M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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ijidfo'rd. powering all the Bifhops of the Kingdom to abfolve the
lb, p^ft't Rebels, which by Innocent VIIFs Bull was granted the
UtRihelL Archbifhop of Canterbury alone.

Art. Hub. Hitherto Pcrkin IVarbcck had not ventured to make
Xil. p- 573- any attempt in England, knowing that the King was in-
^fr^f formed of all his Correspondents. But as the Duchefs of
s; - tbi Burgundy could not think, of relinquifhing her hopes of
County of gaining foine advantage by the Idol formed by herfelf,
c~ria! " lc refolved at length to fend him into England. She
n.u. judged it neceffary to found the People's Affection for the

Bacon, Houlc of York, without waiting any longer for the Ailift-
nnce of the great Men, who being narrowly watched were
very cautious. Belidcs, fhe perceived, if the people
feemed ready to rife, there would be no want of great
Men to fupport and conduit them. Wherefore, fhe gave
orders to draw together lbme Forces and Ships, and cau-
fed Perkin IVarbeck to inibark, and make a defcent in the
County of Kent. Mean while, Henry knowing nothing
of thefe preparations in Flanders, refolved to go in pro-
grefs to York/hire (z) to vifit the Countefs his Mother,
which feemed to be a Juncture very favorable to Perkin' s
delign. But as the projected defcent mifcarried, it was
not doubted, that the King being informed of the pre-
tended Duke ot York's Intent, had taken that Journey on
purpofe to draw him into the Snare, fo perfwaded were
people that Policy governed all his Actions.

Perkin, purfuant to the Duchefs of Burgundy's directi-
ons, arrived upon the Coal! of Kent (3), near Sandwich,
and landed fome Men to found the Inclination of the In-
habitants. Thefe Troops made great boafts of the pow-
erful Armament the Duke of York had made in Flanders,
pretending the Ships in fight were but a fmall part of the
Fleet which would foon appear. But the people perceiv-
ing, thefe Men were almoft all Foreigners, initead of
joining them, adviled with the Gentlemen of the County
to know how they were to behave. And it was refolved,
they fhouid feign to be ready to affirt Perkin, in order to
allure him to land and take him prilbner. Purfuant to
this refolution, the people took arms and appeared on the
Coalt, making figns to invite Perkin and his Men to land.
But Perkin and his Counfellor Frion fufpecting the artifice,
kept on board, expecting the return of fome of their peo-
ple, to inform them of what palled on ihore. At laft,
the Kentijlmien finding they could draw in no more, fell
upon thole that were already landed, and cut them in
pieces, except about a hundred and fifty, who being taken
alive, v/ere all hanged by the King's order. Perkin being
Eye-witnefs of his people's misfortune, weighed Anchor
Hall. and returned into Flanders. Henry, who was then on

Bacon- n i s progrefs, hearing of the defcent, was about to turn
Jiollirrfh. back towards Kent ; but prefently after receiving news of
what had palled, he continued his Journey (4), and fpent
fome time with the Countefs his Mother, at the Earl of
Derby's Houfe (5). His intent was thereby to make a
fort of excufe to that Lord for putting his Brother to
death, and give him withal, a proof of the continuance of
his favour.
Remarkable The 13th of OHober the King called a Parliament,
Statute. where it was enacted, That no perlon fhouid be impeached
or attainted for affifting the King for the time being. It
is eafy to fee, the dehgn of this Act was to hinder a clofe
examination of the King's title to the Crown, fince let
what- would be the confequence, thole that ferved him
would be always fafe (6). Indeed, the precedent he had
himfelf given, in cauling thole to be condemned that bore
arms for Richard III, muft have made his friends appre-
henfive of being in the fame cafe, if the like Revolution
fhouid happen. But the Claufe added in the body of the
Statute, that if for the future, any Act of Attainder
fhouid pafs againft fuch as aflifted the King for the time
being , it fhouid be of na force ; this Claufe I fay, was
void and of no effect. For how could an Act of this,
limit the power of a future, Parliament, and caufe an


Act, in its nature revocable, not to be fo ? Mean while, 149^.
this Statute, which feemed to be made Ibicly for the peo-
ple's fafety, but was however, only for the King's Security,
difcovered Henry's uiiealincfs and uncertainty concerning
his title.

There was alfo an Act palled to oblige thofi- who had "■'
not paid their quota of the Benevolence, to pay the Ai- ',,'. .
rears by fuch a time. This Act brought in large Sums
to the King, the Arrears of this Tax being very confide -
rable, becaufc the war with France not having laftc-d any
time, many perfonS had declined to pay cither in full or
in part. It appears in the Coll. flhn of the Publick Ails, *&• f""'
that the Archbifhop of Canterbury was indebted fifteen '"' p ' 6Ji '
hundred Pounds Sterling (7).

VVhillt the Parliament was vet affembleJ, the King re- v/a,b-<Ic
ceived advice, that Perkin IVarbcck was landed 'mire-'"' 1 "
laud. As this could not be but with fome ill defign, hi |,
gave order that the Coatls fhouid be ftrictly guarded, to Slow.
be ready to oppole a defcent wherever it was made. It '"•" ; '•■
was but too true, that the Duchefs of Burgundy had fent
Pcrkin into Ireland to raife a Rebellion, and to that end,
fhe had privately treated with the King of Scotland, who,
it is likely, had proniifcd to aid him. The common opi-
nion is, that the Finperor, the Arehduke Philip, and the „
King of France, were likewife in the plot : The two
firll, in revenge of Henry's prohibition to his Subjects of
all Commerce with the Low-Countries, and the other} to
hinder his entering into a League that was forming in
Italy, to which he was flionglv fuliicited. Be this as it
will, very probably, James, in promifing to efpoufe tha
Interefts of the pretended Duke of York, had been led
thereto by fome private view, or by the Solicitation of
fome other Prince.

Mean while, fince Poynings had been in Ireland, the waibeck
affairs of that Ifiand were quite altered. So, Perkin not f°'i " *?'

r J" 1 y-i • . Unl, ana

finding the Country inclined to favour his defigns, depart- a ■ | ... •
ed for Scot/and, where in all appearance, he knew he m ""'" '""
fhouid be welcome. When he came to Edinburgh, he j?«jW/««.
demanded an Audience of the King, by the name of the Hail.
Duke of York, fames feigning an extreme furprize, gave Sl " '
him a folemn reception in the prefence of the whole
Court. Perkin made a long Speech, recounting his pre-
tended Adventures, and how heefcaped the Cruelty of Ri ' -
aid III. Then, he inveighed againft Henry Tudor, W;o
had ulurped the Crown of England, and unjulflv detained
it from the lawful Heirs of Edward IV. He inlarged un-
on the methods he had ufed to endeavour t recover his
Kingdom. He concluded with faying, that fundry Acci-
dents having prevented him from fucceeding, he was co
to put himfelf under his Protection, in Lopes that with
the affifiance of fo generous a Prince, he fhouid expel the
Ufurper, and afcend the Throne of his Anceftors. That
then he fhouid always regard him as a Brother, and never
mifs an opportunity of fhowing his gratitude.

James feemed to be moved with Perkins misfortunes, ibid,
and told him, whoever he was, he fhouid not repent of
putting himfelf into his hanJs. However, he pretended
frill to have fome doubt, to fhow it was upon mature ex-
amination that he was convinced of the truth. Shortly
after, he publickly owr.ed him for Duke of York, and gave R"cS>a>-«n<
him in marriage, Catherine Gordon Daughter of the Earl Hollineih.
of Huntley, one of the handfomclt and molt accomplillied
Ladies in Sect/and.

Heiry whether he had received private notice of what H «.> ■ pr -
was plotting againft him, or it was a pure effect of his ''*," "•'■"-
forefight, ardently wifhed to live in good underftanding £ M .t, t r u
with the King oi Scotland. To that end, he had im- the Kir j
powered his Anlbaffidors (S), who were to repair to Cald- Sc ' ,,1, "' J -
Jiream, to treat of the marriage of Margaret his eidcit xn. p."-!.
Daughter with that Prince. This marriage was indeed ac-
uomplifhed fome years after ; but, in all likelihood, was
not mentioned in this congrefs, the Ambafiador^ of Erg-
land having doubtlefs perceived that fuch a propofal would
be unfeafonable.

The z8th of January 1495, Charles VIII departed Cnaimumet
from Rome, after receiving the ftrongelt Towns of the fc Nap[«'

(1) Cecily, ycungeft Daughter of Ralph Earl of Wejlmreland, and Relit} of R'tbard Duke of Tork, died on May 31, in the Cattle of B<rl.
iamfled in Hertfcrdjhire r and was buried in Fotbesingbam College in Norlbamptor.Jhin, by her Husband. She had lived to fee three Princes of hex
Body crowned, and tour murdered. See Sandford, p. 387.

(2) Or rather to Lancajhtre. He fet out June 25. Hall fol. 27. Stoiu, p. 480.

(3) On July 3. Ibid.

(4.) And fcnt Ricbard Guitfsrd to thank the Inhabitants of Kent for their Fidelity. Hall, fol. 38. Stow, p. 480.

(c) At Latham.

[Gj My Lord Baton obferves, that though this Law feemed to aim more at the People's Safety than the King's, yet did it take off fiom his Parry
that great Tye and Spur of Neceflity, to fight and go Victors out of the Field, confidering their Lives and Fortune?, were in fafety, whether they
Hoed or run away.

(7) The other remarkable Statutes enacted in this Parliament were thefe: 1. That Vagabonds, idle, and fufpefled Perfons, (hall be fet in the
Stocks thice days and three nights, and have no other Sultenance but Bread and Water, 3nd then thai! be put out of the Town. And whofoevor
{ball give fuch 1 erfons more, ihall forfeit Twelve-pence. This Act was afterwards explained, 39 Elijah. 2. That p^or Perlon,, who are nut able
to lot accorHing to the Laws of the Land, for the redrefs ot* Injuries and Wrongs to them done, ihall be admitted in F?'rr.d PaLp;r:i. without pay-
ir>g Fees to Cuunje(tor, Attnrnty, or Clerk. 3. That no manner of Perlon (hall carry, or fend any Hoif; or Mare, ab^va the value of fix Shi. -
lines and E:£hi-rence, cut of the Realm, upon pain of forfeiting the fame ; except it is for their own ule. 4. That no Ferfon mall make, or put
to fale any Feather-beds, Bolfters, or Pillows, but what are fluffed with dry pulled Feathers, or clean Down \ and not with fcaled Feathers 01
Fcnn-down. See Stjtut. 11 Hen. 7.

(8) The Bilhops of Durham and CarliJIe, Thomas Earl of Surrey, Ralph Lord Wevit, Sir Tbaina: Da'.'t Lieutenant of the H\1 mantel, and Sit
William Tyler Depaty-Govcrnov of Bcrwiik, Rymtr's FteJ, Tom, iz, p. 572,

No 34. Vol. I. Si ecclefialtica!

6 7 8


Vol. I.

'49 J-


Fatt/e if
For nova.

I h ' r. ■ *
alfiiinet the


a/ the Low
C unti i s.
Ad. Hub.
XII. p.576.

T, aty lie-


land .j-.i
J- Ian i' : .
Feb. 14..
lb. p. s7 «.

ecclefiaftical State , with Cardinal Ctefar Borgia natural
Son of Pope Alexander VI in Hoftage. Whilft he was
upon the march, the Ambaffador of Ferdinand King of
Spain te!J him from his mailer, that when he promifed
not to molt ft him in the conqucft of Naples, he did not
mean that this conqueft. was to extend to all Italy. That
nctwithftandina, he faw him in pofleflion of Florence, Pi-
fa, an 1 all the Papal Dominions. That therefore he de-
clared, he did not think himfelf bound to the obfervance
of their Treat)', and accordingly the Ambaffador tore it
in pieces before Lis face. Charles who was failing with a
prosperous gale, made a jell of thefe threats, and purfued
hi : arch.

Mean while Alphonfo, the new King of Naples, finding
himfelf attacked by a powerful King who was now uoon
the b-.irders of his Dominions, was entirely dilcouraged. As
he knew he was not beloved by his Subjects, he refigned
his Crown to Ferdinand his Son, and retired to a Mo-
naftery. where he died this very year. The new King
willing to defen ! hi_> Kingdom, advanced towards the fron-
tiers to endeavour to Hop the King of France. But he
faw himfelf fuddenly deferted by his own Troops. In
this extremity lie would have retired to Naples, but found
the Gates fhut. In fhort, he was forced to feek a retreat
in the little Ifle of Ifchia, having firft garrifoned the
Cafties of his Metropolis, where he could enter without
palling through the City.

In the mean -time. Charles Kill continued his march.
Triulzi a MilcjSfe, who was in the fervice of the King
of Najles, hav(flg furrendered Capua, all the reft of the
Towns fent fern Di puties with offers of fubmiffion. At
laft, he entered Naples the 22d of February, and within
few days became mailer ot the Cafties.

Such a torrent of fuccefs lb blinded the young Monarch
and his Council, that they knew not how to take any
juft mealures for the prefervatiori of this Conqueft. By
degrees the Towns that had fubmitted, returned to their
Sovereign ; his Aimy, which v/as not very numerous, be-
ing unable to furnilh Garrifons every where. Beiides, the
French made thcmfelves fo odious to the people of Naples,
that they foon repented of receiving them.

But what mod: imbroiled the Conqueror's affairs, was a
League formed agiinft him by the Pope, the Emperor,
the King of Spain, the Archduke, the King of Naples,
Ludovico Sforza new Duke of Milan, and the Republick
of Venice. This League, which was for twenty-five years,
was figned the 25th of March 1495, and at the fame
time the Confederates began to alienable their Forces.

Charles found then, it was time to think of his return.
But he was refo'ved firft to make a triumphant entry into
Naples, from whence he departed the 20th of May in or-
der lor France, leaving but few Troops to defend his Con-
queft. But the Al'ics did not intend to fuller him to re-
tire thus peaceably. They expefted him upon his rout,
with an Army of forty thoufand Men, and ported thcm-
felves at Fornova to oppofe his paffage. Though Charles
w. very interior in number of Troops ( 1 ), he was deter-
mined to give them Battle, being fenfible that he mult
either conquer or perilli. The Battle was fought on the
6th of July, and the fuccefs was favorable to the King
of F ance, who defeated that formidable Army and came
to Ajti the ! $th ot the fame month (2).

Whilft he was retiring through Italy, Naples fubmit-
ted again to Ferdinand , and almoft all the reft of the
Towns that were ftdl in the French intereft followed her
example. The Duke of Montpenjier, left by Charles at
Naples with a few Troops, retired to the Caftle of le Ovo,
where after maintaining a Siege of three months, he was
forced at laft to capitulate. Thus Charles who had con-
quered the Kingdom of Naples in the (pace of three weeks,
lort it with the fame rapidity. He formed afterwards fe-
veral projects to recover his Conqueft, which, by the
obftacles that occurred, came to nothing.

This year the Emperor Maximilian came into the
Law-Count ries, and refigned the Government to his Son
Philip, though he ftill wanted fome years of being of Age.
After that, he returned into Germany. Philip being no
longer under the Emperor's Guardianfhip, lent, about
the end of the year, Ambaffadors to Henry to defire the
renewal of the Commerce between England and the Low-

The Ambafiadors found no great difficulty to fucceed
in their Negotiation. The renewal of the Commerce
which they were come to defire, was no lefs neceffary for
the Er.glijh th«n for the Flemings. So, the 24th of Febru-

ary 1496 was concluded at London a Treaty of Peace and £496.
perpetual amity between Henry and Philip, and the Trade
between the two nations was fettled to the fatisfadlion ai
both parties.

Among the Articles of this Treaty, there were two
particularly remarkable. By the firft, the two Princes
ingaged to give neither aid nor refuge to the rebellious
Subjects of either. Particularly, Philip obliged himfelf
exprefsly to hinder t+ie Duchefs Dowager of Burgundy,
from harbouring the King's rebellious Subjects in the
Lands fhe pofferted, by what title foever fhe held them,
whether of Dower or otherwife. That in cafe ihe afted
contrary to this prohibition, he promifed to deprive her of
all her poffeffions in the Low-Countries.

By another Article it was exprefsly agreed, that any
VeiTel fuffering Shipwrack on the Coafts of either of the
two Princes, fhould not be liable to confifcation, pro-
vided there was left alive a Man, Woman, or Child,
a Dog, a Cat, or a Cock.

The Flemings called this Treaty [Intercur/us Afagnus] ity.
or the great Treaty of Commerce, not only by reafon of
the great number of Articles, but chiefly with refpecl: to
another, made afterwards, and which not being fo much Aft. Pub.
to their advantage, was termed [Iniercurfus Malus] or XII -P- 6 95»
the had Treaty. 7 ' 3 '

We find in the Collection of the Publick Acls, that Patent to
March the 5th this year, the King granted a Patent to J ohn c * ott
John Cabott a Venetian, and to three of his Sons (3), to ' p " 59S "
go in queft of new Lands with Englifh Colours (4).
The Terms were, that after all charges deducted, they
fhould give the King a fifth of the Profit (5).

Mean while, the King of Scotland, not^content with The K,n,<f
affording the pretended Duke of York a Sanctuary in his $c"th n <J and
Dominions, would likewife undertake to place him on the Warb « ck ' 1
Throne of England. He was told, that as foon as he Buchanan,
appeared in that Kingdom at the head of an Army, all Bacon,
the Yorhfts would rife in favour of the Pretender. ' To £?; p ? b "

L 1 • 1 i- 1 • , • ■ All. p. 04.7.

that end it was, that immediately alter his arrival in Stow.
England he took care to difperfe the counterfeit Duke's Prodamati-
Proclamation, wherein the King was termed Ufurper, " " "", ..

T^ i \ it 1 -\ it 1 • name at toe

I yrant, and Murderer. Moreover, he promifed all forts Duke of
of favours to fuch as would join the lawful Heir, to de- Yo,ki
ftroy him that unjuftly detained the Crown. But this !? „
Proclamation was fo ineffectual, that not a Man offered ibe Er.glifh
to join the Scots. The truth is, Henry was not beloved, ,; ° ""j" n
efpecially in thofe parts. But as, fince Perkin had begun "*'
to appear by the name of Duke of York, many were un-
deceived, and others in doubt, it was not thought proper
to hazard life and fortune, without a greater affurance
that it was really for a Son of Edward IV. Befides,
the execution of the Lord Chamberlain was a terror to
all, as no Man could reafonably expeift the King's pardon,
fince that Lord was not fpared. At length, James feeing James ra-
he waited in vain that the Englijl) would take arms in ""£" Nol ~
favour of his Duke of York, and being unwilling wholly w^k's" 4
to lofe his labour, ravaged Northumberland and got a great Cuming.
booty. Then Perkin feigning to be extremely moved Ha "'
with the calamities of the Englifh, conjured that Prince, HoX'jIh.
before his whole Court, to fpare his miferable Subjects.
This was a very artful device to perfwade the Publick he
was really what he pretended to be. James replied with
a fmile, he thought him very generous to be fo careful
for what was none of his, in order to fave it for his ene-
my's ufc. Mean while, the news that an EngUjh Army-
was advancing, made him refolve to return into his own
Country, being unwilling to expofe his great fpoils to the
hazard of a Battle. Thus the expedition, from which
he expected fo great effects, ended only in the ruin of
the People of Northumberland.

Whilft thefe things parted in England, Charles VIII char i«viII
fearing Henry would enter into the league of Italy, took caufa the
care to have the Peace of EJlaples confirmed by the F '°"°f
States, as he was bound by the Treaty, which he had ic Zjfirmei
hitherto negle&ed, though it was confirmed by the Par- tj the Stat*
liament of England the laft year. However, as he *f- Pub -
thought not proper to affemble the States General, he 501/596*'
caufed the Peace to be approved by the States of each 597. 59 s .
Province, with which, in all appearance, Henry was fa-" ^Sa-
tisfied. We find in the Collection of the Publick Ails,
the approbations of the States of Languedoc, Normandy,
and feveral other Provinces, as likewifs of particular
Towns of little note, figned by great numbers of com-
mon people, as Tradefmen and Husbandmen.

Though the King of Scotland's Invafion had produced
no great effedt, Henry was however apprehenllve of the

(r) He hid but nine thoufand Men; whereas the Confederates Army confided of twelve thoufand Horfe, and above the fame number of Foos
p. 9. Edit. Vcnct. 1718.

rhus is this memnrable Ev.-nt related by the Trench Hillorians. But ir appears from Cardinal Ecmbo, and other Italian Author;, ;
Jiin? of Frame retired, after ih'S Battle, in the utmnft hurry; and that Ludtrvtci Sfiraa, and Francisco Gonzaga, the Italian General, •
elnp... Ai their Forces were much r'uperior to thofe of the French King, they might eafily have cut ofl his Retieit,. i: they I . i . I

ill ly, as it is 'ir.d niably plain tluy did. See Card. Btirlii HiJ!. Vtr.et. p. 65, Edit. 1718; and Fau! 'J.- ,. 1 . £c.

(3 I ha/Han, and Sarxbo. Aymer'l Feed. Tom. 12. p. 595.

I4-1 And with live Ships. Ibid. (5) Thty weie bound and engaged te Ln: at B i/ltl Id.

eonfe in ; is.

Book XIV.

1 9; H E N R Y VII.


1496. confequences. He knew his Subjects were not pleafed ;
that the Yorkijls were very numerous ; that Ireland was
not well- affected ; and that Perkin Warbeck was in Scot-

Aa. Pub. i an( i reat ]y t take advantage of thefe difpofitions. So,
' p ' J to prevent the danger which might arife from all tliefe
quarters, he granted firft a general pardon to all the IriJJ)
Adherents ot" the pretended Duke of York, left the dread
lb. p. 635, of pimifhment fhould carry them to revolt. In the fe-
6 i 6w cond place, he commiffioned Richard Fox Bifhop of Dur-

ham to try, as of himfelf, to enter into Negotiation with
the King of Scotland, to treat of the marriage of his el-
Fmluffj 10 deft Daughter Margaret with that Prince. Laftly, lie
Spain. fent Am'badadors (1) to Ferdinand and Ijabclla, to con-

afi 6*' ^ rm n ' s Alliance w ' tn them, and fecure, by frefh engage-
ments, the marriage of Arthur his eldeft Son with Ca-
therine their third Daughter.
Hi enters in Some time before, he had difpatched to Rome Robert
totiiLugue Sherburn, who had in his name entered into the league
f. 6%!'. °f l ta b ( 2 ) againft Charles VIII, and the 23d of Septem-
ber ratified what his AmbalTador had done. He thereby
thought himfelf fufficiently fupported. For, he had no-
thing to fear from the King of France, who was elfewhere
employed, and the moil potent Princes of Europe were
his FrienJs and Allies. As for the King of Scotland, he
believed, he could eafilv re.ift him in cafe ot attack.
However, though he had now taken meafures to make
I'eace with that Prince, and had reafon to hope for fuc-
fefs, he believed he ought not to lofe this opportunity to
e imand an aid of money of the Parliament, as well to
put himfelf in a itate of defence, as to revenge the infults
of the Scots. For this purpofe, he called a Parliament
the 1 6th of January following. It was however eafy
to forefee, the King of Scotland being fupported neither
by France, nor the Archduke, nor the Duchefs of Bur-
gundy, would not undertake to maintain alone a War for
the fake of Perkin IVarbeck, though he was fo blind as to
believe him the real Duke of York.
Marriage of \ n Ofiober this year, Jane fecond Daughter of Fer-
AukeZhh dinana and Ifabella, came into the Low-Countries to mar-
Jane of Ac- ry the Archduke Philip, to whom fhe had been contrac-
ts™- ted. Ifabella her eldeft Sifter had been married in 1490,
g"rci .of " t0 Alphonjb King of Portugal, who died fhortly after.
Auftriawj/i The fame Ships that brought 'jane into the Low-Coun-
t*'Pr'"«"f tries, ferved to carry Margaret of Aujhia, Philip's Sif-
ter, into Spain, to confummate her marriage with Prince
John, Heir-apparent of Cajiile and Arragon (3).

1497. The Parliament being aflembled the beginning of the
*** y*rl>»- year 1497 (4), the King made a Speech to both Houfes,
Bacon!" ' highly aggravating the affront received from the King of
Subjittygi- Scotland. He reprefented very pathetically, the calamities
%'"^Z'ir cn dured by his northern Subjects, at a time when the
Holiinglh. Truce fhould have fecured them from fuch infults. In

fhort, he told them, his honour and the protection he
owed his People, would not fuft'er him to let thefe wrongs

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 286 of 360)