M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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been crowned at JVrJlminJler before now * That the Scots
were not proper initrumcnts to place him on the Throne,
by reafon of the averfion the Englijh had for them ; but,
he muft wholly depend upon the People of England, who
alone were capable of procuring him the Crown : That
therefore they advifed him to repair into Ctr nival where he
was expected. '

Purfuant to this advice, Perkin embarked for Cornwal, Hall,
having with him about feventy Men (z) on four fmall ]', Jjj
Vellels, and arrived in September (>) at Whitfand-iay. iw
As foon as he had landed his little Troop, he came to
Bodmin, the Farrier's Town, who was hanged after the
Battle of Black-Heath. There aftembling about three Hi tahet tU
thoufand Men, he ilfucd out a Proclamation afl'uming the ' r,,/ ' ' '■
title of King of England, and the name of Richard IV . ',' !
He was very free ol his reproaches and invectives againft HoMngft.
Henry and his Government, with magnificent prornifes to
ftich as fhould take arms to dethrone the Ufurper. After""'"
pubiifhing his Proclamation, he formed a defign to become ^'u"'
mafter ot Exeter, as well to make it ferve for a magazine, Bacon,
as a retreat in cafe of need. At firft, he tried to bribe the
Inhabitants, with promifing them the prefjrvation and aug-
mentation of their privileges. But finding they would not
hearken to him, he refolved to ftorm the City. As he
had no Artillery, he was forced to fcale the Walls, and at
the fame time attempted to fire one of the Gates. But
the attempt mifcarried, and he loft two hundred Men in
the alfault.

Henry hearing that Perkin had joined the Corni/li Re- The A' -
bels, and was before Exeter, faid merrily, he hoped now to T"*"*"
have the honour to fee him which he could never yet do.^.i^^
He intimated withal, he mould receive with pleafure and 1 aeo 1.
thankfulnefs, the fervices the Nobility ftiould do him upon H '"':
this occafion. Whereupon, feveral Lords and Gentlemen Hl ' 11,n2<h •
ot Devon/hire, and the neighbouring parts, uncalled from
Court, drew fome forces together, and put themfelves under
arms (4). On the other hand, the King ordered the Lord
d'Aubcney to march to the relief of Exeter, fprcading a re-
port of his following in perfon with a numerous Army.

Perkin, upon news of thefe preparations againft him, Perkin fiiii
railed the Siege of Exeter, and retired to Taunton (5), ^SanBuaty.
where he prepared all things as if he intended to fight. H ihn,;/h.
But that very night he fled to Bnvley Monaftery in the
New ForeJl, where he and feveral of his company regiftred
themfelves Santtuary-Men. The Lord d'Aubeney hear-
ing, Perkin had forfaken his Army, detached three hun-
dred Horfe (6) to purfue him, and prevent his efcapin°-
by Sea. The purfuers arriving too late at Bewley, con-
tented themfelves with befetting the Sanctuary tdl further
orders. Mean while, Perkins Troops, which were in- His Army
creafed to fix thoufand, being deftitute of their head, fub- M**'-
mitted to the King's mercy, who pardoned them all ex- jjac n.
cept a few ring-leaders who were hanged for an example.
Prefently after he fent a detachment of Horfe to St. Mi- Hattifiixn
chad's Mount, to bring away Perkins Wife who was aaJvCaitr
retired thither, left, if the was with Child and efcaped, welt.
the bufinefs fhould not end in the Perfon of Perkin. H,Ul
This virtuous Lady, who loved her Husband entirely HdEneft.
though unworthy of her, fo gained the King's favour by
her modefty, that he gave her a very gracious recep-
tion. He comforted her himfelf in a very affectionate
manner, had her conducted to the Queen, and aiEgned
her an honorable allowance, which lhe enjoyed during
the King's life and many years after. She was called the
white Rofe, as well on account of her beaut}-, as becaufe
ot the name given by the Duchefs of Burgundy to her

Though Perkin was in a place from whence he could **■» « '»
not efcape, the King however came to Exeter, to inquire EjJT 1 "

his Predcceflor, and engag:d to continue the payment of the yearly futn cf Bao n.

p. 622.

Edmund Carnu, and Sir Thomas F-alfrd, and likewife Henry Stafford, Duke
William Courtney, Sir John Halcwel, Sir John Cnktr, Walter Courtney, feter
ngjhead, p. 784.
t 6j Five hundred, fays HilUng/htad, p. 784: and £attn t p. 622,

8 K more

, 3 2


Vol. I.



Some cf the
Rebels are
executed, and

more clofely into the caufes and origin of the Rebellion.
As he entered the City, he took his Sword from his fide
and cave it to the Mayor, to be always carried before him,
honouring by that mark of diftinction the zeal (hewn by
the Citizens for his fervice. On the morrow, he caufed
fome of the Rebels to be hanged in facrifice to the Inlia-
otkers fined, bitants of Exeter, and as a fort of fatisfaction for what they
Ail. Pub. f^j fufFercd. For the reft who had fubmitted to his mercy,
' p 9 lie gave them indeed their lives ; but withal appointed Com-
miffioners (t) to punifh them by fines. He proceeded on
this occafion, with excelTrve feverity. One would have
thought he repented of giving them their lives, and de-
figned to ftarve the miferable wretches after freeing them
from the Gallows.
Debates This done, lie advifed with his Council, upon what

^l' 1 '" km 'ftlould be done with Peikin, who was ftill inverted in his
Sanctuary. Some were for taking him out bv force and
putting him to death, not at all queftioning, that after the
execution, the King might eafily agree with the Pope.
Others on the contrary believed, that according to the
Licenfe granted by Innocent VIII's Bull, it fufficcd to
have him narrowly watched, and that, without neceffity,
fuch an advantage fhould not be given to the Pope.
Moreover, that the King ought carefully to avoid being
deemed a violator of Sanctuaries, of which his Enemies
would not fail to take the advantage. In fhort, fome
there were who plainly told the King, he would never
fatisfy the people, that Perkin Warbeck was an Impoftor,
unlets Warbeck himfelt freely undeceived thofe that were
feduced by his artifices: That therefore the beft method
that could be taken, was, to ingage him bv a pardon to
make himfelt a confedion of his Crime. I ne King fol-
lowing this advice, fent to offer Perkin his Life, if he
would voluntarily funender himfelf. Perkin readily ac-
cepted the offer. He faw himfelf fo ftrietly watched and



tie Surrender


K "ff'° ,h ' guarded, that he defpaired to make his efcape. Befides,
Hall." fuppoling lie could have efcaped, he was deftitute of all

Hoiiingfli. hopes, after an unfuccefsful Trial of fo many different

]', 'starried Shortly after, the King ordered Perkin to be brought
'IndcmRnd t0 Court, as if he was entirely at liberty, but however,
in the jw attended by feveral perfons who were commanded to
guard him with all care, left he made his efcape. Every
one might fee and talk with him ; but he could never
obtain leave to throw himfelf at the King's Feet, though
the King, to fatisfy his curiofity, faw him without being
feen. After that, Perkin was conducted to London. He
was all the way expofed to the infults and derifion of the
people ; but feemed to bear all with great courage and
Conftancv. Nevei did he act the Prince better than upon
th:, occafion, without affecting too great an Infenfibility,
or fhewing too much dejection. When he was come to
London, he was made to ride twice through the City,
that people might have time and opportunity to view him
well, alter which, he was confined in the Tower {z).
A few days after was executed one of his chief Confidents,
who not caring to take Sanctuary with him in Bewley,
chofe rather to wander about the Country in a Hermit's
drefs (3). This execution being over, Perkin Warbeck
was privately examined, and his Confeffion publifhed, giv-
ing an exact account of all his actions, and the places
where he had lived ever fince he was born. But all were
furprized to find no particulars of the Confpiracy or the
Authors. The Duchefs of Burgundy herlelf was not fo
much as named. Some took occafion from thence to con-
firm themfelves in the belief, that the perfon called Perkin
Warbeck was the true Duke of York. They were per-
fuaded, that this affected Silence was not without myftery,
and that the King durft not infert in Pertin's pretended
Confeffion, any of the circumftanccs relating to foreign
Princes, for fear of being publickly contradicted by perfons
who would not have for him the fame regard as his own
Subjects. As lor what was publifhed concerning Perkins
Life and Kindred, nothing, as they faid, was eafier than
to invent fuch Stories. Some however believed the
King was thus filent, out of complaifance to the King of

the King no fmall concern. Whiift he was at his Palace 149S.
of Shine, a fire broke out the 21ft ot December with that
violence, that in few hours the building wa; entirely con-
fumed, with all the rich Furniture. As Henry was very
fond of that Palace, he caufed it, foon after, to be rebuilt
from the ground, calling it Richmond, which name it retains
to this day (4).

The fame year Ifabella Queen of Portugal was folemnly Death of
acknowledged presumptive Heir of Caf.ilc and Arragon, a^f^f
bv the States ot thefe two Kingdoms. But fhortly after p, rtugal.
file died in Childbed at SararoiTa, having been delivered of Michael her
a Prince, who was named Michael, and proclaimed pre- s " ; " '
fumptive SucceiTor of Ferdinand and Ifabella.

Since Lewis XII afcended the Throne of France, he had
been employed in contriving how to recover the Duchy of
Milan, which he claimed in right of Valentino of Milan
his Grandmother.

The Truce between England and Scotland being con- '499'.
eluded, as I faid, to the fatisfaction of both Kingdoms, %«<""' be-
the Septs converfed familiarly with their neighbours the eT c 'i "in .W
Englijh, particularly with the Inhabitants of Norham. This Sc is.
Town, which was fortified with a good Caftle and a nacon -
ftrong Garrifon, is fituated on the little River Tweed, Hoilinglh.
which parts the two Kingdoms. It happened one day,
fome Scotchmen walking out ot the Town, flood looking
attentively upon the Caftle, which breeding fulpicion in
the Soldiers of the Garrifon, they fent to them to retire.
The Scots taking it ill to be fufpected, returned an angry
anfwer, and in fhort, falling from words to blows, fome
of them were killed. The affair being brought before The King of
the Wardens of the Marches, was neglected, fo that after Scot ' and di '
many delays, the King of Scotland lent Ambalfadors (5) SathfaBia.
into England to demand fpeedy fatistaction. Henry, who
had no mind to quarrel with James, replied, that what
had been done was a mere chance and without Jus pri-
vity : but however, he was ready to make all convenient
fatisfaction, and to that end would fend Ambalfadors to
the King of Scotland. Buchanan, and the Lord Bacon, Treaty of
Henry the Seventh's Hiftorian, affirm, the firft overture of {J*"™qf« of
the Marriage between King James and the Princefs Mar- '^'if"'
garet was made during this Negotiation, and that fames James IV.
himfelf propofed it to Richard Fox Bifhop of Durham. Aa ' Pub -
Whereas it appears in the Collection of the Publick Ails, , 2g [ P ' 7 **'
that, above four years before, Henry had projected this
Marriage, and probably, caufed it, as I faid, to be fug-
gefted to the King of Scotland, by fome indirect means.
As the Biihop of Durham could not be ignorant of the
King's intention, fince he had been twice commiffioned
to treat of this Marriage, he failed not to infpire King
James with hopes, that the Bufinefs would be ended to
his fatisfaction. Shortly after, the Ambalfadors of the two p. 724.
Kings (6) meeting at Sterling to decide the Norham affair,
renewed the former Truce, adding certain Articles to pre-
vent the like Accidents. After that, Henry appointed the p. 729.
Biihop of Durham to fettle with the King of Scotland the
Articles of the intended Marriage. This affair was not
however finifhed till January 1502.

Perkin Warbeck, accuftomed to live like a Prince, was Perkin
heartily tired of the Tower, where doubtlefs he was not e f a f" ""' °f
treated as fuch. Though according to appearance, the fj a ]if* Wr "
King had ordered him to be ftrietly guarded, he found Bicon.
means to efcape, and take the road into Kent, where he Hollln fi fll -
hoped to meet with fome Ship to carry him out of the
Kingdom. But hearing that orders were every where and flies n
fent to apprehend him, he thought proper fly j the Sandutry.
Pvlonaftery of Bethlehem (7), which en he Pri-

vilege of Sanctuary (8). It was difficult for the Piior to
protect fuch a Perfon, and yet he could n her

to let him go elfewhere, or violate the . of the

Houfe, in delivering him to the King. In this perplexity,
he chofe to wait upon the King, and acquainting him
that Perkin Warbeck was in his hands, petitioned for his
Life, leaving him otherwife to the King's difcretion. The
King readily faw, it would not be poflible to draw Perkin
out of the Monaftery to put him to death, without mak-
ing great noife. So, on pretence of his great refpect for He is par.
the Prior, who was a perfon very much reverenced, hedged and

Stent Palate

, and
R imond

France, the Emperor, Archduke, Duchefs of Burgundy,

and King of Scotland: And that there were even Englijh granted the prifoner his Life, but ordered him to be kt'.^J 7 ° r [ e

Lords engaged in the plot, againft whom he did not think in the Stocks a whole day, in the Palace Court at Weji- Hall. '

fit to proceed. minfler, and next day at the Crofs in Cheapfide (9), from * *-

The year 1490, ended with an accident which gave whence he was conveyed to the Tower ( 1 o). Such a pri- Ba " ' n " g

(1) Tixv.as Harrys, William Hatclyff, and Roger Hcland, Rymer's Feed. Tom. XII. p. 696.

(2) li does not appear that he was committed to the Tiver till after he had attempted to efcape. See H.llingfbead, p. 7S4.

(-,) He was Farrier to the King's Stables, and accompanied Perkin in his Proceflion through the City, bound hand and tout upon a Horfe. Paeon,
p. 62-3.

, + ; He gave it that name from his having been Earl of Richmond. Camden.

(.) 1/U'lfiemont his Herald. Hail, fol. 48. Buchanan.

(0) The En^ii/h AmbalTadors were, William Biihop of Carlfle, Richard Ilatlcn, Doctor of Laws, Sir Tb'.mjs Darcy,

ten, Rymer's Feed. Tom. XII- p. 721.
{- 1 Built by henry V at Sheite in Surrey, and was called the Priory of S bene. Hall, fol. 49.
(S; And defired the Prior, for fj. d's kke, to petition the King to giant him his Life, and a Pardon. Halt, fol. 49.

Sir Richard Chclmcley, and Jobtt

Hcllingfhead, p. 7S6.

(<)i m both which pine 9 ha read liis Confellion, of which the Reader may fee a Copy in Hall, fol. 49 ; and in Hilling fond, f 7S6.
(10) U:i the I^jth 01 'June. Hall, fol. 50.


Book XIV.

19. U E N R Y VII.


H 499- foner naturally fhould have been thrown into fome Dun-
geon, and yet his Confinement was not the molt rigo-
rous, finco he had the Liberty to converfe with the rcit
of the Prifoners.
Pt-rl<'m'<w After he had remained fome time in this ftate, he found
ibi Earloj means to gain four Servants of Sir John Digby, Lieu-
Fht'dif- ' tenant of the Tower, with whom he plotted to kill their
tmmi. mailer, feize the Keys of the Tower, and efcape witli the
Ha "- Earl of Warwick, who had been alfo perfuaded to come

Holii'nefli. mto tne P' ot ' ou<: of hopes °' recovering his liberty, of which
Bacon, he had been fo long unjuftly debarred. But unhappily for
them, the affair was difcovered before it could be exe-
cuted. It was fcarce doubted, that the King himfelf was
the contriver of this plot, and that his aim was to draw
at once Perkin JVarbcck and the Earl of Warwick into the
fnare, in order to put them both to death. Indeed fevc-
ral reafons rendered it credible. FiriT, it was very fur-
prizing, that Perkin was not more clofely confined, after
his attempt to make his efcape. Secondly, it was not
likely, that in his Circumftances, unable to reward Sir
"John Digby's Servants, they fhould expofe themfelves to
fuch clanger for his fake. In the third place, Perkin was
too cunning to join with the Earl of Warwick, who would
have hurted him only, though they had been fo happy as
to efcape. Laitly, fuppofing they had killed the Gover-
nor without being difcovered, and got the Keys of the
Tower, how could they expect that the Guards would
have opened the gate, or fuffered it to be opened in the
night, without examining the Perfons that went out, or
One pretend- without the Governor's exprefs order. But what farther
jF? f *** con ^ rrns tn ' s fufpicion of the King, was, that about the
wTrvv'ck,! fame time a young Man, one Wilford a Shoemaker's Son,
hanged, pretended to be the Earl of IVarwiek. He was accompa-
'£ M ' nieil, or rather guided and directed, by an Augujlin Fiier

Holliiigih, called Patrick, who had the boldnefs to preach publickly
in fome Town in Kent, that IVilford was the Earl of
Warwick, and exhort the people to take arms in his fa-
vour. They were both apprehended, and Wilford was
hanged, but the Frier pardoned (1). This gave occafion to
believe, Wilford had been (educed by the Frier, and by
the King's particular direction, that it might be thought
lefs ftrange, that he put him to death, under colour of
caufing frefh troubles.

However this be, it is certain the King was refolved to
free himfelf at tmce from all his uneafineffes occafioned by
Perkin Warbeck and the Earl of Warwick. Though it
cannot pofitively be faid, that he laid a fnare for them,
at leaft this Plot fuinifhed him with a plaufible reafon to
Perkin 11 deliver them over to Juftice. Perkin was condemned (2)
condemned to by Commiflioners [of Oyer and Terminer] to be hanged,
km"^' and was executed witn tne Mayor of Cork (3) and his
Bacon. Son, who had been his conftant companions in all his
adventures. Ot eight others that were condemned with
them, among whom were Sir John Digby's four Servants,
there were but two executed. Such was the end of Per-
kin Warbeck, who had been acknowledged for lawful
King in Ireland, France, Flanders, England, Scotland,
and made Henry fhake in his Throne. Perhaps he would
have fucceeded in his defigns, had he been to deal with a
Jefs politick Prince. However, it is certain the King was
not enough careful to undeceive the publick, and that the
proofs produced to fhew Perkin was an Impoftor, being
taken only from a private examination, feemed not furri-
ciently evident.
The Earl if Ln a tew days a f ter Perkin's death (4), the Earl of
Warwick is Warwick was brought before the Houfe of Peers, the
tondemned ],- a| | Q c Oxford exercifing, by Commifllon, the office of

eind beheaded. TT . , J . rI °' , J , „ '

Hall. Hi ward. He was arraigned, not for attempting to

Bacon. ef< , which could not be deemed High-Treafon, fince

Hollingfli. j le was rot: jmpfjfoned f or an y f uc h crime, nor even for

any other, but for confpiring the King's death jointly

with Perkin Warbeck. The poor Prince confefling that

lie gave his confent to the project laid by Perkin and

Digby's Servants, was condemned to lofe his head, and

the fentence was executed on Tower-hill (5). He was the

la ft Male-Heir of the Houfe of York, which in truth was

the Crime that coft him his life, the King chufing rather

to facrifice his own reputation, than be difappointed of

leaning the Crown both to himfelf and his Heirs. To

HjII. leffen in fome meafure People's horror of this Cruelty,

Bacon, the King caufed it to be publifhed, that King Ferdinand

HcJiingfn. j ]a j p fitively declared, he would never confent to marry

his Daughter Catherine to Prince Arthur, fo long as the

Earl of Warwick was alive. Strange fort of Apology tend- 1409^
ing to infinuate, that the Marriage of the Princefs of Spain
was Co neceflary for England, that it muff, be purchafed
with Blood! But if this marriage was not requifite for the
State, it was at leaft very beneficial to the King, who was
to receive two hundred thoufand Crowns of Gold foe Ca-
therine's Dowry. This alone would have induced him to
facrifice the Earl of Warwick, though lie had no other ad-
vantage by his death. From a like motive he had be-
headed the Lord Chamberlain. Mean while, very pro-
bably, what was publifiied concerning King Ferdinand,
was only a mere pretence to excufe Henry, fince Arthur's Aft. r
Marriage with Catherine was folemnizcd by Proxy the xir P-754-
1 9th of May this very year, before the Earl of Warwick's
death (6).

Lewis XII had folemnly ratified and fworn the Peace Tie r.
of Ejlaples, a little after his acceflion to the Crown. But hl,J ', !
being defirous to fhew Henry, he really intended to keep '.... ,3
it, he caufed it to be approved and ratified by the States France
General, afiembled at Nantz in the beginning of the year. t m 7° 6-
Then he Cent Ambafladors to the Pope, to pray him to
confirm it by his authority. The Pope feeing no farther p- 73G.
obfracle from France, ilTued out a Bull of excommunication
againft whoever of the two Kings fhould not obferve the

It was not without reafon that Lewis dented to pre- Lewis XII
ferve the Peace made by his predeceffor with England. *, f"
He had formed a defign to feize the Duchy of Milan, ILunl
and to that end made a league with the Venetians, who
were to have for their fhare all that part of the Alilanefe
fituate beyond the Adda. This fame year the confede-
rates attacked the Duchy of Milan, and Ludovico Sforza,
the mod perfidious of Men, bung forfaken by all the
World, was forced to fly to the Emperor, having loft
all his places, except the Caftle of Milan. Genoa, of
which he was pofieffed, followed the example of the
Milanefe, in voluntarily furrendering to the King of

Frederick King of Naples, who had fucceeded Ferdi- Tl* King of
nand his Nephew, fearing the preparations in France were N 'T 1 ?,"

J r J • /l {-• it r j ■ 1 , "lauded in

defigned againlt him, gave Henry fpeedy notice that he .-he Peace of
defired to be included in the Peace he had lately renewed Eftaples.
with France. But it was not with him that Lewis in- p '' 20,
tended to deal this year. He referved the War of Naples
after the Conqueft of the Milanefe.

Alexander VI having publifhed a Jubilee for the i;oo.
year 1500, the laft of the Century, had granted by \faA Junta
Bull to all Chriftians at a diftance from Rome, the pri-5™'^". ! fa
vilege of the Jubilee without being obliged to vifit the mem to
Churches of that City; but on condition of payino- fuch r ■'.''• Mmey.
a fum for the favour. This was an infallible way to draw p 2 "'
money from all the States of Chriflendcm, where he had
fent Commiflioners to levy it. The Commiflioner ap-
pointed for England was Jafper Pons a Spaniard, who
wifely difcharged his Commiflion without noife or fcan-
dal , and carried a good fum of money to his maf-
ter( 7 ).

Befides this affair, he was charged with another which a Cnfad*
feemed of great moment, but tended, like the firft, only "
to fill the Pope's Coffers. He had orders to acquaint a^J^.
the King, that the Pope was refolved to publifh a Cru- 1 -Pope's
fade againft the Turks : That therefore it was agreed PryeS.
with the Ambafladors of feveral Potentates, that the Hun- ^"pub
garians, Polonians , and Bohemians fhould make War XII. p. 7+7.
upon the Turks in Thrace ; the French and Spaniards
in Greece ; and himfelf, with the King of England, the
Venetians, and Princes of Italy, who were molt powerful
at Sea, fhould attack Conjlantinople : That in conlequence
of this refolution, he had fent Nuncio's to all the Courts,
to exhort the Sovereigns amicably to end their private
quarrels, that all the Forces of Chrijlendom might be
united together for fo pious an undertaking. Alexander
VI was too well known to be thought to act upon
this occafion from a motive of religion and zeal for the
glory of God. Confequently, it was eafy to fee that
the fole defign of this Crufade was to heap up money by
voluntary contributions, as well from private Perfons as
Sovereigns. However, as Henry was unwilling to fhew
his diflike of this project, which probably would meet
with obftacles enough elfewhere, he told the Nuncio,
" That no Prince in all Chrijlendom fhould be more Thr Kw7 , t
" zealous than himfelf, to promote this affair, to the Anfutr.
" glory of God and the good of the Church : but as his Bacun -

(1) IVilford was hanged on Sbrovc-Tucfday ; and the Frier was condemned to perpetual Impiifonment. Bacon, p. 625. Hall, fol. 49. H'ilingjh,

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