King Henry's Plenipotentiaries were, Richard Fex mihcp of Batb and JVcHs, Giles Lord D'jhbemy, Cbrificfhcr Bisiiick [ >r Urfuicp] D.sn of Twl,
Verity Afncjwcrtb Doctor of Laws, and Sir James Tire/I. Ryncr's Fad. Tom. XII. p. 499.

(z) And moreover, afiigncd great Penfions to all the King's principal CYunfdlers. Baccn, p. 605.

(3) W t may guefs how far a Shilling went in thofe days, when a good while afur, in King Edward the Sixth's Reign, a large Hcu'e, within the
Prrcinfts of the C.mrt, in Cbanmn-Rvu in 0'efminjicr, was let to no left Pa fan than the Comptroller ot the King's Houftild for thirty Shillings a year.
ice^. 5'. Lift of ■ft;rru* $m;:b, p. is6.

and



672



The HISTORY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



1492. and twenty-five thoufand Crowns for the Arrears of the
Penfion due to Edward IV. But on the other hand, he
fuffered Bretagne to be loft, to the irreparable damage of
England, fince her Alliance with the Duke of Bretagne
gave her an advantage over France which fhe could never
after recover. Befides, the recovery of the money ad-
vanced for Bretagne, is to be afcribed rather to his good
fortune than policy. He was folely indebted for it to the
King of France's defign upon the Kingdom of Naples,
which induced him to purchafe a Peace with England.
Otherwife, Henry would have found it very difficult to
recover his money, and who knows what might have
happened, had he been forced to obtain it by dint of
fword ? But the advantages Charles reaped by this Peace
were much more confiderable. For the Pennon of fifty
thoufand Livres paid a few years, and which he received
with intereft from Bretagne, he annexed that Duchy to
the Crown of France, and deprived the Englijh of their
moft confiderable Ally.

I have dwelt the longer upon the circumftances of this
Affair, becaufe they perfectly difcover the Genius and
Character of Henry VII. This Monarch, ever greedy of
money, having always his intereft in view, found means
to make an advantage whether of War or of Peace, and
turn every thing to his profit. It was he that by his Po-
licy, wholly bent to his own private intereft, gave the
turn we have feen to the Affairs of Bretagne.
Truaviitb The fame day the Peace of EJlaples was figned, the
Scotland. Ambaffadors of England and Scotland concluded at Cald-
P- 49j- Jlream a Truce, from the 3d of November this year, to

the 30th of April 1494.
Tli King Henry having concluded a Peace with France according

return to t0 n ; s own s c h em e, f e t out for London, where he arrived

Bamm ' tne ' 7 tn °f December.

Again »/ On the 5 th of November the Archduke's Forces furpriz-
Flanders. ed Arras, which had been fifteen years in the hands of
the French. Philip refufing to be included in the Peart:
of EJlaples, the War continued in Flanders till the next
year.
Columbus'i In Augitjl this year 1492, Chrijlopher Columbus failed
jujl Voyage. tnc £ r Ji t j me f rom Cadiz with King Ferdinand's Licenfe,
in queft of the new World ( 1 ).
'493- Henry imagined he might for the future hope for a
peaceable Reign. He faw among his Subjects no appear-
ance of revolt. Not a Prince or Princefs of the Houfe of
York was in condition to give him any difturbance. He
kept the Earl of Warwick Prifoner in the Tower. Edward
IV's Daughters were in his power, and there was no Lord
of the York party of fufficient credit to raife Commotions
in the Kingdom. On the other hand, he was in Peace or
Truce with his Neighbours, and in the feven years and a
half that he had been on the Throne, had by his Oeco-
nomy heaped up fuch large Sums of money, as none of
his Predeceffors had ever been mafter of at once. And
yet this State of profperity was not capable of difmaying
Tbr Ducbefi his Enemies. Whilft he was wholly employed in the
•J ^ t-y Affairs I have been relating, the Duchefs Dowager of
rm'wtan Burgundy was labouring to raife him troubles at home, fo
Tr.ubi. much the more dangerous as they were not fufpected.
Hal!. This Princefs was not ignorant how well difpofed the

Englijh and Irijli were to the Houfe of York ; and upon
their affection fhe chiefly built her hopes of dethroning
Henry. Though Lambert SimneFs Affair had mifcarried,
fhe did not afcribe the ill Succefs fo much to the project it
felf, as to the managers. Befides, Henry was expofed to
the hazard of a Battle, which he might have loft, and it



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